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Highneis the Prince Regent, signified in a des
patch from the Right Honorable the Earl Bathurat, addressed to the partnora or cent of the North west Company, bearing date the 27ih of January, 1818, and in obodience to a subsequent order, dated 26th of July, from W. H. Sheriff, esq., cap tain of his Majesty's ship Andromache, we, the undersigned, do, in conformity to the first article of the treaty of Ghent, restore to the government of the United States, through its agent, J. B. Pro vost, esq., the settlement of Fort George, on the Columbia river. " Given under our hands, in triplicate at Fort George, Columbia tiver, this 8th day of October, 1818. " F. HICKEY, "Captain of his Majesty's ship Blossom. "J. KEITH, . " Agent of the Northwest Company." This is the surrender, and here is the acknowledgement! " I do hereby acknowledge to have this day re csived, in behalf of the government of the United States, the possession of the settlement designa ted above, in conformity to the first article of the treaty of Ghent. " Given under my hand, in triplicate, at Fort George, Columbia river, this 6th day of October, Win. "J. B. PROVOST, " Anent for the United States." ' I say tho British possession of Astoria was of short life. Wo whipped them in the war. and the first articles of negotiation of peace required Great Britain to surrender all places which had been surrendered or cap' tured. Astoria was restored ; when the roy- al cross was taken down and tho American stars and stripes raised, and Astoria rcslorcd to its name; that Astoria shall ever retain ber name, and that tho American flag shall ever" wave over her, is the great object of this bill. The British ministry claim title to Oregon by the discovery of McKenzie, a British sub ject. McKenzio did explore a part of tho Northwest Territory, but he never crossed the Rocky mountains. He learned al' he knew, as well of the name of Oregon as of its history, from tho Indians oast of the Rocky mountains. He neither explored nor oc cupied Oregon, nor any part of it. 1 he British ministry claim to have occupied Ore con by one of their citizens named Thomp son, who they sny headed a company of tra ders and trappers cotemporaneously with As tor's association. That 7s not so; and the history and dates of their formation, and their arrival in Oregon, defeat their claim. Thompson's arrival and operations in Oregon were near a year after Asloi's. I have made no statcmeut in relation to tho discovery, possession, and occupancy of Oregon, bui what iis history, as well British as Ameri can, will bear me out in. I have stated that sundry conventions have been held for the purpose (on our side) of settling the question of right and possession of Oregon, but without definite concluMr. Our discovery, claims, explorations, and pos session have been set forth by our commis sioners, and they have been met by tho sham titles which I have presented on the part of Great Britain, and so far no definite conclu sion has been arrived at. . By tho third article of the convention of 1818 It is agreed that any country that may be claimed by either party on the northwest coast of America westward of the Stony mountains, shall together with its harbors, bays, and creeks, and the navigation of all rivers within tho samo, be free ana open for the term of ten years from the date of the signature of the present convention to the vessels, citizens, nnd subjects of tho two powers, it being well understood that this agree ment is not to do construed 10 mo prciuuieo oi any claim which either of the two high contract ing parties may nave 10 any pan oi ine same country. In 1827 the American claims wore again urged in convention with ability and with positive evidence of their validity; but tho same titles were brandished by the British ministry, and no conclusion was had. Pro positions were made to divide Oregon; that was, to divide the Territory by a line drawn through tho centre of the north branch of the Columbia river, from the 49th degree of north latitude to the main river, and thence to the Pacific England to have all north of tho Columbia, and America to have all south of that line. To this proposition our minis ters objected, and the negotiation was bro ken off with no other conclusion than that it was agreed by the first article that the samo privileges shall be continued which are secured in the third article of the con vention of 1818; and with a condition that one year's notice should bo given by either party when it should be intended to put an end to the treaty. The negotiation lias been going on for more than a quarter ot a century, and me people of the United States havo become tired of it. They now want action. They want possession and jurisdiction, and they will have it. They want Oregon tho whole of Oregon, not a part of it: nothing but the whole of Oregon will satisfy them, The question of the immediate occupation was submitted to the people in the last presiden tial election, and the democratic candidates were sustained because they were pledged , to apply all their official powers to the imme diate occupation of Oregon. The whig ora tors said, true, Oregon is ours, but we will get into a war with Great Britain if we take possession of it now; we must do a little more at negotiation. D n negotiation, tho people shouted; give us Oregon and we will do tho fighting. We have whipped England in our infancy, we havo whipped her in our boyhood, and we can make short work of her now" in our manhood. Give us Oregon; ex tend your jurisdiction over it; give us a go vernment for our civil protection and we will defend the territory. That done, you may negotiate till the day of judgment. Sir, there was not a procession marched in the political campaign, that had not, at the bead of its column, a banner inscribed u Polk, Dallas, Oregon, and Texas." Other banners wero exclusively dedicated to Ore gon, nnd their inscription was " All of Ore gon.'" Sir, we will not permit Oregon to be divided. If our right is good for one square foot, it is good for it all. If England has just title to one square foot of Oregon, she bas title to it all. Either the British lion or r (he American eagle must hold supreme and uudivided sway over Oregon; they can ne ver both abide there. It any better proot wore wanting of the entire want of title in Enrland to Oregon, it is tound in the tact that she is willing to havo it divided, If England thought her title had one ounce of ridit in it. she would spend millions of pounds before slio would consent to divide or share any part ot Urcgon. &he would be the last nation on earth to surrender an acre of so valuable a domain to which she has just title. There is an illustrious precedent contained in the book ot books, and nistory of histories, which of itself condemns Great Britain. By her proposition to divide, she furnishes evidence of want of title, which is most beautifully illustrated in tho judicial decision of an illustrious king of Israel: " Two women brought a child beforo tho king: and the one woman snid : '0 my Lord, I and this woman dwelt in one house, nnd I was delivered of a child with her in the same house; and it came to pass, the third day after I was delivered, that this woman was delivered also) and wo wero together; thero was no strangor with us in tho house save we two in tho house. And this wo man's child died in tho night, bocauso she ovor laid it. And sho nrose at midnight, and took my son from beside me, while lliino handmaid slept, and laid it to hor bosom, and laid her dead child in my bosom. And when I arose in the morning to give my child suck, behold, it was dead; hut whon I had considered it in the moininj, behold, it was not my son which I did bear." And the other woman said, "Nay, but tho living is my son and the dead is thv son." And this said "No but the dead is thy son, nnd the living' is my son." Thus they spnko beforo the king. Then said tho king : The one saith, This is my son that liv eth, and thy son is dend; and tho other saith Nay, but thy son is doad, and my son is tho II ving." And tho king said, " Bririg mo a sword." And they brought a sword beforo tho Uinj. And tho king said, "Divide the living child in two and give half to the one and hnlf to tho other." Then spnko the woman whoso the living child was tinto tho king, (for hor bowels yenrnrd upon her son,) and sho said, " O my lord, givo her the living child, ana in no wise slay it." Hut the other snid, "Let it bo neither mine nor thine, but divido it." Then tho king answered and said, "Give lief the living child, and in no wise slay it: sho is tho mother thereof." So wo say, in tho language of tho true molher, and in the language of tho king of Israel, wo will not permit this child to be di vided. Ifono half of tho child belonged to tho Israclitish mother, tho oilier hnlf be longed to her also. If ono half of Oregon belongs to us, I repeat, the other half belongs to us also. Having briefly discussed our right to Ore gon, I next proceed to tho consideration of tho policy ot lis practical possession and jurisdiction.' That wo should occupy and I control Oregon, and that it is our right to do so ultimately, few will be found to deny. And why procrastinate? Why permit the thief of lime lo gradually diminish our title? We have already permitted ourselves to be negotiated, until it is thought, on the part of some, that our title is doubtful, or that we fear tho contest of its title. Now is the time to possess ourselves of Oregon. Now is the time when the American people have demanded that the regis of our laws should bo extended over it. Shall wo bo told (as wo havo been in relation to Louisiana and other Territories which we have possessed ourselves of) that Oregon is poor, barren, steril, and mountainous, and not worth the blood it will cost to own it? That argument will do for the man who looks more to his own immediate interest or peace than to tho glory, honor and interest of his country, in time present as well as to come. Such an argument will do for the "peace man," who, when ho receives a smite on ono side of tho face, will, in Christian piety, turn tho other: but eucIi is not tho American character, however imperious the moral duty. Wo havo evidence of the beauly and fcrtilily of Oregon, by those who speak of what they know what they say to be true. But if Ore gon were a barren rock, with nothing on its summit but a dead fish, it is ours, and wo will have it. Oregon is a part of our north west coast; and we are, in national honor, bound to permit no foreign power, friend or foe, tooccupy it. Oregon is our territory; and wo owe it to ourselves and to those who are to come after us to fence it in by our laws and our jurisdiction, to preserve our fishc ries, our timber, and our valuable animals from the rapacious plunderers of the wide world, who may, and who are now despoil ing it. If wo havo no immediate use for Oregon, that is no reason why we should not occupy and detend it. It is a rich inheri tance, which wo aro bound to transmit to our posterity undcspoilod. The Mexican Indemnity. A letter in the Richmond Enquirer gives tho following account of what is become of the missing instalment on the indemnity stipulated to bo paid to this conntry by Mexico: " Hero are the circumstances of the case, as the wero told to me to-day, by a gentle man on whom I can rely. Tho firm of Hargous & Co., in Vera Cruz and New York, and Voss &. Co.j in Mexico, aro agents of our government for receiving tho money' already stipulated to bo paid by Mexico to the United Slates. Trigueros, Santa Ana's lato Secretary of tho Treasury, is a princi pal partner of these firms. With one hand, as Santa Ana's fiscal agent, ho paid tho last instnlmnst f.a75.000) uilo tho olhnr. with master's Ministers, whose heads nrc not safe on their own shoulders if caught within the Republic of Mexico. Santa Ana's robberies of the Treasury of his own government, fur nished him with an illustrious precedent for this robbery of ours. Our Treasury suffers by this financial "operation;" for you will remember he was sufficiently patriotic to givo his own government n receipt for the money as United States agent. This Con gress will bo forced to appropriate the sum stolen, tho United States being responsible for it to the claimants. The night mare is now politely termed " the nocturnal horse of the feminine gen der." From the Philadelphia Ledger. Exploded Theories. The ancient Greek republic's fell by dis union, say the Bourbons of our country, and our republic will fall by the samo spirit. Of course theso Bourbons suppose that the American republic has all tho .elements of disunion which characterized. tho Greek, and of course they aro blind to the fundamental differences between the two. Wo havo al ready alluded to the difference of origin be twoen the two confederacies, and will now mention other differences. Tho Greek re publics wero separate, independent nations, united, when so at all, by a league or alii mice, and not a constitution. Their Cou cress, when thev had any, was a meeting of ambassadors lo make treaties, and not of le gislators to make laws. Each Slato had its distinct, independent, sovereign State go vornment, and Iho laws mado by tho Con gress for the whole wero not binding on each without its assent; such laws, if laws they could bo called, bomg merely agree ments or treaties, like those mado in modem times among tho independent nations of Eurooe. bv the Congress of Vienna. Even their league against tho Persians, under Xer xcs, celebrated by tho battles of Thermop- ylffi, Maiathon, Salamis and iVlycrilo, by the (icaiu oi ijconiuas, ana nio prowuys ui urn tiades. Themistoclcs and Anstitles, was nothing more than a treaty of alliance, like that between us and the French in our rcvo lution. And theso leagues wero liable to be broken by any ono of the parties, and were frequently so broken; and when they were not thus united by treaties, tliey wero con tinually at war with each other. Nothing but a senso of common danger from a com mon enemy could unite them; and when this external prcssuro was removed, they wore in continual conflict with each other. And what produced these frequent and violent conflicts between Sparta and Athens Sparta and Thebes, Athens and Corinth, anc other members of this Union? Difference of character and interest, flowing from diffe ronco of origin, and acting upon contiguity on tho sumo continent. Ancient U recce was, on a small scale, precisely what modern Europe is on a largo scale, an assemblage on tho same continent, ot dillercnt nations. flowing from different sources, governed by dillercnt laws, chaiactenzed by tlifleron manners, impcllod by different interests, and independent of each other. They exhibited what all independent nn tions upon the samo continent havo ever ex lubited, mutual jealousies, mutual aggression and mutual conflict. And whilo at peace they drove each other, through continual fear of war, into military despotisms. But the Grecian republics had another cle mcnt of discord, well known in modern Europe, but utterly unknown in the United States. They wero infested with privileged orders. I heir very foundations were mill tary aristocracies: for tiie Scandinavian races, who subdued the original Phoenician colonics of Greece, have been celebrated throughout their history for establishing such institu tions. Tho feudal system has invariably marncd their footsteps. These military aris tocracies, when not united by common dan ger without, liko the Persiau invasion, were continually quarrelling for supremacy at home; and hence sprung tho political vicis situdes of Arislidcs, Themistoclcs, Alcibia- des, Pisistratus; tho innumerable civil wars wero contcsis of the nobility for power, in which tho people had no concern but suite ring. They were proc:sely like the civil wars of Italy in tho middle ages, and precise ly becauso the Italian Slates were military aristocracies, founded by the same Northern barbarians who founded the Greek republics. I his cause of disunion never can exist in the United States, and a preventive is found not only in their political and social constitu tion, but in the very extent of their territory. The more extensive bo a nation, the fewer chances exist for the establishment of family aristocracies, and tho loss influence they can acquire when established. iTnstcd Stntcs vs. C. J. JrlcNuMy. CrMial Court Washington, D. C. On Saturday, tho 2'2d inst., the Grand Ju rv found several indictments against the ac cuscd. Mr. Hoban his counsel, stated to the Court that ho was instructed by Mr. Mc- Nultv to press for a trial at tho present term of tho Court, and urged tho considerations which made Mr. McNulty unwilling that it should ho delayed till June. "Tho District Attnrnpv remarked that ho was willing ci thcr to nroceed with the trial at this term, or to continue thQ cas5 till tho next term. If they were to be tried at the present term, s few dnvs would be required to obtain the at tendance of distant witnesses; and it was therefore desirable that a day should bo fix ed for the trial. Some conversation ensued in relation to business of tho Circuit Court, which in consequence of tho recent change in the term of Iho Supremo Coirrt, had done but little business at. tho last term; nnd which was to hold its March term, this day tho 24th instant. It not seeming probable, if tho Circuit Court should yiold the Court- mnm tor fhn npvt WCOK. mat 1 no inn eiui. f eluded within that time, the cases were con tinued till tho next term, m June. Madiso nian. 07" The duties levied on articles of Ame rican product, which aro designed to bo re pealed by the new British tariff", are as fol lows: " Ashes, pearl or pot, 6d. per cwt. Bark, for dying or tanning, 3d.; beeswax, 2s; cot ton, 2s; lid.; elephant s teeth, Is.; hides, dry, 6d.; do wet. 3d;do tanned or otherwise dressed, 2s. per lb; laid 2s. per cwt.; do oil, 20 per cent.; rosin, 2s. per cwt., staves, not over 72 inches in length, 28s. per 60 cubic feet; do 7 in breadth, do; 3i in thickness, do; tar, 2s. 6d. per 12 bbls.; turpentine, new, Id. per cwt.; turtle shell, Id. per lb. Small Pox. This dreadful disease pre vails to some extent in the outskirts in Philadelphia. From the New York Evening Post. Washington News. An occasional cor respondent at Washington, says: ' " The office seekers are said to besicgo this place in legions, and tho saying to some extent is true; but they are by no means as many now as they were when General Har rison came into power. There is office seeking enough, Heaven knows! among the democrats; too much for their own good, personally and politically; but I must say that their rapacity for office exhibits itself in a moro modcrato and respect able way than it did among the whigs. Tho sceno presen ted here at this timo is not to bo compared with that presented after Harrison's inaugura tion. Our people are not half so hungry, clamorous and malignant as were tho cormo rants of 1840. Tho difference is so percep tible that it has been remarked to mo by se veral persons who have no decided political sympathies with either parly. Mr Polk, has, thus far, conducted him self with great prudence and propriety in regard to tho numerous applicants lor office He has, it is said, given them to understand that ho will think no moro of a man's claims for his being at Washington, and that dwel lers at homo will bo just as likely to be re mcmbered. In consequence of this, several officious gentlemen have returned to thei families. It is said, too, that ho has gained great credit by rclusing to rcceivo the Lm piro Club of your city, as a club, nlthougli expressing great readiness to seo tlicm private citizens. By tho way, this club has used some of the honors that properly helou to the White fcaglc Club, oaptain Uastics who wero tho extinguishers of the fire at the theatre, and not tho Empires. Mr. Bancroft will doubtless bo confirmed but tho history of the opposition to him will be a curious chapter in our politics. M Walker and Mr. Matey, havo entered upon the discharge of their duties. Mr. Buchanii goes homo fiist. Mr. Mason has the Nav until Mr. Bancroft is ready to step into the nlacc. Of your city affairs thero is Iittlo to add Mr. Van INcss gives out that lie is abundant lv satisfied with his prospects lor the present but some of his brethren arc not so light hearted apparently. I havo heard J. D, Stephenson's name mentioned in connection with the Surveyorship, and P. M. Wctmorc as Naval Agent. Ono thing, however, clear, Mr. Polk will bo in no hasto to ma appointments, and when he does ma them, he will try to select the best men. 1 have great confidence in his discernment and honesty of purpose. Not tho man who can make tho most noise, but the most able and efficient man it will bo his object to so lect. The days of Tylerism by which I mean tho Tyler mode of dispensing th spoils are passed." The Cabiuet. It will be, no doubt, interesting to many of our readers to see what the venerable cd tor of tho Richmond Enquirer says in regard to tho Cabinet. It will be seen that it we in Now Yoik, havo our disappointments, w aro not alone in ihat respect N. Y. News, Tho members of this Cabinet will have no bod of roses to rest upon. Independently o the necessity of setting in at once to a study of the details and habits oi the office, they will have some most important measures to conduct. Mr. Buchanan, especially, has superintend the final settlement with Texas, nnd her admission into the Union and the meat ncgociation of Oregon to carry on Fortunately, ho has studied both these piu hlcms. in tho Senate of the United States, and esnccially in the Committee of Foreign Relations, of which he has been somelimes Chairman, and a member lor many years Mr. Walker will nave tho Knotty and com nlicated subiect of tho I anil and being from tho South, no is acquainted with our rights and wrongs and being a gentleman versed in statistics, he will be able with his great perseverance to cumpicneiiu me octaus - ! I .1.- 1 i ! ot Ins olhce and ino ouncs oi ms situation. All tho members of the Cabinet aro devoted to the interests 6f the Republican party and wo trust, they will assiduously devote themselves to tnc support ot its principles and the best servico of their country, They have our cordial wishes for their success. and Mr, Polk, our anxious hopes for the glory of his Administration. w Wo all havo our lavorites and they (Hie Whigs) havo been pleased to say, that we havo ours. We aro not ashamed to " own the soft impeachment." We iccre desirous to seo ono gentleman in that Cabinet, whose name wo do not sec there, becauso wo be lieved him eminently calculated for the Exe cutive service. JJut it has pleased Mr. folk to select other distinguished men. But this we will undertake to say, that no man has been more efficient than ho has proved to be in every scrviee to which ho has been called. Ho would havo adorned the highest post in the Cabinet as he is a man of business, ac quainted with both men and tilings, prompt in decision, energetic in action who would scorn to burn incenso to tho vanity of the highest office, whilst ho would dare to speak, what men m power, generally, so much want, the. truth, even when it is tho most unpleas ant As he proved himself the frank, en. lightened, and efficient friend of General Jackson, so we had hoped that Mr. Polk would havo found it consistent with his pub. ic duties to call him to lus side. Ho has deemed it best, however, to make another disposition of the seals of office, and wo do not hesitate to say, that the gentleman in ucstion will do his duty to himself, to his party and to his country. There aro dreadful punishments enacted against thieves; but it were much better to make good provisions, by which every man might be put in a method how to live and so be preserved from the fatal necessity of stealing and dying for it. Missionaries at Athens. These were all well on the 12th December last. A Cutting Rebuke. President Polk, on his way up the Ohio river, stopped a short timo at Jeffcrsonville, to shake bands with his friends of the Hoosier State. The New Albany Democrat says that whilo engaged with his amiable lady and receiving the con gratulations of the citizens, a young federa list who was in great agony for ail opportuni ty to display his conceited smartness, said to Mrs. Polk : " Madam it must be exceeding ly tircsomo to you to be obliged to take the hands of so many of these rough farmers and mechanics?" " No sir," she replied, " it is to this very class of individuals I am indebted for being placed in a position, to have the honor to shako hands with them." It is unnecessary to add, that the respec table, kid glove young gentleman vanished inslantor. -Wabash Standard. Learn A Trade. How often do we hear a middle aged man say, " I wish I had learned a trade." Why do they express the wish? Becauso they seo tho mechanics obtain good livings and prosper around them. Just look around your own neighborhood. Who are suffering the least from poverty? Mechanics. Is not your wealthiest neighbor a mechanic? Yet strange to say, many young men will not learn trades they wish for more respect able business. They don't wish to gash their hands by edged tools, or lay bare their skins by machinery. Nay moro if they go to trades, they will soil their hands, brown their skins and bo obliged to wear coarse clothing. And somo parents aro unwise en ough to permit their sons to live as they please and continually run themselves into debt. How frequently do too indulgent pa rents say, my boy is loo weakly to work at a trade. The fict is. alilllo d.iily labor would help such a body materially. This hatred of a hand saw, a sledge hammer, a printing press, or a last, is not tho thing. Unless moro boys aro put to trades, or on farms, in a few years, every city, town and village in tho Union will be crowded with ruffled slur ted and starched up clerks, doctors, lawyers, ministers and paupors. Now, in all con science, we have too many by ono half such characters, who nro sucking tho life-blood from the community. A word to Iho young. Learn trades, work at something no matter what. Go into a printing office, a tailor's shop, or a sale loft; do anything hut study law, physic, divinity. Then you will ho happy if you live and always have within your reach the means of a good support. Rich or poor, no matter, do something useful and you will never repent it, even should you live to the ago of Methuselah. ADMINfSTRATOR'S SALE. OV tlwi 19th day or Mnv. 1R45, Ictweon the hours of ten o'clock A. M. and four o'clock P. M., at the door or the Court House in Knlidn, will he sold to tho Mghest bidder, the followini rcnl ertntc.jis the properly or Sam nel Clnrir, decerned, to wit: The emit half of' the north east qitnrtcr, and tho rnuth west quarter of the north en it quarter of section thirteen, in town one north ofrnnoa seven east; ronttiiniiiK ono hundred and twenty nr.. nuhject to the dower of the widow. Terms of sale, one tl.inl in hand, nnd the In'lnnce In two equnl annual instal. moms, with interest. The defercd parmer.ts to Le se cured hy mortgage on the premises. CHRISTIAN HUBER, Adm'r, Samuel Cltrk, dee'd. April 2, 18J5. SwSIS BUFFALO NEWSPAPERS. Cash System. THE NATIONAL PILOT. DAILY, WEEKLY, AND TRI-WEEKLT Manchester &. Drayman, Proprietor, R. W. Haskins, Editor, J. C. BuNNEa, Commercial Department. flIIIS Paper is new and peculiar. It is the only paper in tho United Slates tmon the plan it is conducted. All others take their European intelli gence from tho English Press, thus leaving us ignorant of all Continental affairs except what it suits the English interest to detail. la l'olilics Iho Pilot, looking abovo and beyond the present party distinctions, aims at nationality; and its motto is "For ouf counliy, at all times; to approve her when right; mid to right her when wrong." The Pilot's party is the citizens of this Republic against any and all its enemies. Locally, tho Pilot will especially consult the interests, commercial and otherwise, of Buffalo, and the great and crowinrr ValW of tho Lakes, with which the former is inse parably connected. Tho Pilot is sunnlied with rcrulnr Antv files- of the Paris papers of overy political party, and will therefore furnish not onlw original sources, and by thus giving both sides, enable its readers lo judge more cor reclly than they possibly can by reading only one. 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