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Uncle Sam's S
■j^E W mm i » " : &: i:-" ¥: ■ V J/Y r//£CAUL£y O/'/tS/fXC/r'AATSlA/?//?/? 7X?AJMyy<? sw/> hwr/?s stfals A/?£ Jtt&VlttOS'ae GOOST/EVY Sea Cooks of the .New Merchant Ma rine Are Trained for the Difficult Task ► OOKING at sea is not what it used to be in the "good old days" that we read about. "A hard biscuit and a slice of cold salt beef," which Dana mentions in "Two Years Before the Mast" as his usual meal after a long, hard watch off Cape Horn, is no longer the diet of the American merchant sailor. The modern sailor mnn is well fed, with plenty of fresh meat, vege tables and soft bread, no matter what the voyage he may be on. Modern refrigerating plants and modern cooking methods are to be thanked for Chat. On the hundreds of new ships which are being built for the merchant marine by the United States shipping board careful attention is paid to the equipment for storing, cooking and serving food. The government Is fully aware that sailors, like soldiers, work best on well-filled stomachs. Care is taken also that efficient men are em ployed as cooks on the nation's new merchant fleets. Good sea cooks are not numerous, even in normal times. Having that fact in mind, the United States shipping board, with the thorough ness that marks all its efforts to create an un equaled merchant marine, is engaged in training an adequate number of cooks to man the galleys of Its new ships. Young men of character and intelli gence are chosen for instruction. The training of cooks is part of the work done by the shipping board's recruiting service. This service has a fleet of training ships, based at At lantic and Pacific ports, on all of which young Americans are taught by experienced cooks the serious business of preparing good food at sea. Besides that, the board has special cooking schools on two of the ships—the Meade, a former Atlantic liner stationed at Boston, and the steamer Dorothy Bradford, stationed at New York. Cooking at sea is by no means the same thing as cooking on land. The sea cook has several things to bear in mind that the land cook, in hotel, restau rant or home kitchen never has to think about. Take for instance some of the precautions he must observe as illustrated by the following "Don'ts for Sea Cooks:" Don't expect the stove to remain In a perpendicular position, nor the cook. You are on a moving platform, namely, the ship's deck, which often rolls and sways with the motion of the ship in the sea. Don't fill a kettle full of liquid. The rolling of the ship will cause the contents to slop over and with fats may start a fire. Don't allow pots and pans to get adrift As a guard against this, the galley range has an iron rail around it. Don't permit dishes to be left on dresser or pantry shelf as on land. If you do they will slide off and be smashed. There are little pigeon-holçs for each kind. Into which the dishes fit. there being a high bar across the front, with a space cut out through which a dish may be reached and lifted out On modern ships the serving is done by men in the steward's department, called stewards, so the sea cook of today needs none of that dexterity of foot that one-legged John Silver showed as he pegged his way aft with dinner along the slippery deck in the brig of "Treasure Island." It is a truism aboard ship that only a cook who likes his Job is worth his salt A discontented cook will spoil good food. This psychology is recog nized by the shipping board in choosing young men for training as cooks. Only those who volunteer for the Job are wanted. There are plenty who do. Out of 3,000 apprentices always on the training ships a certain percentage may be counted on to ask for training # as cooks. These young men are serving on the nation's "bridge of ships'' from patriotic motives. Some may go back to their home towns when the war Is over; but others will remain in the merchant marine, and will take a part in the country's peace expansion at sea as dignified as thut taken by captain, mate or engineer on the ship on which they serve. Nor will they suffer In a financial way, for a chief cook gets $80 a month wages, be *» * < i & A&/i&mC&AT/VMr/eOffA 7XA//fSMjxViJP OF WS W/7T0 J7XTSJ JNJP/>//rG BOAKP sides his board and quarters—a net Income ot $1,080 a year. When the young law student, or bank teller, or blacksmith's helper who has decided to become a sea cook reports for instruction on the Meade or the Bradford he is taken in hand by a wise old chef who proceeds to teach him the A, B, C's of sea cooking. These embrace some general rules as to clean liness and general galley practice, neatly type written, under the head "Advice to the Cook." The most particular housewife will find these rules sound. Here are a few of them: Great cleanliness, as well aa care ana attention, are required from a cook. Keep your hands very clean. Try to prevent your nails from getting black or discolored. Don't scatter in your galley; clean up as you go; put scalding water into each saucepan or stewpan as you finish using it. Dry your saucepans before you put them on the shelf. Never scrub inside of a frying pan; rub it with wet silver-sand, rinse it out well with hot water afterwards. Wash your pudding cloths, scald and hang them to dry directly after using them; air them before you put them away, or they will be musty. Keep In a dry place. Be careful not to use a knife that has cut onions until It has been cleaned. Keep sink and sink-brush very clean; be careful never to throw anything but water down sink. Do not throw cabbage water down it; throw it away, as Its smell is very bad. Never have sticky plates or dishes. Use very hot water for washing them; when greasy change It. Clean coppers with turpentine and fine brlckdust, rubbed on with flannel; polish them with chamois and a little dry brlckdust. Clean your tins with soap and whiting mixed, made into a thick cream with hot water. Rub it on with flannel; when dry, whisk It oft with clean chamois and dry whiting. Take care that you look at the meat the butcher brings, to see If it is good. Let there be no waste in the kitchen. In Uncle Sam's school for sea cooks instruction begins, logically, with cereals for breakfast. It happens that the instruction chef on the Bradford is a Scot, and when Jamie Nicol gets through teaching a new hand the art of cooking oatmeal there is nothing further to be said. The novice is next shown how to fry eggs and bacon, how to make hash and how to prepure hamburg steak. These are his first steps. He next gets a chance at dinner, with making soups and roasting and boiling meats and cooking various kinds of vegetables. In this work he learns the mysteries of the big galley range — a mighty stove, near seven feet long—of the steam kettle that will cook soup for 100 men and of the steam-oven cooker for vegetables. If he is ambitious, the beginner takes a special course in baking and pudding making, for real puddings take the place of the traditional soggy duff of old times on Uncle Sam's merchant ships. Rice pudding is a favorite. Lucky is the young man who learns to cook rice from a veteran who acquired the art on a trader out of Rangoon or a clipper from Calcutta. "Never put your rice into tli« kettle until the water is boiling, then scatter i* in." That Is the standard rule for rice. 'Then we tell 'em to be sure never to put In the sugar until the rice Is done," says the chef. It has been found that six weeks of intensive training will make a very good sea cook of a be ginner if he shows proper aptitude. "We can tell the nntural cook," says Jamie Nlcol, "by the questions he asks. The good be ginners ask all about everything and make notes. We have a number who put everything they want to remember down in a book. They will make good." It is the ambition of most sea cooks to get on a big ship. In wartime, cooking on the smallest vessel is an essential calling, but the big vessel with its modern equipment and efficiency organi zation appeals strongly to the type of young man now taking up sea cooking for Uncle Sam. The large vessels carry several cooks. A fi,000 ton freighter has a chief cook, a second cook, who is also baker, and a third cook, or cook's mate. The chief cook is usually the meat cutter also, and in these times scientific meat cutting, ns well as cooking. Is required on the merchant fleet and taught in the shipping board's floating cooking schools. WOMEN ARE GOOD MECHANICS. According to a report of the national industrial conference board, women in wartime employment are showing a remarkable adaptability for ma chine shop work. The report summarizes Infor mation obtained from 131 establishments employ ing 335,015 men and 49,823 women and including 10,657 women engaged in work formerly per-, formed exclusively by men. Their labor, snys the Christian Herald, has ranged from the operation of drill presses and lathes to coremaking, inspecting and assembling mechanical products nnd performing many pre cise machine operations. In the main It has been confined to the lighter processes requiring rapid ity and dexterity, and in such work their output has proved equal to and frequently greater than that of male employees. This was notably true of women's work in automobile manufacture and in a munition plant manufacturing fuses, where women operatives on drill presses and milling machines were from 25 to 50 per cent more rapid SINGLE SHOES NOW SOLD IN LONDON. One of the many pathetic side lights on our war is reflected in advertisements published by British shoe merchants, which vividly impress upon one's mind the sacrifices that many of our sons and their comrades are gallantly making. Owing to the large number of crippled veterans of the western front, London dealers In men's footwear now sell single shoes for one-half the prices of pairs. To quote an advertisement that recently appeared in a fashionable illustrated magazine: "Wartime boots at 26/3 a pair or 13/2 a boot. The single boots, rights or lefts, are for those men who have been so unfortunate as to lose a leg."—Popular Mechanics Magazine. AMERICANS BUYING DIAMONDS. Among facts disclosed in the investigation con ducted by the council of national defense to learn the buying trend In civilian trade during the war are a decided increase in sales of small diamonds and a falling off in sales of sizes from one-half carat upward. This is attributed to the great Increase in price nnd the tendency of people to buy diamonds by price alone; that is, they have, perhaps. $75 or $100 to put in a stone, and It brings them a much smaller jewel than the same amount would procure a year or two ago. Watches are in great demand, especially wrisi watches, which have been enormously popularized by the war. CALLING A HALT. "Senator Fudge relates an amusing anecdote—" "If it's new, all right. But I don't care to listen to a stale story just because it iu tacked onto a United States senator."—Kansas CHf Journ&L OU' DOOR CELLARS AFFORD CONVENIENT AND INEXPENSIVE STORAGE FACILITIES ., • ■ m. m GOOD TYPE OF OUTDOOR CELLAR FOR ROOTS. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) Outdoor storage cellars or caves are excellent for the storage of many veg etables. They are particularly desir able on the farm, as they afford con venient and inexpensive storage facili ties for surplus vegetable crops that otherwise might he lost. They possess all the advantages of the storage room in the basement and are superior in many respects. The outdoor storage cellar can he maintained at a uniform temperature over a long period. It is possible to keep the cellar cool and quickly to reduce the temperature of the stored product to the desired point for safe storage by opening the door during the night and closing it in the morning before the air becomes warm. Ail ventilators should likewise be kept tightly closed until the outside air is again cooler than that within the cel lur, when they should he opened, un less the outside temperature is so low as to be dangerous. This safeguards the product and adds to the efficiency of the storage chamber. Vegetables can he more conveniently placed in such a cellar than in the storage room In the basement of a dwelling. When the chief use of the outdoor storage cellar is for storing turnips, beets, carrots and other root crops commonly used as stock food it. should be located near the stable, where the material will be convenient for winter feeding. When it is to be used for vegetables for the table the cellar should be accessible from the kitchen at all times. If apples or other fruits ere to be stored in an outdoor storage cellar it Is desirable to have a two cornpartment cellar, one for vegetables and one for apples, with a ventilating apparatus In each compartment. Construction of Cellar. As the root cellar must be weather proof—that Is, capable of being kept free from moisture and free from frost—Its type and construction vary with the geographical location. In the southern portion of the country the structure is usually entirely above ground and protected by only a few inches of sod and with straw, leaves, etc. In northern sections outdoor stor age cellars are made almost entirely below ground nnd covered with a foot or two of earth. Storage in Regions of Mild Winters. An above-ground storage cellar suit ed to conditions in southern sections of the United States may be built on a well-drained site- at slight expense. A row of posts may be set fi^e or six feet apart, extending seven or eight feet above the surface of the ground, with a ridgepole placed on top of them. Against each side of the ridgepole a row of planks or puncheons is placed, with their opposite ends resting in a shallow trench four or five feet from the line of posts. The ends are board ed up. a door being provided in one end of the structure, and the roof cov ered with sod to a depth of five or six inches. Storage in Region of Severe Freezes. In sections where low temperatures prevail.it is necessary to insulate the storage house so that the vegetables will not freeze. An above-ground type of storage house much used in many sections of the North has thick walls filled with insulating material, such as sawdust or shavings. The construc tion is of frame and the walls are usu ally ten to twelve inches thick. Both the Inside and the outside walls are sheathed with matched lumber so as to make them airtight. The rafters are ceiled on the under side with the same material and the space between the rafters filled with dry insuluting material. The use of building paper in the roof and walls of the storage house is of great assistance in insulat ing it. A type of storage cellar much used in northern sections of the country is built partly underground. The walls are of masonry and extend to a point just above the surface of the ground. On these walls plates are set and u roof of frame construction erected. The roof structure is celled on ihe underside of the rafters and some suitable ij mlating material, such as dry -sawdust - or shavings, packed In the space between —e rafters, and then the sheathing, paper and roofing material are applied as in the case of the above-ground type of storage cel lar described in the previous para graph. This type of structure is pref erable In many respects to the above ground type, as It Is easier to main tain the temperature at the proper point and its insulation is a compara tively easy matter. Protection From Freezing. Protection from freezing may be se cured with a simpler type of structure by making it entirely underground. Irt order to avoid steps down to the ! : eve> of the floor, with the consequent eztrt labor in storing and removing the veg etables, a side-hill location is desir able. The excavation In the hill should he of approximate size of theeejlar, using the dirt for covering the roof and for banking tbo sides of tilt* structure. A frame is erected by setting two rows of posts of uniform height in the bot tom of the pit near the dirt walls and a third 1 in«* of posts about five feet higher through the center of the pit. Those posts serve- as supports for the planks or puncheons forming the roof of the structure, as with the above ground type of storage cellar already described. The door is placed at one end and a ventilator put in the roof. The whole structure with the excep tion of the portion occupied by the door is covered with dirt and sod. The thickness of the covering must he de termined hy the location; the colder the climate the thicker the covering. The dirt co\-ering may be supplement ed in winter hy a layer of manure, straw, corn fodder, etc. Outdoor stor age cellars usually are left with dirt floors, as a certain degree of moisture is desirable. These cellars may also he made of concrete, brick, hollow tile, stone or other material. VELVET BEAMS FOR CATTLE Ccmpare Favorably With Cottonseed Meal—Produce Profitable Gains in Fattening. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) The feed question is being solved in many parts of the South by abundant yields of velvet beans which were sown on a large acreage this year. Owing to the Increased acreage in Georgia. that state alone could take care or 50,000 to 100,000 head of cattle from states where forage Is scarce. Large quantities of last year's velvet beans also remain on hand and are being used extensively In feeding dairy cattle. In tests conducted hy the Unit ed States department of agriculture on the government farms at Beltsvllle, Md., It wns found that velvet beans compare favorably with cottonseed meal, producing profitable gains when the beans are the sole concentrate of the ration; that a combination of com silage and velvet beans forms a satis factory ration for fattening steers for market; that it is more profitable to feed soaked beans than it is to grind them ; nnd that more beans will be eaten if soaked before they are fed than if they are fed dry. TO ERADICATE COTTON PEST Mexican Agricultural Officials Here to Confer on Various Inv portant Subjects. The Mexican secretary of agricul ture and his associates are visiting the United States department of agri culture for conferences on several sub jects, particularly on the pink boll worm which is Infecting the cotton crop of Mexico and some portions of -H. v * m r i QH*£ Clarence Ousley and Mexican Agricul tural Officials. Texas. One of the objects of the trip is to reach a co-operative agreement between the departments of the two countries on measures to eradicate the cotton pest. In the group are, left to right: Clarenee Ousley, assistant sec retary United States department of agriculture: Don Jose Duration, Mexi can director of agriculture; Don Pag. tor Rouuix, Mexican secretary of ag rieulture and development, and Doc Ignacio Lopez Bancalri Mexican rector of irrigation.