Newspaper Page Text
, HE following list
(fives the names of the presidents, and. 1 following in the order here given, the dates of their birth, popular election, election by completion of electoral count or house of representatives, inauguration, retirement and death. In the case of the four vice presidents who succeeded their deceased chiefs, the date of their assuming the office is given, as that of their formal in auguration was of course the same as that of the president. George Washington Feb. 22, 1732. No common date in states for popular election. April 6, 1789; April 80, 1769; March 4, 1797; Dec. 14, 1799. John Adams Oct 19, 1735; Nov. 8, 1798; Feb. 8, 1797; March 4, 1797; March 4, 1801; July 4, 182a Thomas Jefferson April 2, 1743. No elec tion by popular vote in 1800; elected by house Feb. 17, 1801; March 4, 1801; March 4, 1809; July 4, 1826. James Madison March 16, 1751; Nov. 8, 1808; Feb. 8, 1809; March 4, 1809; March 4, 1817; June 28, 1836. James Monroe April 28, 1758; Nov. 5, 1816; Feb. 12, 1817; March 4, 1817; March 4, 1821; July 4, 1831. John Quincy Adams July 11, 1767. No popular election in 1824; elected by house Feb. 19, 1825; March 4, 1825; March 4, 1829; Feb. 23, 1848. Andrew Jackson March 15, 1767; Nov. 4, 1828; Feb. 11, 1829; March 4, 1829; March 4, 1837; June 8, 1845. Martin Van Buren Dec. 5, 1782; Nov. 8, 1836; Feb. 8, 1837; March 4, 1837; March 4, 1841; July 24, 1S63. "William Henry Harrison Feb. 9, 1773; Nov. 8, 1840; Feb. 10, 1S41; March 4, 1841; April 4, 184L (Death terminated official life.) John Tyler March, 1790. Elected, etc., with 'Harrison; took oath as president April 6, 1841. March 4, 1845; Jan. 17, V".?). James Knox Polk Nov. 2, 17Uu; Ixov. 5, 1844; Feb. 12, 1845; March 4, 1845; :iarch 5, 1849; June 15, 1849. Zachary Taylor Sept. 24, 1784; Nov. 1, 1848; Feb. 14, 1849; March 5, 1849; died July 9, 1850. Millard Fillmore Jan. 7, 1800; elected, etc., with Taylor; succeeded July 9, 1850; March 4, 1853; March 8, 1874. Franklin Pierce Nov. 23, 1804; Nov. 2. 1852; Feb. 9, 1853; March 4, 1853; March 4, 1857; Oct 8, 1869. James Buchanan April 13, 1791; Nov. 4, 1856; Feb. 11, 1857; March 4, 1857; March 4, 1861; June 1, 1868. Abraham Lincoln Feb. 12, 1809; Nov. 6, 1860; Feb. 13, 1861; March 4, 1861; Nov. 8, 1864; Feb. 8, 1865; March 4, 1865; died April 15, 1805. Andrew Johnson Dec. 29, 1808; elected vice president; took oath as president April 15, 1865; March 4, 1809; July 81, 1875. ' Ulysses Simpson Grant April 27, 1822; Nov. 3, 1868; Feb. 10, 1869; March 4, 1869; March 4, 1877; July 23, 1885. Rutherford Burchard Hayes Oct 14, 1822; Nov. 7, 1876; March 2, 1877; March 5, 1877; March 4, 1881; the only living ex-president. James Abram Garfield Nov. 19, 1831; Nov. 2, 1880; Feb. 9, 1881; March 4, 1881. Died Sept. 19, 1881. Chester Allan Arthur Oct 5, 1830. Elected with preceding; took oath as president Sept. 20, 1881; March 4, 1885; Nov. 18, 1886. Grover Cleveland March 18, 1837; Nov. 4, 1884; Feb. 11, 1885; March 4, 1885; March 4,1889. WASHINGTON JEFFERSON. GEORGE WASHINGTON. On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire ratified the Federal constitution, being the ninth state to do so, and on the 2d of July her formal notification of the fact was read in the Confederation congress. By the terms of the constitution the ratification of nine states made it operative; therefore the congress, after long debate, on the 13th of September resolved: "That the first Wednesday in January next be the day for appointing electors for the several states which before that date shall have ratified the constitution; that the first Wednesday in February next be the day for the electors to assemble in the respective states to vote for president, and that the first Wednesday in March next be the time and the present seat of congress the place for commencing proceedings under the constitu tion." Only the first part of this was carried out an the dates designated. George Washing ton received every electoral vote for presi dent, and, as far as can be known, every indi NO' " vidual vote In the United States. But there was no such unanimity in the choice for vice president, John Adams receiving little more than a majority of the electoral votes. Owing to the badness of the roads, and not a little to what now seems criminal neglect, the members of the first house did not assemble in sufficient numbers to form a quorum until the 6tb of April, 1789, and on that day the votes of the electors were opened and count ed. Official information was Immediately communicated to Washington and Adams and preparations made for an impressive in auguratioa On the 14th of April Charles Thompson, secretary of the late congress, conveyed official notice to Washington, and he set out at once, his journey being a continued triumphal procession. As they drew near the city of New York it was seen that all the vessels and boats were highly decorated and crowded with spectators, and his progress was accompanied with the music of many bands, the roar of cannon and loud acclamations of the people. Landing at Murray's wharf he was re ceived by the governor, corporation of the city, clergy, foreign ministers and the mili tary and escorted to his residence. On the 30th of April service was held in all the churches of the city at 9 o'clock in the morning and soon after noon the committees of congress and heads of departments waited upon Washington and a grand procession was formed, the military in advance, the committees next, then the president in a coach accompanied by his aid-de-camp, Col. Hum phreys, and his private secretary, Tobias Lear. After them were various civil officers and citizens. Arriving at Federal hall, they were conducted by Marshal Webb to the senate chamber, at the door of which the president was formally received by Vice President Adams, previously inaugurated, and con ducted to his seat. Both houses of congress occupied the senate chamber before him. Then the vice president, addressing Washing ton, said: "Sir, the senate and house of representa tives of the United States are ready to attend you to take the oath required by the constitu tion, which will be administered by the chan cellor of the state of New York." Washington responded: "1 am ready to proceed. " Then they passed to the open porch at the south end of the hall, where Chancellor Livingston, of New York, pronounced the oath, and Washington, holding up his right hand reverently, in a clear, strong voice, said: "I, George Washington, do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the United States." Then kissing the book which Marshal Webb .held up to him, he added, "So help me God." The chancellor then, turning to the people, ex claimed in a loud voice: "Long live George Washington, president of the United States!" A roar of applause went up from the 30,000 or 40,000 people present, which was followed immediately by shouts in all the adjacent sections and the thunder of cannon. Wash ington bowed to the assembled multitude and returned to the senate chamber, where, both houses and the officials being seated, he de livered his inauguration speech. Then the new president and the members of both houses proceeded to St. Paul's church and joined in the prayers which were offered by Dr. Provost, lately ordained bishop of the Protestant Episcopal church in New York and appointed chaplain of the senate. It is scarcely possible to describe the con trast between this scene and Washington's second inauguration. At the first the young republic exhibited all the display that it could muster. The second was very quiet The French revolution and the negotiations with Great Britain, the whisky insurrection then beginning in western Pennsylvania and the ill fortune that had followed the opera tions against the Indians had roused a furi ous party spirit in the congress. On the one hand many public persons were vehemently charged with a monarchical bias, and the opposition naturally going to the extreme, fought against every form of state ceremony. Mindful of these signs and the necessity of being complacent even to the prejudices of the people, Washington asked the opinions of his cabinet concerning the forms to be used. Jefferson and Hamilton, who seldom agreed in anything, agreed' in advising him that he should take the oath of office privately at his own house, and that certificate of that fact should be de posited in the state department Knox and Randolph protested, insisting that the cere mony should be in public, but without any ostentatious display. At the cabinet meeting on the 1st of March it was decided that the oath should be administered by Judge Cush ing of the supreme court of the United States in the senate chamber exactly at noon, and "that the president shall go without form, at tended by such gentlemen as he shall choose, and return without form, except that he be preceded by the marshal," the responsibility being thus largely thrown upon Washington. He rode from his residence' to the congress hall in his private cream colored coach, drawn by six horses, preceded by the mar shal, as proposed, and, accompanied by a very large concourse of citizens, entered the senate chamber and in the presence of both houses of congress, heads of the departments, foreign ministers and as many spectators as could find room, he rose and said: "Fellow Citizens: I am called upon by the votes of my country to execute the functions of itschlof magistrate. When the occasion proper for it shall arrive, I shall endeavor to express the high sense I entertain of this dis tinguished honor and of the confidence which has been reposed in me by the people of the United States of America. Previous to the execution of any official act of the president, the constitution requires an oath of office. This oath I am now about to take in your presence, so that if it shall be found during my administration of the government I have in any instance violated, willingly or know ingly, the injunction thereof, I may, besides incurring constitutional punishment, be sub ject to the upbraiding of all who are now witnesses of this solemn ceremony." JOHN ADAMS. It would seem that the young republic ex hausted its taste and capacity for ceremonial display at the first inauguration, for the con trast between that and several succeeding was almost ludicrous. Furthermore, a great deal of the pomp and pageantry of Washing ton's administration, the gilded coach with coat of arms on the panel, the six white horses, the half court dress and all that sort of thing rapidly disappeared. The country was rapidly growing more democratic. On the 8th of February, 1797, John Adams, acting as vice president, opened and counted the votes which made him president, an nouncing that there were for him 71, for Thomas Jefferson 69, for Thomas Pinckney late minister to Great Britain 59, for Aaron Burr 30, Samuel Adams 15, Oliver Ellsworth 11, George Clinton 7, John James Iredell 3, George Washington 2, John King 2, Samuel Johnson 2, and Charles C. Pinckney 1. On the 4th of March Mr. Jefferson was installed as vice president early in the morn ing, and took his seat as president of the sen ate. With them he proceeded to the repre sentatives' hall, attended by the members and a large audience of ladies and gentlemen. In front of the speaker's chair sat Chief Jus tice Ellsworth and Justices Cushing, Wilson and IredolL Soon a loud cheering was heard rolling along the street announcing the ap proach of Washington and the president elect As they entered the hall the audience arose and greeted them with enthusiastic cheers. Washington, when they had reached their seats, read a brief valedictory. 'All the writers of that time described the scene as singularly impressive and affecting. After Washington Mr. Adams arose, took the oath of office, and at once de livered his inaugural. It wa 4 isW .that when he concluded and Washington left the hall, nearly all the vast audience, and even the members, followed him, and the new pres ident was left almost alone. And that even ing the merchants of Philadelphia testified their love for Washington by a splendid banquet and other entertainments. THOMAS JEFFERSON. It is rather curious that a matter so recent and so fully described as the inauguration of Thomas Jefferson should have been the sub ject of so much discussion. We now know that it was the intention that he should pro ceed in the usual state that is, in a carriage with four or six horses to the Capitol, pre ceded by the marshal and followed by whatever civic societies should volun teer; but as a matter of fact bis carriage did not arrive, and so he rode on horseback, with only moderate state, and en tered the senate chamber attended by the heads of the departments, the marshal of the District of Columbia, his officers and other officials. In the last year of John Adams' administra tion Washington city had become the seat of government. Early in the morning on the 4th of March, 1S01, Aaron Burr took the oath of office as vice president and acted as such when the senate and house assembled to re ceive Jefferson. He vacated the chair before Mr. Jefferson and occupied one on the left, Chief Justice John Marshall sitting on the right Mr. Jefferson then delivered his in augural, after which the oath of office was administered by the chief justice, and with out further ceremony the crowd dispersed and congress adjourned. The second inauguration of Mr. Jefferson differed little from the first JAMES MADISON. On the 4th of March, 1809, there was a large assemblage to witness the inauguration of James Madison, and some circumstances connected with it attracted attention, among others the fact that Mr. Madison was clod in a plain suit of black, all of which was of Ameri can manufacture. He went through the cere monies of the day with a solemn dignity. The officers wero seated as before, the vice presi dent on his left, the chief justice on his right, Mr. Jefferson accompanying him to the door. The second administration of Mr. Madison began with almost exactly the same ceremo nies. JAMES MONROE. The inauguration of James Monroe, on the 4th of March, 1817, attracted a very large crowd, especially from Virginia and the bor der states of the north. The ceremonies were substantially the same as before. As the 4th of March, 1821, fell on Sunday, the second in auguration of Mr. Monroe took place the next day. The ball of the house was packed with members and spectators; the city was crowded with visitors from all parts of the country, and the procession from the White House to the Capitol was very long and imposing. JOHN Q, ADAMS. On March 4, 1S25, John Quincy Adams was inaugurated as the sixth president of the United States, and with deference to what was supposed to be his taste, the marshal of the District of Columbia, the officials and citi zens of Washington exerted themselves to make the ceremonial extremely imposing. A verj huxe body of citizens were in attend- nee, and tbereportersof the day did not fall to not that Mr. Adam like Mr. Madison, was dressed in a plain suit of black, wholly of American manufacture. After delivering hia Inaugural, he took the oath, receiving the congratulations of a large number of friends, and immediately proceed! to bl room and wrote the message lending the names of his cabinet to the senate. And with him ended a great deal of the peculiar old ceremonial connected with the president, as with him ended, strictly speaking, the formative, or, as it is sometimes called, revolutionary period of Amorican history. JACKSON LINCOLN. ' ANDREW JACKSON. The administration of Andrew Jackson was an epoch in American history. There never had been in Washington anything like so large a crowd as that which was present at the inauguration of Jackson. Gen. Jackson delivered his inaugural and took the oath of office at the east front of the CapitoL The procession both to and from the Capitol was the longest ever seen down to that time in Washington. From there the president went to the White House, where all the doors were open and no one was refused admittance. Orange punch by barrels was made, and in serving it pails would be up set, glasses broken and painful confusion caused. The opposition writers declared that tubs of punch were carried from the lower story into the garden to lead off the crowd from the room, and that men with boots heavy with mud stood on the damask satin covered chairs in their eagerness to see the president At a subsequent levee the scene was still more remarkable. A prominent dairyman had honored the occasion by send ing Gen. Jackson an enormous cheese, the largest that could be manufactured and transported; its weight was 1,400 pounds. The cheese was cut up and distributed to the crowd, who struggled for it, dropped it, trod it into the carpets and thereby ruined them. The condition of the White House is described by a writer of the day as that of a republican palace which had just passed through an ob stinate and protracted siege and been sacked by the victorious enemy. The events of Jackson's first administration, the furious contest of 1832, the nullification excitement of the next winter and the proceedings of that winter in congress, made the beginning of his second administration as exciting and interesting as the first Not quite so large a crowd was in attendance and the ceremonies were almost identical with those of 1829. MARTIN VAN BUREN. The inauguration of Martin Van Buren on the 4th of March, 1837, was a comparatively tame affair, but he, like all subsequent presir dents, followed the example of Jackson in speaking from the east front of the Capitol. The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice Taney. WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. The political revolution of 1840, which ranks with 1800 and 1832 as the hardest fought contest before the civil war, resulted in the election of Gen. William Henry Har rison, which excited so much enthusiasm among his supporters that the crowd on the 4th of March, 1841, was very large and the procession and ceremonies very imposing. Officially it was like the preceding. JAMES KNOX POLK. , The inauguration of James Knox Polk, eleventh president of the United States, on March 4, 1845, was not remarkable in any " way. The day was rainy, but the crowd was large. ZACHARY TAYLOR. On the 5th of March, 1849 (for the 4th fell on Sunday), Zachary Taylor was inaugurated without special incident, except that the civio display and procession was very large and admirably arranged. In the presence of at least 20,000 people he delivered his inaugu ral and took the oath of office. FRANKLIN PIERCE. In like manner the inauguration of Franklin Pierce, on the 4th of March, 1853, was without special incident, though the crowd was large and the procession a fine one. v JAMES BCCHANAN. On Wednesday, March 4, 1857, the president-elect, James Buchanan, was the center of a procession which reached almost from the White House to the capitoL The closing of Mr. Buchanan's administration may be re garded as the closing of one system of admin istering the government, his successor coming in at the beginning of the civil war, and with him, as was fitting, began what may be called the system of military display at inaugura tions. ' LINCOLN HARRISON. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. It is not within the province of this article to set forth the portentous events just pre ceding the inauguration of Abraham Lin coln; the fierce four sided campaign of 1860; the long winter of anxiety and gloom; the successive retirement of congressmen as seven states seceded; the rumors of intended assas sination and the secret night journey of Mr. Lincoln to Washington. Nevertheless, these things must be borne in mind by one who would understand the scenes of that Inaugu ration. Gen. Winfleld Scott, then lieutenant general of the United States army, and in command at Washington, was firmly per suaded that a riot was planned for inaugura tion day, during which an attempt was to be made to assassinate Mr. Lincoln. He there fore organized the militia of the District and disposed of his available force of regulars as seemed to him best calculated to prevent bloodshed. On the 4th of March, 1861, the retiring president, Buchanan, and Mr. Lincoln rode together to the Capitol, the president driving to Wizard's hotel for the president-elect' They rode between double files of a squadron of District of Columbia cavalry. In front of them marched a company of sappers and miners, and behind them came the infantry and riflemen of the district On the roofs of all the highest houses along Pennsylvania av enue were placed squads of riflemen from the regular army with orders to watch the win dows on the opposite side and fire upon them in case any attempt should be made to fire from those windows upon the presidential carriage. A small force of regular caval ry, the only one that could be obtained, was detailed in squads to guard the street crossings on Pennsylvania avenue, each squad retiring by side streets as the presidential carriage passed and taking up its position ahead, so that each street crossing was thor oughly guarded. A battalion of District of Columbia troops stood near the steps of the CapitoL.- and at the windows and wings aoeciaUv detailed riflemen were falaced. In addition to this, on the brow of the bill not far from the north end of the Capitol, .om mandlug both the approach and the broad plateau to the east front, was stationed a battery of flying artillery, under the oom mand of Gen, Scott himself. When the presidential carriage reached the east front, the two occupants passed arm in arm to the senate chamber, already densely packed with officers and civilians, where the ceremony of swearing in the vice presi dent was soon performed. Then the two, surrounded by the Justices of the supreme court, the senate committee of arrangements, the outgoing presldeut and the family of the president-elect, the cblof justice in his robes, the clerk of the court with a Bible, took their places on the front of the platform at the east portico. Before them were perhaps 20, 000 people, all in deep silence and every face serious, many apparently in deep gloom. The construction of the great dome of the Capitol was. in progress, and in front of the president-elect stood the bronze statue of Liberty. Just before the ceremonies began at strange historio group was accidentally formed. On one side was Senator Douglas, late Mr. Lincoln's chief rival for the presi dency, holding Mr. Lincoln's bat On the other side Taney, author stood Chief Justice arm in arm with President-elect Hayes, pro of the Dred Scott ' caded bv the clerk of the sunreme court, with decision, and close to the latter President Buchanan. -To the front and center stood Abraham Lincoln, president elect, thus grouping together the principal characters in the most momentous era of American history. When the loud and pro longed cheering bad subsided, Senator Baker briefly introduced Mr. Lincoln, 'and stepping forward the president-elect, in a firm, clear voice, every word being heard by every one of the audience, read that remarkable inau gural. When he pronounced the closing words, "I am loth to close we are not en emies, but friends we must not be enemies though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection," etc., the people broke into a loud and prolonged cheer; Chief Justice Taney arose and took up his Bible, and Mr. Lincoln, pronounced this oath: "I, Abraham Lincoln, do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the United States." As the last word died away the battery, com manded by Gen. Scott, thundered its salute, Mr. Buchanan and President Lincoln re turned, to their carriage and the military escorted them to the White House. a Four years later there was a crowd beyond all previous experience of Washington, and a military display composed only of soldiers who happened to be thereat the time; but even the temporary surplus of the army at that time was greater than the whole regular army before the war. The second inaugural address of President Lincoln was not so closely scanned as his first, for the policy of the administration was already determined. It was far more poetic and even more pathe tic than the first Many sentences are now familiar as household words, and the closing paragraph has become an American classic, as follows: "With malice toward none and charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall, have borne the battle and for his widow and or phans; to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace among our selves and with all nations." The national salute was then fired and Mr. Lincoln, in a barouche with Senator Foster, of the com mittee of arrangements, was escorted by the military to the White House. On this occa sion and the next Chief Justice Chase ad ministered the oath of office. C. a GRANT. The inauguration of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant on the 4th of March, 1869, aroused a great display of popular enthusiasm in which all parties joined; but, contrary to the etiquette of the occasion, the incoming president was not escorted to the Capitol by his predecessor, Andrew Johnson, this being the third time that this occurred in the history of the gov ernment, as that of 1829 was the second. The crowd in Washington surpassed all previ ously known, except that at the military re view in May, 1805. A little before 11 o'clock Gea Grant issued from his headquarters and seated himself in the barouche beside Gen. Rawlins, his chief of staff and friend. In the carriages following were the vice president elect, the reception committee of the senators and the president elect's military staff. Brevet Ma j. Gen. A. S. Webb, the grand marshal, and bis aid pre ceded and an immense military contingent divided into eight divisions followed. Despite the rain, the entire space before the east front of the Capitol was filled with people. On the platform were the usual officials. After the formal ceremonies in the senate and the swearing in of the vice president, the officials and president-elect proceeded to the platform at the east front The long proces sion extended almost entirely around the Capi tol and far up the adjacent street, there not being room enough to approach the east front Gea Grant then took the 'oath of office and read his inaugural, but in so low a voice that it was only heard by those nearest to him, and frequently interrupted by prolonged cheers from the crowd. It was unanimously agreed by the military authorities, officials and political friends of Gea Grant, that his second inauguration, March 4, 1873, should be even more impres sive than the first far more impressive than that of any preceding president; but the day was singularly unpropitious and the suffer ing was simply intense. The attendance of military, both regular and volunteer, was very large, and Pennsylvania avenue was packed on both sides, as before, with an im mense crowd. All the proceedings were di rected by the signal corps officers, who were stationed on all the commanding build ings, even upon the CapitoL But from dawn till dark the wind blew from the northwest with a violence amounting to a gale. The cadets from West Point and from the naval academy at Annapolis were specially commis erated, as they had not prepared for such ex treme weather. Their suffering was very great and including them, the rest of the military and the spectators, it 's estimated that many scores of deaths were caused by exposure on that day. The ceremonies were almost identical with those of four years before. The oath of office was administered by the new chief justice, Morrison R. Waite. B. & HAYES. The next inauguration took place under D collar and very embarrassing circumnanos' It was not even known until the 2d of March who would be the principal figure, as the pro ceedings in the electoral commission and la congress were concluded on that day. As the 4tbof March foil upon a Sunday, the publio ceremonies took place upon the 6th. They were marked, except in the military display, by a severe simplicity amounting to plain ness. The foreign diplomatlo corps alone ap peared in uniforms and decorations. Except for a few soldiers' uniforms, there was not a badge or decoration about any of the Ameri cans taking part The crowd was not so large as at the first inauguration of President Grant He and Senator Morrill, chairman of the senate committee of arrange ments, rode in the carriage with the president-elect, and after the officers, as be-' fore. Before the president's carriage were the Washington light guards and a battery of light artillery; behind them regulars, militia and volunteers as before. At least 80,000 people were in front of the CapitoL Vloe President Wheeler was sworn in in the senate, as before. The officials, their ladies and ladies of the diplomatic corps, supreme court judges, foreign ministers and others were seated on the platform, east front Gen. Grant a Bible, advanced to the front amid hearty cheering. President Hayes delivered his inaugural address and pronounced the oath of office after Chief Waite. JAMES A. GARFIELD. The day of President James A. Garfield's inauguration, March 4, 1881, was inclement Rain in the morning, sleet and snow as the day advanced and mud everywhere and all day cast a gloom over the people. But the pageant was not wholly spoiled and the crowd was large. The procession moved at half past 10, Gea W. T. Sherman, with a brilliant staff, leading the way. After him came the military under Gen. Ayres, then the incom ing and outgoing presidents in a four horse barouche, with gorgeously uniformed cavalry before and behind, and after them the usual array of militia and civio societies. The usual civilians and officials occupied the plat form at the east front of the CapitoL The inaugural address was read with remarkable force and effect and excited much emotion among the people. The inaugural ball was held in the National museum, one of the hand somest buildings in the country, designed in the form of a Greek cross, and was the first ball of the kind to attract universal attentioa Five thousand holders of tickets were ad mitted. President Garfield, in full evening costume, received with dignity, supported by Messrs. Evarts, Schurz, Maynard, Breckin ridge, Hazen, Chief Justice Waite and others. The brilliancy of dress displayed attracted universal attentioa GROVER CLEVELAND. The inauguration of Grover Cleveland sur passed all previous ones. For a week before March 4 the two Washington depots were crowded with people night and day. It is estimated that 250,000 persons from other places were present How to accom modate them had been one of the problems for the inauguration committee, who ap pointed several hundred men to make a can vass of the householders who bad room to spare and would be willing to receive one or more of the tourists. In spite of the precautions all the available space was occupied two days before the in auguration, and the thousands who arrived on the 2d and 3d of March were left to shift for themselves. How they shifted is still matter of amusement to the Washingtonians. T'acy slept in hallways and cellars and in the s public parks. The morning of the inauguration was warm, fragrant and spring like. The streets were thronged as early as 6 o'clock, and soon was heard the tramp of regiments marching to the place of formation. By 10 o'clock there were three hundred thousand people lining Pennsylvania avenua At half past 1 1 a great shout, that swelled into a deafening roar from one end of the avenue to the other, announced that the procession had started. Pennsyl vania avenue is the widest thoroughfare in the world. It is paved with asphalt (as are all the streets of Washington) and is un equaled for a procession. Down this avenue swept the noblest procession seen in the capi tal since the grand review of the array in 1863. The procession is led by a regiment of United States regulars, followed by the cele brated United States Marine band of one hundred pieces, whose grand martial musio drowns all other sounds. Then follows the carriage in which" sit President Arthur, President-elect Cleveland and Vice President elect Hendricks. After the presidential carriage has passed come the troops, in every kind of uniform. This procession is six hours passing a given point, but the enthusiasm does not diminish. Meanwhile the presidential party has reached the platform at the eastern end of the CapitoL The platform is 100 feet wide, the largest ever built for the puipose. In front of the Capitol, banked in a solid mass, stood 250,000 people. ' The president delivered his inaugural ad dress in a clear, resonant voice, from mem ory, making only an occasional reference to the notes in his hand, and thou Chief Justice Waite administered the oath of office. Cleveland said: "I swear," then paused and kissed the Bible a small, leather bound, well worn volume, which had been given to him by his mother when he was a boy. At the Washington monument was given that evening the greatest display of fireworks ever made in America. Then the crowd makes a rush for the great pension office building, where the inaugura tion ball is to be held. One hundred thousand people surround the building and watch the fortunate ten thousand who are able to enter. The ball room is the largest ever used for a presidential fete. There is a waxed floor 316 feet long and 116 feet wide. The rooms are fragrant with flowers; many chandeliers, with brilliant pendants, shed their rays upon the heads of those below, and the walls are covered with silken flags of all nations. Ten thousand have arrived at 11 o'clock. The women, in their rich evening dresses and costly diamonds, the diplomats in their court uniforms and decorations, the resplendent army and navy officers, and the civilians at conventional black, constitute a scene that Is not likely to be forgotten by any of those who witnessed it At 11 o'clock the president arrives. H holds a levee, but gets away soon after 13. The crowd dances until the small hours. A week later Washington resumes its usual appearance.