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From the Daily Globe.
CONGRESS. Tuesday, Jan. 7. The Sknate, to day, passed, among others of less im portance, the bill providing for the ap pointment and regulating the pay of engineers and assistant engineers in . the revenue service; the bill to relin quish the reversionary interest of the United States in certain Indian reser vations in tht-State of Alabama; the bill t consolidate and amend the acts V in relation to the pensions oF widows and orphans of naval officers, seamen. " and marines; the bill declaring th-? as sent of Congress to the State oi Jl.inois I 10 impose a tax upon an lanas nercaner sold by the United States, from and after the time of such sale; and the bill to confirm the survey and location of claims for lands in the State of Mis sissippi east of the Pearl river, and south of 31 degrees of north latitude. Mr. Niles introduced a pint resolution, of which previous notice had been given, for the admission of Texas into the U nionasa state on certain conditions, and for other purposes. It was refer red to the Committee on Foreign Re lations. It will be found inserted at ' large in the congressional columns. The Senate spent a short time in exec utive session. The House to-day resumed the con sideration, in Committee of the Whole, of the subject of annexing Texas to . the United States. Air. Yr.ncev open ed the discussion in an eloquent spiech in favor of immediate annexation, and a moM, caustic reply to the remarks of Mr. Clingmau of yesterday, when re viewing the causes ol the defeat of Mr. Clay in the recent con'est for the pres idency. He was followed on the same side by Mr. Uayly. who made an able constitutional argument, showing the power in the legislative branch of the government to admit Texas. Mr. Stetson concluded the' day's debate, maintaining that the question of annex . : . . 1 1 i i i ation was one oeionging peculiarly to the treaty-making power in the govern ment and could only be adjusted without' n nnflL.t iiitli (t, t , .. - - u vnitun. i 11111 but; i.wijauiu , tioti by that power. Mr. Caleb 15. Smith obtained the floor for to-morrow. Wednesd iv, Jan. 8. The most im portant businesj which occupied the attention of the Senate, to-day, was - the bill to establish the Smithsonian Institute, for the increase and dilfusion ot Knowledge among men. Mr.Choate occupied the attention of the Senate in " a very able speech in favor of the gen eral objects of the bill. lie isoppjsed however, to the establishment of a per manent system of professorship, such as is proposed by the bill; that is, pro lessors of natural his'ory, chemistry, geology, astronomy, and such others as the wants of science may require. He is in favor of appropriating a major portion of the accruing interest ($30, 000 annually) to the purchase ofa mag nificent library for the use of the nation, and of having a system of occasional lectures by learned and scientific nipn. Mr. Woodbury f; ivored the suggestion, in a few remarks on occasional lectures. He is, however, an advocate for per manent professorships, to a certain ex tentparticularly as relates to agricul ture nnd for appropriating about half of the accruing interest to the pur chase of a national library in connec tion with the institute, lie advocated the recommitmcnt"of the bill, with the -view of remodeling it to accord with the views thrown out. Mr. Tappati advocated a penn-ineat establishment, such as was provided for in the bill. The bill was lmally postponed till to morrow. In the IIousk, Mr. Dromgoole, on leave, introduced a bill declaring the assent of Congress to the formation of a new State within the jurisdiction of the republic of Texas, and providing f r the admission of such State into the Union. This bill is similar in its terms and is based on the same principles and game circumstances as were embraced in the acts of Congress by w hich Ken tucky and Vermont v ere admitted into the Union. It will be found in our regular report of to-dav's proceedings. The House resolved itself into a com mittee of the Whole, (Mr. Hopkins, o. Virginia, in the chair.) ami resumed the consideration of the joint resolu tion for the reannexation of Texas. Mr. Caleb 13. Smith, of Indiana, w ho had the floor, addresjed the committee, up to the expiration of his hour, in op position to the measure. Mr. Owen, of Indiana, followed, and argued in fa vor of annexation. Mr. Hamlin, of Ohio, having obtained the floor, the committee rise and reported progress. The House then adjourned. Ihursday, Jan. 9. The Senate. was occupied, to-day, in discussing and maturing the bill for the establishment of the Smithsonian Institute. It was finally recommitted, with the view of amendment, to meet the views of the several sena tors who had spoken yes terday and to-day upon the subject. The Senate then adjourned over till Monday. The question of the annexation of Texas was continued as the subject of discussion in the House to-day, and was debated by Messrs. Himlin of Qhip, and Urenlc, in oppositon to the measure, and by Messrs. Weller, and Cary of Maine, in favor of it. Mr. Sample of Indiana Tiaving'obtained the floor, the committee rose and reported progress. A number of petitions, &c., were presented a'nd referred under the rules, as usual. Friday, Jan. 10. The Senate did not sit to day. The House, at an early hour, resolv ed itself into a Committee of the Whole on the State of the Union, and resumed the consideration of tho joint resolu tions for the reannexation of Texas Mr. Sample addressed the committee in opposition to the resolutions, and Mr. Dean spoke in their favor. Mr. Kennedy of Maryland next obtained the floor, and the committee rose and reported progress. Previous to going into Committee of the Whoh, Mr. Hale submitted a proviso to be appended as ah aint-n iment to either of the proposi tions before the committee; the object ofwhichisto divide Texas into two parts, in one ol which slavery is to be forever prohibited. Objections being ma le, this proposition was not receiv ed; and on the motion of Mr. Hale to suspend the rules to admit it the mo tion was rejected by yeas 68, anys 82, not a majority of two-thirds. OHIO LEGISLATURE. In the Senate a bill passed by a vote of 17 yeas, to 16 nays, granting privil ege to the Life Insurance and Trust Company, of Cincinnati, to issue Bank notes lor circulation, to the amount ol $o00,000. A bill for the improvement of the common School system has causpd con siderable discussion: the election of a State superintedent being opposed by some, and the appointment of county superintendents by others; the bill provides tor both. The Senate passed a bill creat the new county of Wyandotte yeas 19, navs 14. A bill to fix permanently the time for holding courts has been introduced; also, a bill to regulate the Judicial Courts and the practice thereof; al so, a bill to establish courts in chan cery. The Senate passed a biil assessing a tax on dogs alter the first one, and providing that the fund shall be set apart in each county, to pay for sheep killed by dogs. In the House, a warm discussion came off, in which the party feeling of members evinced itself to a high degree, on a resolution to rescind the resolu- tions passed at the session of 1841, '42, censuring John Quincy Adam.-, lor having presented a petition in Congress, praying for a dissolution of the Union. 1 he resolution to rescind was finally adopted by a vote of yeas 40, nays 21. A bill for the repeal ofthe retrench rnent law, so called, of last session, al so caused a warm debate, principally confined however among the members ol the majority, some of whom, although regarding the law as wrong in most of its provisions, were yet unwilling to vote for its repeal, but preferred that it be amended; others were zealously in favor of its entire repeal. The bill to repeal was finally indefinitely postponed, yeas 47, nays 21. A loint resolution in relation to Oregon has been adopted, as fol lows: llet'ilecd, Bv the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That our Senators and Representatives in Congress be requested to exert themselves by ali means in their power to bring to a speedy termination the negotiations pending in relation to the title of the Government of the United States to the Oregon Territon,and to take such measures as they may think necessary to secure to the American settlers therein, the blessings of peace, and the protection of their lives and prop- eity. And be it further llesolved, I hat we protest in the most solemn manner against the surrender, by compromise, or otherwise, ofthe smallest portion of Territory to which the United States has just claim and title. llesulved. That the Governor be requested to furnish a copy of the foregoing re.-olutions to each of our Senators and Representatives in Con gress. These resolutions were voted for by every member present in each branch, with the. exception of speakers Galla gher and Chambers, who each voted in the negative! Both branches have passed a large number of local bills, and a still larger number are yet on hand, w hich, togeth er with the numerous petitions dauv presented. consume most ofthe time. Old School Republican. From the Ohio Statesman. SLAVE CASE ERROR CORRECTED. The following article, copied from the Louisville Journal, appeared in the National Intelligenceaof December 24. "JUDICIAL DECISION. - 'tSome time ago a slave escaped from Kentucky to Ohio.. He was pur sueed & overtaken. Some of the Ohio abolitionists proposed to buy him. His mas ter acceded to their proposi tion, and took 'their bond for $800. Subsequently, they refused payment, alleging that, in contemplation of the laws ol Ohio, they had received no con sideration. . 'The case recently came before. the supreme court at Chillicothe, which gave a decision in favor of the claim ant." We have received from Judge Iiirch nrd, oneofthe judges who tried the case, the follow ing correction, as to the point decided: . , e "The above, which I noticed' for the first time, misconceives the point deci ded by the supreme court, and may mislead the public. The decision was made by Judge Wood and myself. "'The -case was ibis: A slave fled from his owner, was pursued and re captured in Pike county, Ohio. Sun dry citizens ol this State agreed with the owner that, if he would relinquish his right to transport the slave to Vir ginia and manumit him, they would pay him $800. . . "The court held that a note given in this State for the sale of a slave, is without consideration, and payment thereof cannot be enforced in the courts ofthe State. "That the forbearance to pursue a legal right, is a good consideretion for a promise. "That, Under the constitution and laws ofthe United States, a person living in a slave State has a right to pursue a fugitive slave into this State, to take and remove him; that the obli- gation was collectable, because, upon the facts, the consideration of the promise was the plaintiff ' relinquish ment of the right to remove his slave. . s The Lancet arrived at this port on Saturday evening. She left Birming ham on the 26th, in company with the Reindeer, and came up to the gorge at the Devil's Bake Oven. The two boats were employed during most ofthe day in cutting away the ice, which was generally aboul ten feet thick, but soft. In the evening, being short of wood, the boats dropped down to Jenkin's landing. In the night the gorge gave way, and by 1 1 o'clock next day (27th) the channel was sufficiently clear to enable the Lancet, Reindeer, Caspian, and Capitol to pass up. The Palestine and Alleghanv were both afloat, clear of ice, and taking in the freight which they had landed iind housed on the bank. The Yucatan and ferry boat were lyitlg to at Hat island, and the Walnut Hills aground ie same place. ' The Lancet came toon the ni'dltof, the 27tll, at St. Marv's l.andin", with theCanitol under her stern. A lion t 1 1 o'clock, p. in., the Capitol took fire near the lorward end of her boilers, i and in two minutes was enveloped in flame from stem to stern. The deck passengers and crew, and all the cabin passengers, except three, escaped in safety. Mr. Dulrymple and his wile, and their son Joseph, from Lynn, Mus sacusetts, were, it is supposed, sonsu mcd on board. The daughter of Mr. Dalrymple was saved. The rapidity with which the (l imes spread prevented the possibility of sa ving anything except a few articles of baggage, and several persons were only enabled to reach the shore in their nbht clothes. After the firo had raged until it was obvious nothing could be effected to wards saving any part of the Capitol, she was cut adrift, but did not float from her berth till she was nearly con sumed. She was then carried down by the current, nnd.when last seen was floating round the point below, burned nearly to the water's edge, and must have sunk soon after. The Capitol was nearly new; was commanded by Capt. Birmingham, and bound from 1 ittsburg to bt. Louis with a full cargo. At the time of (he ire the Lancet as in imminent danger. Her stem upper works were considerably scorch ed; but the extraordinary efforts ofthe crew saved her. She brought up the passengers ofthe Capitol and among them the distressed daughter of Mr. Dalrvmple. St. Louis ll-purler. De cember 30. The John Bull arrived last evening fiom New Orleans, reports the Itein deersunk at lilu-ty;all on board saved, but boat and cargo a total loss. She went down to the boiler deck, and was nearly in the channel.. THE COAL I'll A DE. The Miner's (I'a.) Journal furnishes a tabular statement relative to the coal trade of Schuylkill county, from which it appears that 871,404 tons of coal were shipped from that county during ; the year 1 844; which exceeds the quan tity shipped last year by 171,264 tons; and the amount sent from the Anthra cite regions in 1840, by upwards of 0,000 tons. The Journal says: , , 'Should nothing intervene to check the growing prosperity of the country, we confidently' anticipate, a shipment of at least one million tons of coal the present year.". . It is said that some impudent fellow down East, is about making Mr. Tyler a present oi a beautifully worked cra dle! - ; V, .,.,-r, :: From the aynfiN. X) Sentinel. THE ANNUAL TREASURY REPORT. We have received the Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, made to Congresa on the 16th inst, occupying eight eolumns ofthe Washington Globe, and of course much too long for out paper We avail ourselves of the following abstract from the National Intelligencer It wan not until a late hour last evening that we were enabled to obtain a sight ol the Annual Re-' pot of the Secretary of the Treasury, yesterday transmitted to bolh Houses of Congress; and there fore we have only to atat the following particulars as to a portion of its contents : "The Revenue lor the fiscal year ending on the 30th day of June last was g30 ,381 ,700 03; received from the following sources, viz: . From customs, $26,183,570 94 Fioin thepublic lands, ... , 2,059,939 80 Miscellaneous sources, 261,007 94 Treasury notes and loans under act of March 2, 1843, 1.877,181 35 Making an aggregate of 30,381,700 03 The expenditures during the same ' ' period, including $12,998,773 54 on account of the public debt were, ' 82,958,827 94 Exceeding the year's receipts by $2,677,127 91 This latter amount, deducted from the sum remaining in the Treasu ry July 1, 1843, of 10,434,507 55 Left a balance on hand July 1, 1844, of $7,857,379,64 1 The estimated receipts for the present fiscal year, , which will end on the 80a June, 1845, are as follows: 1 From the customs, ' $31,916,018 04 rm 'he P"bllc la,lds 2.139,856 8J ' From olher " 120 000 00 Making a total of And the estimated expenditures and ether demands on the Trcas ury within the same time, amount to $31,994,874 93 $35,019,431 06 Being lees than the estimated re ceipts by Which deducted from the balance reported on hand the first of July last, as above stated, $314,556 13 7,857,379 64 Would leave in the Treasury on the 1st of July, 1845, au apparent bal ance of $7,042,823 61 The above apparent ballance, however, is liable to be decreased by the amount of any additional appropriations that may be made during the pres ent session ol Congress, to be expended previous to the 30th day of June next , The existing debt of the (Juiled States on the Ki nf lulu last, was S24.748.188 23. On the 1st j 0f December preceding it was $33,650,673 03. i The Secretary tecommends that a sinking fund of I two millions of dollars annually be provided to pay : the interest on this debt, and to redeem the prin- ! cipal at the respective periods assigned for its re - demption. The imports duringthe fiscal year ending on the 30th June, 1814, are valued as follows: ' Free of duty, $24,788,082 00 J Pd'inS dut'' 83,688,620 00 $10,434,092 00 ! Total imports, The exports for the same time were: Of domestic products, 100,183,497 00 Of foreign merchandise, 10,944,781 00 Total exports. $111,128,278 00 The Gross Revenue from customs within the year was $29,137,060 60, and the nett amount paid into the Treasury was 26,183,570 94; mak inu the cost of collection $2,953,489 60. In regard to the presml tariff, the Secretary "most respectfully recommends to Congress a review and reformation of the act of 1842 to pro - revenue from iniDorts." ' Weighty consid- eratinns," he says, '-concur in pleading for such review and reform." These considerations are mentioned, but we have not had time to read them. One ol the objections urged against the existing law which met our eye in hastily turning over the Report, is stated by the Secretary to be its "lack of perspicuity and exact definitions in some of the enactments," which "give rise to different con structions by different collectors of the customs, so that practically and in fact different rates of du tieson like articles have been levied at different ports in the States," contrary to that clause of the constitution which provides that all duties shall be unilorin throughout the Union. He also objects to certain parts ofthe act of 1842, because by its providing in general terms that its provisions shall not be so construed as to conflict with subsisting treaties whith foreign nations, it occasions much trouble and responsibility to Col lectors, and is the cause of many complaints to the Treasury Department. As respects any "inci dental encouragement and protection of domestic manufactures," arising out of Ihe mode of levying such necessary revenue by duties on imports as may be required for the support of Government, and to maintaiu its faith and provide for the com mon defence and general welfare, the Secretary thinks that so long as Congress keeps withiu tha "confines" of raising that which is "necessary," the encouragement thereby afforded to domestic industry "must be deemed rightful as an inevitable attendant upon the exercise of the delegated power." And in concluding his remarks on the subject of the Tariff, he states that the proposed review and modification of the act if 1842 are presented not so much with a vie w to the action of Cougiess dur ing its present session, at to awaken attention and Inquiry, and lead the way towards eliciting all the information necessary foi tuch matured legislation as the important principles and interests involved seem to require. There may be, and no doubt is, much other in teresting matter in this Report, which bat escaped our notice oo the hasty glance we have given it, tnd which will render it necessary for ut to advert again to its contents. A letter from Naples of November 5, in Galigl nani, says: "The famous volcano of the Valley of Solfatara, near Puzzolt.in the kingdom of Naples, oi which the last eruption took place in 1 198, but which sent up in 1807 quantities ot boiling water, bat been for tome dayt exhibiting the last mention ed phenomenon. The water which it now emits it "strongly charged with sulphur. .It issues from the eastern crater in jets about fifteen to twenty feet high." "r. f From the New Fork Evening Pott. -THE THEORY OF THE. TARIFF.? ! , : A theory is defined to be plan or system which, If followed, will, according to the theorist, be sure I to proauce certain results, rim tanu or hmz, in framing which 'its particular theorists bad their own way without obstacle, promised to give pro tection to all interests; agriculture, commerce, manufactures, and the mechanic arts, were all to be reduced by its operation. Give us," said the manufacturers, "a good feast out ofthe public crib, and we will give a cold cut to the merchants, a side table to the mechanics, and the crumbs to the farmer. You take care of us, and we will take good care of them.", r w- 'j.'.-vj.v w- Let us see how In practice this theory has been carried out. ..As to the. manufacturers, it seems mac tney are not content; lor tney cannot anoro 10 pay higher wages to their workmen, and they la - bor hard to prove that they cannot get as high prices for Iheirproducts as they did before the theo ry was tried. They want something more for success. The currency must bn submitted to the theory of a bank; left, as it now is, more freely to the natural laws of trade, it does not suit Ihern The raw material and the dye-stuffs used by them are taxed so high by an average duty of five per cent, that they cannot get along fast enough. Their profits are not great enough to enable them to pay the laborer his increased hire, nor the farmer an advance on his produce. . But the manufacturers, after all, though they might prove their case a hard one, would not be entitled to the first place in the sympathies ofthe latinn T.t nu Innk In Ihfl mntlt tlUmprOUA class! nation. Let us look to the most numerous class; that which is most grievously oppressed, and which ..a, gcrrany, uUl one .y ... ........ plaints heatd effectually, which is the slow sure method of the ballot-box. , The farmer gets no more for any thing which he produces than he did before the theory went into effect; he pays more on every article which he is obliged to go to the store for, on every tool or implement whch he makes use of, and on every thing necessary for hit use or comfort which he does not directly bring "um l"c ' " UUJ" " i "- must pay 103 per cent, protection to the manufac turer; his more wealthy neighbor may get a wtlton under a duty of 31 per cent For the cloth he wears he must pay 40 per cent , while the, wool which be raises is rendered of little value by the toreign wool which the manufacturer get. at a duly of 5 per cent. If he would make hi, wife or chil- dren comfortable in the cold and wet winter season by a garment of flannel, he must pay a duty of 100 per cent, on a plain article, while the citizen can get his ofa finer qualily at 40 percent. Would hi. thrifty house-wife save her carpet, already to extravagantly taxed, by a covering of baize, on that she must pay a duty of 100 to 130 per cent ; the duty being always the highest on the quality which costs the least. She must buy linen sheets and towels, orpayfrom 90 to 160-nay, as. highasper- naps as lau-per cem. u,, .o ...... "-- made of cotton. Should he feel disposed to indulge his daughter in a little harmless extravagance on a birthday, he 1 niu , av . dlltv of 60 er cenL on a sjik gown, or 75 per ceuf, cn a colored shawl, while the lord of the miiU purchases a fine silk for his wife at 20 per cent., an embroidered collar for his daughter at 30 f ce or a cashmere at even a less duty. . ..But," exclaims my lord of the tpiudle, "why i not clothe your children in homespun, and en- couraRe (ue manufactures of your own country. Come to my looms, and I will supply you and take your potatoes, your corn, and your pork in ex change." And how stands tbe farmer then? For a cotton hankerchief he pays a duty of 145 per cent for a check 190 per cent., for a gingham 63 per cent. In short, he is met by the theory of the tariff of 1S42, which ays to him directly, you shall have no plain cotton which is dutiable at less than 20 cents a square yaru; no coioreu, pnnieu, or uyeu ' goods of the same material valued at less than 30 ' cents; no velvets, cords, fustians, or moleskins, at i less than 35 cents. , When the farmer makes his yearly journey to Ihe i 8,,0nsibililies to the last shilling of. their private city, or his monthy visit to the neighboring town I fortunes. Thenumber of persons connected with or store, he looks at his memorandum lo see what (nese banks as shareholders is very great, almost little nickuacks hu wife needs for the comfort of ' every man 0f opulence in thecounlry being' 'hold, his plain and quiet household. Broken tumblers J er 0f stock to a greater or loss amount. The Sco( are to be replaced. He travels from store to store, tish bankers have arranged amongst themselves a and finds he can get none for less than sixpence or mutual system of exchange, at stringent as if it had a shilling a piece. "But," lays he, "two years ago tnB force 0f statute; by means of which an over I bought some at 30 cents a dozen, as good as those jMue 0f notes becomes a matter of perfect imposei-1 you now show me at a dollar." The storekeeper j bilily. Twice in every week the whole notes del tells him that the fault is not his; for on those sold at 30 cents he made more profit than on these which he now sells at a dollar. ; "The article you got then," he adds, "cannot be imported here now, it would pay a duty of 350 per cent, on the invoice price. But," continues he, by way of consolation, "you then encouraged the labor of tome stupid Dutchman, now you help Mr. to treat his friends to canvass backs, and champagne; and he it a good American, or at all events an Englishman who lias come over to America to live," The farmer next wants an umbrella. "Three years ago," says he, "I bought a good one for a dollar." "Try this," says the shop-keeper. The farmer takes bis purchase, and, on liding home, he is caught lu a heavy shower. He putt up bis um brella lor protection. , In au hour's time his clothe are covered with black inky streaks streaming through the open potes of his umbrella, and the sticks which were black when he bought it, have turned into rattan again. When he returns to the store, be complains in no gentle terms to the shop keeper of his bargain. The explanation it toon given. Tbe umbrella he bought three years ago was of Scotch gingham, which he cannot get now, for it hat a duty of 70 per cent. : Tbe article last bought waa the best the domestic manufacturer could afford to make at the tame, price, and to do that he puts in a bad dye, and the umbrella maker it obliged to put in rattans with the glaze on instead ol whalebone frames. . .- , r' i In a word, on making particular inquiry into the nature of the protection given him by the theo ry ofthe tariff of 1842, Ihe larmer finds that On bis sugar he payt , . . . molasses, . . ,, , jk pepper, ; ....... ;., , ... ; talt,.,,!, - V. 1 a . : woodtcrewt, ; " , tmoothing irons; , , , built and hinges, , , . . .. iroo wire, On a rope or clothet line, , 100 per cent. , 200 i : 130 - ,'l06. .. . ; 222 s , 87 " . 140 ' ...60,, ..." 235 ( . . " . 150 ',. . 1 : 75 ' .1 " .,60,. ,., , floor cloth, - , , , iron bolts, ,. . ) f ...wrought icon naile,; -103 5 ..-. . tacks, V white lead, yellow ochre, 66 ) 139 t linseed oil, 90 ..'.. 1 .. In return for this he is fobbed off with" useless duty of 9 cents a pound on cheese, and 20 cents bushel on barley t feature In this tariff of 1.843 which denote very distinctly the contempt enter' turned for the intellect and capacity ofthe farming interest ty the framers. REMARKS OF MR. ARCHBOLD,' On the amendment proposed by the committee on public prlniingMo the resolinioV for printing extra copies of the report of the directors and superintendent of .theXuaa tic. Asylum to-aUiko out the German copies. .,.,,,,,.. M r.. Mr. Archbold said: He Kid not Intend1 to be importunate with the house dh this1 dotject if the houee iDTillclMv determined not to nr.nt. h. 1 must gu)) - Bu, hg C0'Dte-nded ,hat if , , tion was to be made' in favor' of any document, this was the one.' The loss ofreasoq was perhaps the direst calamity to which human nature stood exposed. , It was all important that the unfortunate sufferers should be submitted to remedial treatment with the utmost despatch. " Chronic cases were almost hopeless. Yet many of our citizens felt reluctant to place their unhappy -friends' ffi"the institution, however urgently such a step might be demanded. The idea of a bedlam-was associated in the minds of many, svith the ideas of darkness, and filth, and ill usage, and discomfort. ; The very name called up in the minds of many, the image . , . . t . ,. . . . , M eg and duck ' . . . . . i been its real picture in timet gone by. - Modern science and philanthropy had broughtvabouta new , en. modem ,n(J hIaI)t, wou,j : be found ,0 h,ve ,it their)amp in if .hey took no steps to diffuse the light. It was necessary to dispel the lingering remains ot delusion from the public mind; to let our citizens know, that in committing their friends to the asylum they 'were not committing them to a dungeon kept with its jealous guardian, but to the care of kind and be- i nfvnltiit nlivfiit in mi That they were not consign- ; jng them to the abodes of squalid wretchedness, ; bu( of cIeaIlljne91i ad orJer tnd huffllnit , TealnU)t , AmJ ,o Jo wag tQ pub,i9h Mnm reporti of j jn6lhution Mut,,( very much ha(J been a ,,,., ye, remain. . Th(j ldice-aRailt in,tiluion, of knd were abated but ot in. ; w eradicat(!(,. If lhis rcmark wou)d hQ,d . good of m A,lglo American popu,a,ioni if mft fae morfl i0jiba ,0 oup German feow citi. , mhou djJ hem ftcJM for becomjg acqu(ljtUed wilh ou, instiu,loft. dl our owu fflSmed q , F(r reao fce w ag ded(ie(Jly jn favor of ,raslail)g the f hjf nob)e ,nd eu, jnitilmi(m ,, ,h, German ,ang(lage , ,aUerillg lem gmoIlg btl ,arg, respectaBle . casg 0f ou, fl;)ow clizeIlfc They would meet in social parlies to converse of their fatherland, and relate the incidents of their youth, as well as to discuss the institutions of their adopted country. .. ' A single copy ol (his report in ft neighborhood might be the means of doing much good. The information which.it would contain would be speedily transmitted throughout the social circle. When he reflected that a very large proportion of our taxes was paid by the German population,' he. thought he might enforce his demand by contide- rations of sheer justice. ' ": " " I The House disagreed to the amendment propos- ! ed by the committee, - . , , , i . The secret of Scotch ba'vkimo. Ofthir- ty-one bunks in Scotland which issue notes,-five o.ily are chartered that is,; thq responsibility of the proprietors jn those established is confined lo the amount of their subscribed capital. The re- , m lining twenty-six are, with one or two excep tions,' joint-stock banks; and the proprietors are ' ! liable to the public for the whole of Ihe bank re- posited wilh the different bank-officers in Scotland are regularly interchanged.' ; . . . Now, with this system in operation, it it perfect ly ludicrous to suppose that any bank would issue its paper rashly for the sake of an extended circu lation. The whole notes in circulation thoughout Scotland return to their respective banks in a period averaging from ten to eleven days in uroan, and from a tortnight to three weekt in rural districts!1 ' In consequence ol the rate of interest allowed by the banks, no person has any inducement to keep bank paper by him, but the reverse; and the general practice of the country U to keep the circulation at as low a rate as possible.'' The numerous branch banks which are situated up and down the'eountry,' are the means of taking the botes of their neigh' bor. out of the circle at speedily as possible. la' (his way it it not postible for the circulation to be' more than what it absolutely necessary for the' transactions ofthe country. ' ' ' "' ' "'' '' If, therefore, any bank had been to rash at to," grant accommodation without proper security merely for the take of obtaining circulation, ten ' dayt, or a fortnight at the farthest, it it compelled, to account with the other banks for every bote they . have received. 1 If it does hot hold enough of their paper to redeem its own upon exchange, it is com." pelted to pay the difference in exchequer bills, a ! certain amount of which every bank it bound by ' mutual agreement to hold, the fractional' parte of'' each thousand pounds being' payable in1 Bank of? ' England notes or in gold. " In this way over u axfing, hi to far at regards the' issue of paper, is so effec- " tually guarded and controled. that it would puzzle' ' Parliament, with all its conceded conventional' wisdom, to devise any plan alike so simple and expeditious Blatkwoad. ' ' Tbe cotton crop' of the United Statet, recent ly gathered, it it generally admitted in the South will reach two million five - hundred' thousand -balea, --iv .J ij. I pi The recent luirar croo of Louisiana will smoUnl to about one hundred and eighty thousand hog- ' beadtv .!t'tu;' '.i 'i'fi':iii i-u. .ij w? At New Orleans, the great ' mart tor these lt-V pies, cotton ranges in pi ice from" 3 to 7 cents, am ' tugar frotn 3 to 4-cente per pound! t,Jl a