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The united opinion. (Bradford, Vt.) 1881-1970, March 08, 1889, INAUGURAL EDITION, Image 6

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, HE following list
(fives the names of
the presidents, and.
1 following in the order
here given, the dates
of their birth, popular election, election
by completion of electoral count or
house of representatives, inauguration,
retirement and death. In the case of
the four vice presidents who succeeded their
deceased chiefs, the date of their assuming
the office is given, as that of their formal in
auguration was of course the same as that of
the president.
George Washington Feb. 22, 1732. No
common date in states for popular election.
April 6, 1789; April 80, 1769; March 4, 1797;
Dec. 14, 1799.
John Adams Oct 19, 1735; Nov. 8, 1798;
Feb. 8, 1797; March 4, 1797; March 4, 1801;
July 4, 182a
Thomas Jefferson April 2, 1743. No elec
tion by popular vote in 1800; elected by
house Feb. 17, 1801; March 4, 1801; March 4,
1809; July 4, 1826.
James Madison March 16, 1751; Nov. 8,
1808; Feb. 8, 1809; March 4, 1809; March 4,
1817; June 28, 1836.
James Monroe April 28, 1758; Nov. 5,
1816; Feb. 12, 1817; March 4, 1817; March 4,
1821; July 4, 1831.
John Quincy Adams July 11, 1767. No
popular election in 1824; elected by house
Feb. 19, 1825; March 4, 1825; March 4, 1829;
Feb. 23, 1848.
Andrew Jackson March 15, 1767; Nov. 4,
1828; Feb. 11, 1829; March 4, 1829; March 4,
1837; June 8, 1845.
Martin Van Buren Dec. 5, 1782; Nov. 8,
1836; Feb. 8, 1837; March 4, 1837; March 4,
1841; July 24, 1S63.
"William Henry Harrison Feb. 9, 1773;
Nov. 8, 1840; Feb. 10, 1S41; March 4, 1841;
April 4, 184L (Death terminated official life.)
John Tyler March, 1790. Elected, etc.,
with 'Harrison; took oath as president April
6, 1841. March 4, 1845; Jan. 17, V".?).
James Knox Polk Nov. 2, 17Uu; Ixov. 5,
1844; Feb. 12, 1845; March 4, 1845; :iarch 5,
1849; June 15, 1849.
Zachary Taylor Sept. 24, 1784; Nov. 1,
1848; Feb. 14, 1849; March 5, 1849; died July
9, 1850.
Millard Fillmore Jan. 7, 1800; elected,
etc., with Taylor; succeeded July 9, 1850;
March 4, 1853; March 8, 1874.
Franklin Pierce Nov. 23, 1804; Nov. 2.
1852; Feb. 9, 1853; March 4, 1853; March 4,
1857; Oct 8, 1869.
James Buchanan April 13, 1791; Nov. 4,
1856; Feb. 11, 1857; March 4, 1857; March 4,
1861; June 1, 1868.
Abraham Lincoln Feb. 12, 1809; Nov. 6,
1860; Feb. 13, 1861; March 4, 1861; Nov. 8,
1864; Feb. 8, 1865; March 4, 1865; died April
15, 1805.
Andrew Johnson Dec. 29, 1808; elected
vice president; took oath as president April
15, 1865; March 4, 1809; July 81, 1875.
' Ulysses Simpson Grant April 27, 1822;
Nov. 3, 1868; Feb. 10, 1869; March 4, 1869;
March 4, 1877; July 23, 1885.
Rutherford Burchard Hayes Oct 14, 1822;
Nov. 7, 1876; March 2, 1877; March 5, 1877;
March 4, 1881; the only living ex-president.
James Abram Garfield Nov. 19, 1831;
Nov. 2, 1880; Feb. 9, 1881; March 4, 1881.
Died Sept. 19, 1881.
Chester Allan Arthur Oct 5, 1830. Elected
with preceding; took oath as president Sept.
20, 1881; March 4, 1885; Nov. 18, 1886.
Grover Cleveland March 18, 1837; Nov.
4, 1884; Feb. 11, 1885; March 4, 1885; March
On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire ratified
the Federal constitution, being the ninth
state to do so, and on the 2d of July her
formal notification of the fact was read in
the Confederation congress. By the terms of
the constitution the ratification of nine states
made it operative; therefore the congress,
after long debate, on the 13th of September
"That the first Wednesday in January next
be the day for appointing electors for the
several states which before that date shall
have ratified the constitution; that the first
Wednesday in February next be the day for
the electors to assemble in the respective
states to vote for president, and that the first
Wednesday in March next be the time and
the present seat of congress the place for
commencing proceedings under the constitu
tion." Only the first part of this was carried out
an the dates designated. George Washing
ton received every electoral vote for presi
dent, and, as far as can be known, every indi
NO' "
vidual vote In the United States. But there
was no such unanimity in the choice for vice
president, John Adams receiving little more
than a majority of the electoral votes. Owing
to the badness of the roads, and not a little
to what now seems criminal neglect, the
members of the first house did not assemble in
sufficient numbers to form a quorum until
the 6tb of April, 1789, and on that day the
votes of the electors were opened and count
ed. Official information was Immediately
communicated to Washington and Adams
and preparations made for an impressive in
auguratioa On the 14th of April Charles
Thompson, secretary of the late congress,
conveyed official notice to Washington, and
he set out at once, his journey being
a continued triumphal procession.
As they drew near the city of New
York it was seen that all the vessels and boats
were highly decorated and crowded with
spectators, and his progress was accompanied
with the music of many bands, the roar of
cannon and loud acclamations of the people.
Landing at Murray's wharf he was re
ceived by the governor, corporation of the
city, clergy, foreign ministers and the mili
tary and escorted to his residence. On the
30th of April service was held in all the
churches of the city at 9 o'clock in the
morning and soon after noon the committees
of congress and heads of departments waited
upon Washington and a grand procession
was formed, the military in advance, the
committees next, then the president in a coach
accompanied by his aid-de-camp, Col. Hum
phreys, and his private secretary, Tobias Lear.
After them were various civil officers and
citizens. Arriving at Federal hall, they were
conducted by Marshal Webb to the senate
chamber, at the door of which the president
was formally received by Vice President
Adams, previously inaugurated, and con
ducted to his seat. Both houses of congress
occupied the senate chamber before him.
Then the vice president, addressing Washing
ton, said:
"Sir, the senate and house of representa
tives of the United States are ready to attend
you to take the oath required by the constitu
tion, which will be administered by the chan
cellor of the state of New York."
Washington responded: "1 am ready to
proceed. " Then they passed to the open porch
at the south end of the hall, where Chancellor
Livingston, of New York, pronounced the
oath, and Washington, holding up his right
hand reverently, in a clear, strong voice,
"I, George Washington, do solemnly swear
that I will faithfully execute the office of
president of the United States, and will, to
the best of my ability, preserve, protect and
defend the constitution of the United States."
Then kissing the book which Marshal Webb
.held up to him, he added, "So help me God."
The chancellor then, turning to the people, ex
claimed in a loud voice: "Long live George
Washington, president of the United States!"
A roar of applause went up from the 30,000
or 40,000 people present, which was followed
immediately by shouts in all the adjacent
sections and the thunder of cannon. Wash
ington bowed to the assembled multitude and
returned to the senate chamber, where, both
houses and the officials being seated, he de
livered his inauguration speech. Then the
new president and the members of both
houses proceeded to St. Paul's church and
joined in the prayers which were offered by
Dr. Provost, lately ordained bishop of the
Protestant Episcopal church in New York
and appointed chaplain of the senate.
It is scarcely possible to describe the con
trast between this scene and Washington's
second inauguration. At the first the young
republic exhibited all the display that it
could muster. The second was very quiet
The French revolution and the negotiations
with Great Britain, the whisky insurrection
then beginning in western Pennsylvania and
the ill fortune that had followed the opera
tions against the Indians had roused a furi
ous party spirit in the congress. On the one
hand many public persons were vehemently
charged with a monarchical bias, and the
opposition naturally going to the extreme,
fought against every form of state ceremony.
Mindful of these signs and the necessity of
being complacent even to the prejudices of
the people, Washington asked the opinions of
his cabinet concerning the forms to be used.
Jefferson and Hamilton, who seldom agreed
in anything, agreed' in advising him
that he should take the oath of office
privately at his own house, and that
certificate of that fact should be de
posited in the state department Knox and
Randolph protested, insisting that the cere
mony should be in public, but without any
ostentatious display. At the cabinet meeting
on the 1st of March it was decided that the
oath should be administered by Judge Cush
ing of the supreme court of the United States
in the senate chamber exactly at noon, and
"that the president shall go without form, at
tended by such gentlemen as he shall choose,
and return without form, except that he be
preceded by the marshal," the responsibility
being thus largely thrown upon Washington.
He rode from his residence' to the congress
hall in his private cream colored coach,
drawn by six horses, preceded by the mar
shal, as proposed, and, accompanied by a very
large concourse of citizens, entered the
senate chamber and in the presence of both
houses of congress, heads of the departments,
foreign ministers and as many spectators as
could find room, he rose and said:
"Fellow Citizens: I am called upon by the
votes of my country to execute the functions
of itschlof magistrate. When the occasion
proper for it shall arrive, I shall endeavor to
express the high sense I entertain of this dis
tinguished honor and of the confidence which
has been reposed in me by the people of the
United States of America. Previous to the
execution of any official act of the president,
the constitution requires an oath of office.
This oath I am now about to take in your
presence, so that if it shall be found during
my administration of the government I have
in any instance violated, willingly or know
ingly, the injunction thereof, I may, besides
incurring constitutional punishment, be sub
ject to the upbraiding of all who are now
witnesses of this solemn ceremony."
It would seem that the young republic ex
hausted its taste and capacity for ceremonial
display at the first inauguration, for the con
trast between that and several succeeding
was almost ludicrous. Furthermore, a great
deal of the pomp and pageantry of Washing
ton's administration, the gilded coach with
coat of arms on the panel, the six white
horses, the half court dress and all that sort
of thing rapidly disappeared. The country
was rapidly growing more democratic.
On the 8th of February, 1797, John Adams,
acting as vice president, opened and counted
the votes which made him president, an
nouncing that there were for him 71, for
Thomas Jefferson 69, for Thomas Pinckney
late minister to Great Britain 59, for Aaron
Burr 30, Samuel Adams 15, Oliver Ellsworth
11, George Clinton 7, John James Iredell 3,
George Washington 2, John King 2, Samuel
Johnson 2, and Charles C. Pinckney 1.
On the 4th of March Mr. Jefferson was
installed as vice president early in the morn
ing, and took his seat as president of the sen
ate. With them he proceeded to the repre
sentatives' hall, attended by the members
and a large audience of ladies and gentlemen.
In front of the speaker's chair sat Chief Jus
tice Ellsworth and Justices Cushing, Wilson
and IredolL Soon a loud cheering was heard
rolling along the street announcing the ap
proach of Washington and the president
elect As they entered the hall the audience
arose and greeted them with enthusiastic
cheers. Washington, when they had reached
their seats, read a brief valedictory. 'All
the writers of that time described the scene
as singularly impressive and affecting.
After Washington Mr. Adams arose,
took the oath of office, and at once de
livered his inaugural. It wa 4 isW .that
when he concluded and Washington left the
hall, nearly all the vast audience, and even
the members, followed him, and the new pres
ident was left almost alone. And that even
ing the merchants of Philadelphia testified
their love for Washington by a splendid
banquet and other entertainments.
It is rather curious that a matter so recent
and so fully described as the inauguration of
Thomas Jefferson should have been the sub
ject of so much discussion. We now know
that it was the intention that he should pro
ceed in the usual state that is, in a carriage
with four or six horses to the Capitol, pre
ceded by the marshal and followed by
whatever civic societies should volun
teer; but as a matter of fact bis
carriage did not arrive, and so he rode on
horseback, with only moderate state, and en
tered the senate chamber attended by the heads
of the departments, the marshal of the District
of Columbia, his officers and other officials.
In the last year of John Adams' administra
tion Washington city had become the seat of
government. Early in the morning on the
4th of March, 1S01, Aaron Burr took the oath
of office as vice president and acted as such
when the senate and house assembled to re
ceive Jefferson. He vacated the chair before
Mr. Jefferson and occupied one on the left,
Chief Justice John Marshall sitting on the
right Mr. Jefferson then delivered his in
augural, after which the oath of office was
administered by the chief justice, and with
out further ceremony the crowd dispersed
and congress adjourned.
The second inauguration of Mr. Jefferson
differed little from the first
On the 4th of March, 1809, there was a
large assemblage to witness the inauguration
of James Madison, and some circumstances
connected with it attracted attention, among
others the fact that Mr. Madison was clod in a
plain suit of black, all of which was of Ameri
can manufacture. He went through the cere
monies of the day with a solemn dignity. The
officers wero seated as before, the vice presi
dent on his left, the chief justice on his right,
Mr. Jefferson accompanying him to the door.
The second administration of Mr. Madison
began with almost exactly the same ceremo
The inauguration of James Monroe, on the
4th of March, 1817, attracted a very large
crowd, especially from Virginia and the bor
der states of the north. The ceremonies were
substantially the same as before. As the 4th
of March, 1821, fell on Sunday, the second in
auguration of Mr. Monroe took place the next
day. The ball of the house was packed with
members and spectators; the city was crowded
with visitors from all parts of the country,
and the procession from the White House to
the Capitol was very long and imposing.
On March 4, 1S25, John Quincy Adams
was inaugurated as the sixth president of the
United States, and with deference to what
was supposed to be his taste, the marshal of
the District of Columbia, the officials and citi
zens of Washington exerted themselves to
make the ceremonial extremely imposing. A
verj huxe body of citizens were in attend-
nee, and tbereportersof the day did not fall
to not that Mr. Adam like Mr. Madison,
was dressed in a plain suit of black, wholly of
American manufacture. After delivering
hia Inaugural, he took the oath, receiving the
congratulations of a large number of friends,
and immediately proceed! to bl room and
wrote the message lending the names of his
cabinet to the senate. And with him ended
a great deal of the peculiar old ceremonial
connected with the president, as with him
ended, strictly speaking, the formative, or,
as it is sometimes called, revolutionary period
of Amorican history.
The administration of Andrew Jackson was
an epoch in American history. There never
had been in Washington anything like so
large a crowd as that which was present at
the inauguration of Jackson.
Gen. Jackson delivered his inaugural and
took the oath of office at the east front of the
CapitoL The procession both to and from
the Capitol was the longest ever seen down to
that time in Washington. From there the
president went to the White House, where all
the doors were open and no one was refused
admittance. Orange punch by barrels was
made, and in serving it pails would be up
set, glasses broken and painful confusion
caused. The opposition writers declared that
tubs of punch were carried from the lower
story into the garden to lead off the crowd
from the room, and that men with boots
heavy with mud stood on the damask satin
covered chairs in their eagerness to see the
president At a subsequent levee the scene
was still more remarkable. A prominent
dairyman had honored the occasion by send
ing Gen. Jackson an enormous cheese, the
largest that could be manufactured and
transported; its weight was 1,400 pounds.
The cheese was cut up and distributed to the
crowd, who struggled for it, dropped it, trod
it into the carpets and thereby ruined them.
The condition of the White House is described
by a writer of the day as that of a republican
palace which had just passed through an ob
stinate and protracted siege and been sacked
by the victorious enemy. The events of
Jackson's first administration, the furious
contest of 1832, the nullification excitement
of the next winter and the proceedings of
that winter in congress, made the beginning
of his second administration as exciting and
interesting as the first Not quite so large a
crowd was in attendance and the ceremonies
were almost identical with those of 1829.
The inauguration of Martin Van Buren on
the 4th of March, 1837, was a comparatively
tame affair, but he, like all subsequent presir
dents, followed the example of Jackson in
speaking from the east front of the Capitol.
The oath of office was administered by Chief
Justice Taney.
The political revolution of 1840, which
ranks with 1800 and 1832 as the hardest
fought contest before the civil war, resulted
in the election of Gen. William Henry Har
rison, which excited so much enthusiasm
among his supporters that the crowd on the
4th of March, 1841, was very large and the
procession and ceremonies very imposing.
Officially it was like the preceding.
The inauguration of James Knox Polk,
eleventh president of the United States, on
March 4, 1845, was not remarkable in any
" way. The day was rainy, but the crowd was
On the 5th of March, 1849 (for the 4th fell
on Sunday), Zachary Taylor was inaugurated
without special incident, except that the
civio display and procession was very large
and admirably arranged. In the presence of
at least 20,000 people he delivered his inaugu
ral and took the oath of office.
In like manner the inauguration of Franklin
Pierce, on the 4th of March, 1853, was without
special incident, though the crowd was large
and the procession a fine one. v
On Wednesday, March 4, 1857, the president-elect,
James Buchanan, was the center of
a procession which reached almost from the
White House to the capitoL The closing of
Mr. Buchanan's administration may be re
garded as the closing of one system of admin
istering the government, his successor coming
in at the beginning of the civil war, and with
him, as was fitting, began what may be called
the system of military display at inaugura
tions. '
It is not within the province of this article
to set forth the portentous events just pre
ceding the inauguration of Abraham Lin
coln; the fierce four sided campaign of 1860;
the long winter of anxiety and gloom; the
successive retirement of congressmen as seven
states seceded; the rumors of intended assas
sination and the secret night journey of Mr.
Lincoln to Washington. Nevertheless, these
things must be borne in mind by one who
would understand the scenes of that Inaugu
ration. Gen. Winfleld Scott, then lieutenant
general of the United States army, and in
command at Washington, was firmly per
suaded that a riot was planned for inaugura
tion day, during which an attempt was to be
made to assassinate Mr. Lincoln. He there
fore organized the militia of the District and
disposed of his available force of regulars as
seemed to him best calculated to prevent
On the 4th of March, 1861, the retiring
president, Buchanan, and Mr. Lincoln rode
together to the Capitol, the president driving
to Wizard's hotel for the president-elect'
They rode between double files of a squadron
of District of Columbia cavalry. In front of
them marched a company of sappers and
miners, and behind them came the infantry
and riflemen of the district On the roofs of
all the highest houses along Pennsylvania av
enue were placed squads of riflemen from the
regular army with orders to watch the win
dows on the opposite side and fire upon them
in case any attempt should be made to fire
from those windows upon the presidential
carriage. A small force of regular caval
ry, the only one that could be obtained,
was detailed in squads to guard the street
crossings on Pennsylvania avenue, each squad
retiring by side streets as the presidential
carriage passed and taking up its position
ahead, so that each street crossing was thor
oughly guarded. A battalion of District of
Columbia troops stood near the steps of the
CapitoL.- and at the windows and wings
aoeciaUv detailed riflemen were falaced. In
addition to this, on the brow of the bill not
far from the north end of the Capitol, .om
mandlug both the approach and the broad
plateau to the east front, was stationed a
battery of flying artillery, under the oom
mand of Gen, Scott himself.
When the presidential carriage reached the
east front, the two occupants passed arm in
arm to the senate chamber, already densely
packed with officers and civilians, where
the ceremony of swearing in the vice presi
dent was soon performed. Then the two,
surrounded by the Justices of the supreme
court, the senate committee of arrangements,
the outgoing presldeut and the family of the
president-elect, the cblof justice in his robes,
the clerk of the court with a Bible, took their
places on the front of the platform at the
east portico. Before them were perhaps 20,
000 people, all in deep silence and every face
serious, many apparently in deep gloom.
The construction of the great dome of the
Capitol was. in progress, and in front of the
president-elect stood the bronze statue of
Liberty. Just before the ceremonies began
at strange historio group was accidentally
formed. On one side was Senator Douglas,
late Mr. Lincoln's chief rival for the presi
dency, holding Mr. Lincoln's bat On
the other side
Taney, author
stood Chief Justice arm in arm with President-elect Hayes, pro
of the Dred Scott ' caded bv the clerk of the sunreme court, with
decision, and close to the latter
President Buchanan. -To the front and
center stood Abraham Lincoln, president
elect, thus grouping together the principal
characters in the most momentous era of
American history. When the loud and pro
longed cheering bad subsided, Senator Baker
briefly introduced Mr. Lincoln, 'and stepping
forward the president-elect, in a firm, clear
voice, every word being heard by every one
of the audience, read that remarkable inau
gural. When he pronounced the closing
words, "I am loth to close we are not en
emies, but friends we must not be enemies
though passion may have strained, it must
not break our bonds of affection," etc., the
people broke into a loud and prolonged
cheer; Chief Justice Taney arose and took
up his Bible, and Mr. Lincoln, pronounced
this oath:
"I, Abraham Lincoln, do solemnly swear
that I will faithfully execute the office of
president of the United States, and will to
the best of my ability preserve, protect and
defend the constitution of the United States."
As the last word died away the battery, com
manded by Gen. Scott, thundered its salute,
Mr. Buchanan and President Lincoln re
turned, to their carriage and the military
escorted them to the White House. a
Four years later there was a crowd beyond
all previous experience of Washington, and a
military display composed only of soldiers
who happened to be thereat the time; but
even the temporary surplus of the army at
that time was greater than the whole regular
army before the war. The second inaugural
address of President Lincoln was not so
closely scanned as his first, for the policy of
the administration was already determined.
It was far more poetic and even more pathe
tic than the first Many sentences are now
familiar as household words, and the closing
paragraph has become an American classic,
as follows:
"With malice toward none and charity for
all; with firmness in the right, as God gives
us to see the right, let us strive on to finish
the work we are in; to bind up the nation's
wounds; to care for him who shall, have
borne the battle and for his widow and or
phans; to do all which may achieve and
cherish a just and a lasting peace among our
selves and with all nations." The national
salute was then fired and Mr. Lincoln, in a
barouche with Senator Foster, of the com
mittee of arrangements, was escorted by the
military to the White House. On this occa
sion and the next Chief Justice Chase ad
ministered the oath of office.
The inauguration of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
on the 4th of March, 1869, aroused a great
display of popular enthusiasm in which all
parties joined; but, contrary to the etiquette
of the occasion, the incoming president was
not escorted to the Capitol by his predecessor,
Andrew Johnson, this being the third time
that this occurred in the history of the gov
ernment, as that of 1829 was the second. The
crowd in Washington surpassed all previ
ously known, except that at the military re
view in May, 1805. A little before 11
o'clock Gea Grant issued from his
headquarters and seated himself in the
barouche beside Gen. Rawlins, his chief of
staff and friend. In the carriages following
were the vice president elect, the reception
committee of the senators and the president
elect's military staff. Brevet Ma j. Gen. A. S.
Webb, the grand marshal, and bis aid pre
ceded and an immense military contingent
divided into eight divisions followed. Despite
the rain, the entire space before the east front
of the Capitol was filled with people. On
the platform were the usual officials.
After the formal ceremonies in the senate
and the swearing in of the vice president, the
officials and president-elect proceeded to the
platform at the east front The long proces
sion extended almost entirely around the Capi
tol and far up the adjacent street, there not
being room enough to approach the east front
Gea Grant then took the 'oath of office and
read his inaugural, but in so low a voice that
it was only heard by those nearest to him,
and frequently interrupted by prolonged
cheers from the crowd.
It was unanimously agreed by the military
authorities, officials and political friends of
Gea Grant, that his second inauguration,
March 4, 1873, should be even more impres
sive than the first far more impressive than
that of any preceding president; but the day
was singularly unpropitious and the suffer
ing was simply intense. The attendance of
military, both regular and volunteer, was
very large, and Pennsylvania avenue was
packed on both sides, as before, with an im
mense crowd. All the proceedings were di
rected by the signal corps officers, who
were stationed on all the commanding build
ings, even upon the CapitoL But from dawn
till dark the wind blew from the northwest
with a violence amounting to a gale. The
cadets from West Point and from the naval
academy at Annapolis were specially commis
erated, as they had not prepared for such ex
treme weather. Their suffering was very
great and including them, the rest of the
military and the spectators, it 's estimated
that many scores of deaths were caused by
exposure on that day. The ceremonies were
almost identical with those of four years
before. The oath of office was administered
by the new chief justice, Morrison R. Waite.
The next inauguration took place under D
collar and very embarrassing circumnanos'
It was not even known until the 2d of March
who would be the principal figure, as the pro
ceedings in the electoral commission and la
congress were concluded on that day. As the
4tbof March foil upon a Sunday, the publio
ceremonies took place upon the 6th. They
were marked, except in the military display,
by a severe simplicity amounting to plain
ness. The foreign diplomatlo corps alone ap
peared in uniforms and decorations. Except
for a few soldiers' uniforms, there was not a
badge or decoration about any of the Ameri
cans taking part The crowd was not so
large as at the first inauguration of President
Grant He and Senator Morrill, chairman
of the senate committee of arrange
ments, rode in the carriage with the
president-elect, and after the officers, as be-'
fore. Before the president's carriage were
the Washington light guards and a battery
of light artillery; behind them regulars,
militia and volunteers as before. At least
80,000 people were in front of the CapitoL
Vloe President Wheeler was sworn in in the
senate, as before. The officials, their ladies and
ladies of the diplomatic corps, supreme court
judges, foreign ministers and others were
seated on the platform, east front Gen. Grant
a Bible, advanced to the front amid hearty
cheering. President Hayes delivered his
inaugural address and pronounced the oath
of office after Chief Waite.
The day of President James A. Garfield's
inauguration, March 4, 1881, was inclement
Rain in the morning, sleet and snow as the
day advanced and mud everywhere and all
day cast a gloom over the people. But the
pageant was not wholly spoiled and the crowd
was large. The procession moved at half past
10, Gea W. T. Sherman, with a brilliant
staff, leading the way. After him came the
military under Gen. Ayres, then the incom
ing and outgoing presidents in a four horse
barouche, with gorgeously uniformed cavalry
before and behind, and after them the usual
array of militia and civio societies. The
usual civilians and officials occupied the plat
form at the east front of the CapitoL The
inaugural address was read with remarkable
force and effect and excited much emotion
among the people. The inaugural ball was
held in the National museum, one of the hand
somest buildings in the country, designed in
the form of a Greek cross, and was the first
ball of the kind to attract universal attentioa
Five thousand holders of tickets were ad
mitted. President Garfield, in full evening
costume, received with dignity, supported by
Messrs. Evarts, Schurz, Maynard, Breckin
ridge, Hazen, Chief Justice Waite and others.
The brilliancy of dress displayed attracted
universal attentioa
The inauguration of Grover Cleveland sur
passed all previous ones. For a week before
March 4 the two Washington depots were
crowded with people night and day.
It is estimated that 250,000 persons from
other places were present How to accom
modate them had been one of the problems
for the inauguration committee, who ap
pointed several hundred men to make a can
vass of the householders who bad room to
spare and would be willing to receive one or
more of the tourists.
In spite of the precautions all the available
space was occupied two days before the in
auguration, and the thousands who arrived
on the 2d and 3d of March were left to shift
for themselves. How they shifted is still
matter of amusement to the Washingtonians.
T'acy slept in hallways and cellars and in the s
public parks.
The morning of the inauguration was
warm, fragrant and spring like. The streets
were thronged as early as 6 o'clock, and soon
was heard the tramp of regiments marching
to the place of formation. By 10 o'clock there
were three hundred thousand people lining
Pennsylvania avenua At half past 1 1 a great
shout, that swelled into a deafening roar from
one end of the avenue to the other, announced
that the procession had started. Pennsyl
vania avenue is the widest thoroughfare in
the world. It is paved with asphalt (as are
all the streets of Washington) and is un
equaled for a procession. Down this avenue
swept the noblest procession seen in the capi
tal since the grand review of the array in 1863.
The procession is led by a regiment of
United States regulars, followed by the cele
brated United States Marine band of one
hundred pieces, whose grand martial musio
drowns all other sounds. Then follows the
carriage in which" sit President Arthur,
President-elect Cleveland and Vice President
elect Hendricks. After the presidential
carriage has passed come the troops, in every
kind of uniform. This procession is six hours
passing a given point, but the enthusiasm
does not diminish.
Meanwhile the presidential party has
reached the platform at the eastern end of
the CapitoL The platform is 100 feet wide,
the largest ever built for the puipose. In
front of the Capitol, banked in a solid mass,
stood 250,000 people. '
The president delivered his inaugural ad
dress in a clear, resonant voice, from mem
ory, making only an occasional reference
to the notes in his hand, and thou Chief
Justice Waite administered the oath of
office. Cleveland said: "I swear," then
paused and kissed the Bible a small, leather
bound, well worn volume, which had been
given to him by his mother when he was a
At the Washington monument was given
that evening the greatest display of fireworks
ever made in America.
Then the crowd makes a rush for the great
pension office building, where the inaugura
tion ball is to be held. One hundred thousand
people surround the building and watch the
fortunate ten thousand who are able to enter.
The ball room is the largest ever used for a
presidential fete. There is a waxed floor 316
feet long and 116 feet wide. The rooms are
fragrant with flowers; many chandeliers,
with brilliant pendants, shed their rays upon
the heads of those below, and the walls are
covered with silken flags of all nations.
Ten thousand have arrived at 11 o'clock.
The women, in their rich evening dresses and
costly diamonds, the diplomats in their court
uniforms and decorations, the resplendent
army and navy officers, and the civilians at
conventional black, constitute a scene that Is
not likely to be forgotten by any of those
who witnessed it
At 11 o'clock the president arrives. H
holds a levee, but gets away soon after 13.
The crowd dances until the small hours.
A week later Washington resumes its
usual appearance.

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