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Our Fart in Feeding the Nation
Special Information Service, United States Department of Agriculture.) HELPING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES TO MARKET Cra^Vik m s The Bureau of Markèts Uses Leased Wires to Gather Market Information Which Goes to More Than 50,000 individuals in 32 States. GLUTS PREVENTED IN FRUIT MARKET Service by Department of Agri culture Aids Shippers, Deal ers and Growers, HELPING OUR UNCLE HENRYS Bureau of Markets Shows Daily Pic ture of Conditions Throughout Country—Guesswork in Ship ping Is Eliminated. The station agent at Highland wired his division superintendent "four cars Strawberries to Chicago." The super intendent added these four cars to fig ures received from other station agents, and wired the total to the de partment of agriculture at Washing ton. The agent at Highland wondered why anyone should want to know about cars of strawberries moving to Chicago. A few years ago his Uncle Henry had "gone broke" raising strawberries because he couldn't sell them for enough to pay his expenses. While he was wondering about this, messages were coming to Washington from all railroads and soon word was flashed back to points in producing sec tions showing that a total of 40 cars of strawberries were on the way to Chi cago, and that comparatively few ship ments were going to other Important markets. Shipment Diverted. "Forty cars will swamp the Chicago market tomorrow,"* said a strawberry man, who received the wire from Washington, and he reached for the telephone. Messages went to railroad officials to divert certain cars headed for Chicago to other cities where strawberries were not abundant. Next day Chicago received only 20 cars of strawberries Instead of the 40 that would have gone there except for the market news service, of the bureau of markets. Chicago could use 20 cars but not 40, and because the other 20 cars went to different markets many growers received checks that gave them a profit on their ship ments. Helping the Uncle Henrys. Guesswork in marketing of fruits and vegetables has gone. The market news service is working for many "Uncle Henrys" and also for dealers and consumers. No one profits when a city receives more of any fruit or vegetable than it can consume, and as a means of correcting such a condi tion it is necessary to know how much produce is en route to that city. The market news service for fruits and vegetables, with its many agents and with assistance from railroad offi cials, gives dally a picture of market conditions throughout the country for both shipper and dealer and places this picture In the form of a typed re port In the hands of all persons inter ested. The bureau of markets uses leased wires to gather this informa tion and furnishes market news, in cluding prices and supplies, to more than 50,000 individuals in 32 states. The reports, which are issued simul taneously In many cities and In pro ducing sections, covered in 1917, 21 commodities, including strawberries, tomatoes, peaches, cataloupes, onions, potatoes, apples, grapes, watermelons, and asparagus. Each report carries market information from most of the large cities as well as giving shipping point information. Farmers or others wishing to re ceive any of these reports from field agents should apply to the Bureau of Markets, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. BETTER TO DRILL THAN CHECK WEAK SEED CORN Where necessary to plant weak seed corn, checking Is not as satisfactory ns drilling, ac cording to specialists of the United States department of ag riculture. Plant right at first— plant the extra amount of seed at first, for replanting means ad ditional work, late planting, and uneven and late maturity. Drill ed eoru is easily thinned. Har rows or cultivators can bo used in thinning by driving across the corn rows. Without the loss of time, the thinning can proceed for several weeks while the corn is being cultivated and is grow ing, but replanting is altogether unsatisfactory and usually un profitable. Make Sweet Potato Flour. Sweet potatoes, dried and ground into a flour in an ordinary kitchen coffee grinder, can be used in a variety of ways in cooking. Specialists of the United States department of agricul ture believe that in many localities where sweet potatoes are abundant the making of sweet potato flour in the home may furnish a practical way to save the sweet potatoes from spoil ing. The flour will keep well in dry containers. To make the flour the potatoes should first be cut into small length wise pieces and thoroughly dried. A small drier that fits on top of the oven or wanning closet of a range or gas stove can be used. If an electric fan is available it will serve admir ably. The nut knife of a meat grinder also can be used for this purpose Flour made by such process can be kept for some time if put Into a dry container, or the flour may be made from the dry potatoes as it is needed. A quart of the dry potatoes makes a cup of flour. The use of sweet potato flour In cake or bread making will materially reduce the amount of other flour used The proportions may be half and half When used in cakes the sugar coulé also be reduced a little. Sweet potato flour is useful as a thickening agent, having the same value in this respect ; as cornstarch. Recipes for the usa | of sweet potato flour have been tested and found to be excellent by food spe cialists of the United States depart ment of agriculture. When Canning for Market. Housewives and canning club mem bers who wish to sell their canned products are urged by the bureau ol j markets. United States department ol . ngrieulture, to study their markets at j the beginning of the season and pack j according to local demands for differ- j ent products. Secure orders for canned U goods before putting them up, is th# ' advice of the specialists. Small lots of nonstandardized products are diift cult to sell except among local buyers and are not purchased by the army, navy, commercial dealers, or any de> partment of the government. Home-canned food can be kept ovei from one season to the next, and thos« who have not sold their goods hav# reserves to draw from for their horn« table. It Is good policy, say the spe cialists, for the housewife to provide a reasonable surplus beyond the prob able home consumption for the next crop year. While the bureau of mar kets is giving aid to producers on mar keting problems, it says that it is diffi cult to place producers of small quai» titles of different kinds of products is touch with buyers. I n FIGHTING TOOLS ; OF OUR SOLDIERS Standardized Equipment. Quality, Efficiency. Determine Advan tage Over Enemy. WORK OF ORDNANCE BRANCH Department Has in Washington Alone 3,000 Officers With Thousands of Civilian Employees and Many Being Added. By JAMES H. COLLINS, [From too Committee on Public Infor mation, Washington, D. C.] Of all the largo activities conducted by Uncle Sum in his war establishment, the ordnance department of the army is second largest In expenditure, being "xceeded only by the quartermaster department. And as our war program develops, ordnance might easily come to bo the largest single activity. This department has the responsibil ity for furnishing artillery, rides, am munition, motor transports, and prac tically all the lighting tools our army needs, except aircraft, together with means for assembling and storing them in this country and deliver ing them on the fighting front In France. With expenditures now ap proaching twice what is called for by our entire shipbuilding program, the operation's of ordnance are naturally of great magnitude, and its problems are complex, for in furnishing the tools of war It has to enlist enormous pro ductive capacity by converting old in dustries and creating new ones, as well as go hack of the munitions factories in many instances and find enormous supplies of raw materials. I During January the ordnance de i part ment was thoroughly reorganized. So it becomes interesting to observe the workings of this department as newly constituted. Let us try to look at the proposition through the soldier's eyes, and see it whole if we can. It may be well to begin at the A B C of the subject and ask ourselves: What is a soldier? The answer to this question might be: A soldier is a man whose occupation Is fighting. What does a soldier fight with? He fights with tools. How do a soldier's tools compare with tools used by other craftsmen? They show prac tically the same characteristics as those in any peaceful modern Indus try. In the first place, they have been wonderfully amplified in recent years by the use of power, and Increased in compacity and complexity. Practically every labor-saving contrivance Invent ed for peaceful calling has been ap plied to present-day war. The ma chine excavator that 1 ys our water and sewer pipe quickly in peace times can he taken into the field to dig trenches, and a battle front requires construction work, power plants, tele phone and telegraph systems and rail road transportation far beyond peace requirements for equal population, and these requirements must be met under the pressure of war's emer gencies. Soldier Like Factory Workman. ; | Present-day war involves the organ ization of great communities hack of the fighting front, so that the soldier may follow his actual trade of fight ing with the greatest efficiency. And when he actually reaches the fighting front with his real fighting equipment he is comparable to craftsmen in other trades in that his fighting tools are more or less standardized and that suc cess or failure turns upon the quality of his tools and improvements in de sign and efficiency which give him a definite advantage over the enemy for the time being. The soldier on the fighting front is not unlike a workman in a factory. Modern industrial production, under competitive conditions, seeks advan tage by standardization of equipment, large scale production and ceaseless activity In the Improvement of tools so that a little increase in output here a little increase in cost there will enable a given workman or-fac tory to outstrip competitors. The tools of war are standardized. Every army uses rifles, machine guns, fleldpieees, heavy artillery, aircraft. Popular im agination continually looks to some novel and unheard-of Invention ns a means of settling the war. Actually, modern war is made with tools as standard as those of a shoe factory or steel works, and most of the inventive ability centered on those tools is di j . rected toward minor technical improve j ments which will place better nppa j rntus In the hands of the men on the j fighting front and give them an advan U a 8 e perhaps only temporary over ' l '~* *'* " ,K '' nr '*' their competitors, the enemy. The en I emy, of course, is just as quick as an industrial competitor in catching up with all advances in the art, and Is ilso an active inventor and improver himself. It was along this-great general trend jf modern war, the making of better fighting tools, that the recent reorgan .zation in the ordnance department was carried out. When war was de ;lared we had an establishment of mil itary men whose business It was to de ?ign tools of war. They not only knew sow these tools were used by the sol iier but kept track of improvements n fighting tools in every modem army, ind the almost daily changes in the way fighting t)>o!s are used. That was (heir job, and a highly technical pro »sslon. They corresponded in every respect to the technical men In an> peaceful Industry, making researches and tests and utilizing ail the refine ments of Invention and design to keep pace with competitors In war equip ment, and secure every advantage pos sible. Have Capable Experts. In peaceful industries the public is satisfied to judge by the quality of the 1 final product. When the history of the j present war is written, it will proha- ' bly be found that this was the proper j measure of our fighting industry, the j results secured on the battle front, j Those results will he secured by the American military officer trained to j design the equipment of an army, and j the weight of expert opinion both from ; military men of other nations and j capable business men In this country j who are working with the war depart- i ment is to the effect that we have as j good a system of development as ex- j Ists. In ordinary times our requirements | for fighting tools are so small that j they can he supplied as an incident To j peaceful industry. The American mil- j ltary expert was able to center upon ! the design of rilles, guns and ammunt- j tion, turning his blue prints and sp. ci- j it i. to rers who j Contracts, i lie s!m cured de clause in ; saw that 1 ireful in mnnurno were waiting to hid upon When the design was finisl ply advertised for l ids and liveries through the penait government contracts, and quality was maintained by spection of materia! delivered. For several months after war was declared the ordnance department found its whole scheme of organization fairly satisfactory, and for a reason which will he apparent to everyone when it is stated. Regardless of the magnitude of ottr war task anil the urgency which has not been lost sight of nur new army and our war preparations had to he arranged on an orderly program of growth. Soldiers for the army had to he drafted and trained. This was work which would consume months of time j r>o matter how well the plans were j laid. And while the men were being ; mobilized and Instructed, the ordnance j department could arrange for their fighting tools. There was even time i to spend on thorough tests to deter- j mine which type of rifle, machine gun, j etc., would give the best results on the fighting front. The peace-time i plan of organization was therefore j adhered to, hut with full provision for growth ns the new army was trained and sent to France. It was possible to j plot the requirements for each bureau, j increase the organization by drawing in more technical men from civil life j for each specific task, and provide j new bureaus to deal with new tasks. \ A bureau of supplies became neces- ! sary, for instance, and was started last May, with two men in a single room, who proceeded to map out that bu reau's functions for IS months, taking into account the delivery of supplies from factories, and their distribution to every army camp in the United States, ns required by the army's de velopments in this country, and final ly taking care of its requirements when it reached the western front. This bureau of supplies today has about 5,000 workers, and more are be ing added daily according to orderly growth of work, and hv the end of this year there will be fully 10,000. War Engineers in Charge. The ordnance department Is now ar ranged in a way that makes it an ef ficient, self-contained agency for the performance of its particular work on the largest scale, and with the most careful attention to all details for the period of the war. At the head of the department today is the chief of ord nance, which position is still held by Mnj. Gen. William Crozier. General Crozier, however, is at present in France, applying his ability and ex perience to the study of the army's re quirements in the field. Brig. Gen, Charles B. Wheeler, as acting chief of staff, is in charge in this country. Gen eral Wheeler is a West Pointer, thor oughly familiar with the requirements of the army, and Is assisted by three other regular army officers, each at the head of a bureau carrying part of the detail work. The enginering bureau, under Col. John H. Rice, conducts researches and experiments, deals with inventions and designs, determines types of military equipment, conducts tests and draws up specifications. The control bureau, under Col, Tracy C. Dickson, attends to esti mates and schedules of requirements, co-ordinates and supervises the vari ous operating divisions, deals with methods, organization, industrial rela tions, transportation and the adjust ment of complaints and disputes. The general administration bureau, under Col. William S. Pierce, looks af ter arsenal administration, finance, property, legal and advisory details, the personnel of the army, both mili tary and civilian, attends to the de partment's mail, records, publications, library and information generally. In addition, the chief of ordnance Is J in touch with the general military sit- j uation through the war council and | general staff of the army, and mlli- | tary attaches of foreign governments stationed in Washington for advisory service. The ordnance department now has in Washington alone approximately 3,000 commissioned officers with thousands of civilian employees, and this organi zation will steadily Increase In size as the war program develops. When It is remembered that much of the work was accomplished in peace times by a chief and a very smnll force in one office, some idea of the magnitude of the new war organization is realized. Prior to the war, on April (3, 1917, there were 79 ordnance officers ; ahoul 60 in Washington. O iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiüiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinini A Business Should be as Big as Its Job If bigness is of benefit to the public it should be commended. The size of a business depends upon the needs which that business is called upon to serve. A business should be as big as its job. You do not drive tacks with a pile driver—or piles with a tack-hammer. Swift & Company's growth has been the natural and inevitable result of na tional and international needs. Large-scale production and distribution are necessary to convert the live stock of the West into meat and by products, and to distribute them over long distances to the consuming centers of the East and abroad. Only an organization like that of Swift & Company, with its many pack:. ., ~ ts, hun dreds of distributing houses, a:,^ usands of refrigerator cars, would have been a ole to handle the varying seasonal supplies of live stock and meet the present war emergency by supplying, without interruption: First —The U. S. soldiers and the Allies in Europe by shipping as much as 800 car loads of meat products in a single week! Second —The cantonments in the United States. Third —The retailers upon whom the American public depends for its daily supply of meat. But many people ask—Do producers and consumers pay too much for the complex service rendered? Everyone, we believe, concedes the effi ciency of the Swift & Company organization —in performing a big job in a big way at a minimum of expense. Swift & Company's total profit in 1917 was less than 4 cents on each dollar of sales of meat and by-products. Elimination of this profit would have had practically no effect on live stock and meat prices. Do you believe that this service can be rendered for less by any other conceivable method of organization or operation? a These questions and others are answered fully and frankly in the Swift & Company 1918 Year Book sent free on request. Address Swift & Company, U. S. Yards, Chicago o Swift & Company, U.S. A. O Horrible Example. "Every time I touch a beefsteak or a loaf of bread it turns to gold," ex claimed Midas. "And yet you are scared and uncom fortable. "Very much so. My experience proves the fallacy of being a profiteer." USE ALLEN'S FOOT-EASE rhe antiseptic powder to be shaken into the ôhoea and sprinkled in the foot-bath. It relieves painrul, swollen, smarting feet and takes the Bting out of corns and bunions. The American, British, and French troops use Allen's Foot Base. The greatest comforter known for all loowiches. Sold everywhere, 15c.—Adv. The wise misionary secures an ap pointment among the vegetarian type Df heathen. Their Medicine Chest For 20 Years I T is characteristic of folk* after they pas» the allotted "three »core years und ten," to look back over the days that nro gone and thoughtfully live them over. I find myself, at seventv-one, frequently drifting back t. quarter of a century, when 1 Bee myitelf in the little drug sioro I owned at Bolivar, Mo., making and Belling a vegetable compound to my friends and customers —what was then known only as Dr. Lewi»' Medicine for ßtomach, Laver End Bowel Complaints. For many years while I was perfecting my formula I «tudied and investigated the laxative» and cathartics on the market r.tid became convinced that their main fault Was not that they did not acton the bowels, but that th«ir action was too viulrnt r.tid drastic, and upset the system of the user; which was due to the fact that they were not thorough enough in their action, some ■imply acting on the upper or email Intes tines, while ether« would act only on the lower or large Intestines, rod that they almost Invariably produced a ha: it re quiring augmented doses. I believed that a preparation to produce the best effect must first tone the lher then act on the stomach and entire oilmen-' tary system. If this was acoompl shed, the medicine would produce a mild, but thorough elimination of the waste without the usual sickening sensations, and make the naer feel better at once. After experimenting with hundred» of different compounds, I at last perfected it,* formula that Is now known aa Naiw«'s BMwdy, which I truly believe goo« further and does more than any IsmMr« market todav ti,„ *"**""* on th« ÄlSS'Ä to lucrea*o the do»n. 1 ° ar *' E «Ter ha« a nits '""ÄS U, "•*»*■• lh ® *•» among my friends höhere 'Y'T ,4m j' T and for su le, cause 1 m„ to h^vL* V<,r ? tcTrA " ^ 10 Ä n i m",» nearing the a*« t«» »mother lift* » * n * v itstüe and ro alt e tt ,-h day *ÙA sLTTV*.* F'*'*»»«» Is To mall brfnm* than I, who tel ol I,a. in".* oU, .° r «rider grandchildren hare hee',/ bÄ* b "J n man 'âgsV.T'fî^Sî" 3 ! tor th'U, in y g Tr » to»(, »»tiafiuv knowledge that tonfilo''^?. *°» , aj. is th« million people wilt IA „ than or.* Jnu Tah% t r; n ,7w.tV't2— ■ if and wlffbi lappler people |„ r j,"* "«* be oue of them. 1 to1 " » . - -ealthter, bop« yon will ablH 25 'A C * r'W. M - Lfcwia medioinr oo. Mol •t. Lou to. ^ Tonight - Tomorrow Fool Rieht - c £ka »Tr Bov Best Part. John Doe—"What Is It you like best about Marian's singing?" Gladys Caa by—"Oh, the refrain, I guess." Sor» Typ«. Blood-Shot Eye», Waterr Eye» sticky Eye», all healed promptly with night ly application» of Roman Eye Balaam, a dr. Faith in your own thirds of the battle. ability Is two DAISY FLY KILLER placed anywhere* attract» and kille Bll file»« c'.aa« ornamental, cocvvciit^ ohaap. L&* ta ail Huoa. Made of tnatal. can l >*111 or tip ovar , will not mil or Injur« anvihlof, ùna»* »nU#<1 .ïfA-t;,. Seid«« d..l.r«, «fwitjn, P".l, pr*y*id. tel ILO«, HAROLO »OMI«». ,»0 Ol KAL« »V«.. MOOKLTM, M. T.