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If.-,.-,' V, : .;i I-;! i-i-iaO-' 16 V.tVt r! , ? . '.' ; ; ''. i.uiM.i,..; ..." ',. . X'. i.! ;;jAS.,R..MORRIS, Editor and Proprietor. PUBLISHED EVERY WEDNESDAY MORNING. TERMS $i,50 per Annnmi in Adrapce. Wi VOLUME X. WOODSFIELD, MONBOE COUNTY, OHIO, DECEMBEE 14, 1853. nn OP ttw n ir . rr vv . Sj -n V ' a sa -rf?.:-r Kir St- t V. ft- f ;,: Fiom lha Southern Literary Messenger i AtTTtTMN UCNES. ( Gone ia the golden October , j Down the twift current of time, ; Month by the poet called sober, -L : . , Just for the like of the rhyme. - v V TinU of vertnillion and yellow f Margined the forest and stieam; ; Poets then told us 'twas mellow. How inconsistent they seem 1 Now, while the mountain in shadow " Dappled and hazy appears, . While the late corn in the meadow, ' ' Culprit-like, loses its ears. . -; -:i ".' Get some choice spirits together Bring oat the dogs and the guns, Follow the birds o'er the heather, " ' Where the "cold rivulet" runs. '.'!: "'- Look for them under the cover, Just as the pole star at sea : ' uAlwaya is sought by the rover,' ' Near where the pointers may be. 'Yet if your field-tramping brothers i; ' Should not be lellows of maik, d " Leave the young patridge for others, r Only make sure of a lark. i'- t Thus ahall thf charms of the season . s.b- :-: -' Gently throw round you their spell, X -: ll "Thus enjoy nature in reason, ' -n..i.-. - If tn the country yo dwell. - ''l -" ! V4 i! ' : ' - a 1 But if condemned as a denizen ,4ij'J- -lo treat town to reside. . . J -v-it Takedown a volume of Tennyson. lv Makahim do service as guide. .., - Born upon poesy's pinion, ; , . : . ; RUe to the heighu that he gains, Bane over Fancy's dominion. -Walk hypothetical plains. , : . to Soon shall the wintry December i Darken above us the sky; r:nia ttioir aI1 rntnm remtmber Ir. .i,fv--A,?B- "P":0 lo 8'". ""6"-. And. as they wail through the copses. ' Dirre-like and solemn to hear. ; " jji,re't owit grand Tharatopsis . ' " i ; Sadly shall strike the ear. ,. , i v 'But all impressions so murky ". .;--3iJ Instantly banish like care, v " 'Turn to the hare and the turkey Christmas shall shotly prepare ', ' - , y --tli i-.i i.-. ; " . V i None than yourself csn be richer, Jsfli i geated at night by the hearth, ; - b 'With an old friend and a pitcher f.'.-3 V j-Lending share of the mirth. .' - :'- t Then to the needy be given - - f-8-1 Aid from your generous boards, ' . i!-t:1' And to a bountiful Heaven i '-3-tr ' ' Tbaoks for the wealth it affords. a.javV.From the Columbian aud Great West... PHHIEY'S PEPPER BOTTLE. t Bf WILUAir: T. COGGESHALL. .-Pinoey.; - - ' ' '- ; -v;'A very pretty village," I replied. MYou JTe kdown it for many year?'? . rZ7 If s came out AVest" from old Con .necticut when it was all woods here; deer tfcnd wild turkey a were as - plenty then as ..sheep, and chickens now.' ,iin tc YoUrOwn; large tracts of land; I pre lum you had money in your purse when .you immigrated!" . - ': ? iu.l'Not five dollars io the-wtd,V answer - .ferlMr.; Pinney, as ashadow crossed his . features iwhusli seemed to me to be cast linm, An inWtge of sorrow that dwelt in his .haart..'.! r.i - ' .jJdare not ask leading questions, and l r .tliere was a pause in our conversation L"" ; .was riding with the richest man of- t-townshiprin one of the northern oounties -,tl He,, liftd reined in his horse at a point near, the village where he resided. While we conversed, we looked: down upon a ,valjeyt alongwhich lengthened shadows yera creeping, .anddying,. while the tops v ffii tle lo rest frees near us were giowmg ui . le evening sun's farewell smite. . , v. YwJVflenthe had answered my question, .Respecting this wealth at the time he be ?C "'carof t an, Jmmigrant, -Mr, Pinney struck " his horse , with ;. his whip, and we were 'yrhjjled through the village. I was intra . UQed lo, M1Pinneys family af his farm npuae for , such his -residence , was, v in ,(aiJtthough i stood upon a village street. J$dM& ; it lay a large tract of. land, culti ; j'yaled under Mr .Pinney's immediate su- ; rjerintendenee,, - - ; , : i, 'Supper over "Tea,", as pity ladies em- 'i . i . .1 e I ,fKy tae wora, w uov tanea aiiurm iiuuooi, jJ Pinney,; , to 1 walk," in the .lRa4en i.iu ;v--. 3 ' i '. -. 1 was anxious to give the conversation jturn, -which would explain to me why Mr. " Pinney had , appeared sorrowful when .. I ,epokeLof, his settlement in the township; UJtfWunou.i. special aesign at me moment asked: t,. , ' 1 ' ,-; '7-V.Uaa. property changed hands often in - :0rru'ta.0,' "wefed Mr PLapeyilh a sharp glance at my ooun ' cji ol the old settlers as are here yet . Am no doubt well : off in the world- Are efe mnyothem?. " yeniured to in .9,AoW?ball alvdozeq-r-noV more,':, re 'nlied RIT host'.' . 1 ' '. ' - J, expressed iSOjmastonUhment . at this jntolUgen. and Air., Pinney said;,; f f. 'A We'll take , a., seat f and; arrange our 'business now, ba I wish to.show you my tfarrn and atock,tn the morning, and then l roiniaio cive you an outline of the his- tnrv of our villsget t-t'i 1 r. tVl nao'an wtnition that this history would reveal the cause of jhe. sorrow J adsus 'neoted in Mr Pinney' heart, when saw Th' ha.rlow which oassed over, his counte- naoce, on allqding to his wealth, and I was 'rajeful, for, the, promise, "but not glad of hepQgtporieaient accompanying k www ever, 1 consoled myself with the practical man's motto, Business before pleasure," and entered upon a calculation about val ues and incomes, which did not permit Mr. Pinney to show me to my chamber till a very late hour. I was called, however, betimes in the morning, and immediately after breakfast was out on the farm with Mr. Pinney. When 1 had admired the manner of agri culture and the beauty of the stock, and been told the character of fruit in the orchard, Mr. Pinney led the way toward the farm house, and then said: I have not forgotten my promise; and if you still desire to know the history of our little town, I will give you what I con sider most important." i assured him that I was much interested in the promised sketch, and he began: "My father was a merchant in old Con necticut, and I was a wild boy from "the land of steady habits." I left home when t was eighteen years of age, because of some restraints that had been imposed on me, which ' 1 considered tyrannical. I soon found that it was easier to endure re straints at home than be my own mas ter" in the world, and I wanted lo go back to my father's house, but my pride rebel led, and I joined a party of emigrants and came "out West." .The emigrants set tled here. They cut a road through the forest forty miles, before they found a spot that suited them I was not accustomed to severe muscular labor, and -I was the hunter of the expedition. " I had many an adventure ' which delighted my romantic disposition. I became hardy and vigor ous, and was soon able to help the squat ters in clearing up their (arms. We went twenty miles to mill had no school for five years, and never heard a sermon preached (though there were many read,) till we had put three crops of grain in our log barns. Then other settlers came in. and a Methodist preacher met those who were disposed - to hear him, at one of the log cabins, once a month. Meantime I had taken a squatter's daughter for a wife, and had a cabin and a few acres of ground for which the Government had been paid. ( had been a hunter and farmer, wood chopper and school-teacher about six years, when I received word from Con necticut, that a sm all stock ofgooda had been consigned to me at Pittsburg. . 1 went out to the Ohio and up to Pittsbur witiv an ox team, and when I returned I opened a store in a log cabin, on the sprfi where my son s store now stands, on the corner opposite my house. ' It would make a shabby appearance now-a-days, but ii was a great alfairin our settlement. Iliad a few groceries. nutmegs and spiceombi and nails, garden seeds and calicoes, thread and coarse cloth, candies and to bacco. and a very small stock of either, but there was no other store within a cir cle of fifteen miles, and I soon did what I considered a brisk trade. "Some of the land had been low.' and here and there were small marshes. When the country was cleared up and it began to look like farqung about here, there came a sickly season, and in almost every family some one had the, fever and ague, and the doctor from the nearest town was getting every body in his debt; but the ague was not eradicated. There had never been any whisky-sold in the settle ment, but now it was needed for bitters to keep off the chills, and when I sent for goods I ordered a barrel, and had a lot of drugs with it. and every body got a bottle of bitters. When winter came, the ague pretty generally disappeared, but the fash ion of taking bilters did not disappear with it. - ' - .'- "The Pioneers had disheartening times. and too many of them endeavored to cheer their hearts ! with that which stole away their brains.: 1 did not blame them much in those days, but I see now, sorrowfully, where I was to blame then. What think you?". - This was a strange question to me un der the circumstances, but 1 answered it. "Assuredly, Mr. Pinney, you have had . a. i 11 a experience enough in tne worm ana op portunities of observation enough to con vince you that 'such' indulgence as you speak of, to express my thoughts in com mon parlance, "don't pay," but after all I always exercise compassion for those un fortunate men who never have a gleam of joy in their hearts, unless tt is reflected from the hre whion alcohol lights in the brain. "Exactly. my idea," said Air. Pinney; "but while we compassionate, we should never forget to instruct. That's where I went astray.' Now let me tell you the consequence, many men haa lost their wives many their children some both they had been pious men but opportuni ties for religious instruction or encourage ment were not frequent, and generally uninviting, and with hard work and watch ing, men were worn out. I had kept in my store a bottle of whisky, impregnated with pepper, as a sort of guard against chills, and sometimes I ottered a glass to my most particular friends. ; They grew fond of it. and mv bottle was often empty. The popularity of my medicine increased, and t soon found myself selling large quanti ties of whisky and black pepper, and in a few months drunkenness had widely ex tended in our settlement; and did we stop it?" ; ' . v , - Mr. Pinney looked at me as if expect ing an answer, but 1 was silent, and be continued:, - ' . :"No; farms were neglected every body was in debt the farmers to , the shoema ker. the tailor and the blacksmith, and all these, to me; and when I saw the . evil, I couldn't stop it, and in a few years I was virtually owner of one-third of the farms in the settlement,: and .all on account of ague bitters and my pepper bottle. . Drunk ards who owed me heavy notes for goods to support their families,' died,, and the farm, was given me to pav the debt; and I felt myself doing a great wrong, but I was getting rich; and if I had undertaken it. I could not hare changed the . course of events, j But a Yankee . school teacher came into the settlement, and he hadn't been here a mouth till he called a meeting at the school house for a lecture, and the school house was crowded, for it was a great novelty, and to the astonishment of every body, he exposed the liquor business among us, and showed me to be a living curse. Stones were thrown at him, and he was interrupted, and the people would have thrown him out of the school house, but I forbid them, and declared that the school master told the truth. Then the people listened attentively; and the next day 1 made a bonfire of my liquors, and there was no more whisky sold in our neighborhood till we had the canal built within a few miles of it; and now no man dare sell it in our village." What have you to regret, Mr. Pin ney?" I inquired. "You ask that but to quiet my mind," he replied. "1 have no need of such qui et. Every foot of land which could go to friends or kindred here, I left unaffected by my mortgages; some have been paid, some have not; but when 1 die, the just heirs will find deeds in their names, and now all of the income of the property I hold in my name, except a respectable support for my family, is devoted to the improvement of our village, and to the promotion of religion and education a mong our people; and yet I am a most unhappy man. Pinney's Pepper Bottle left an influence here which two genera tions can not outlive, and tho conviction rests upon me withjerushing force, that no man who has for one year been instru mental in making drunkenness in a neigh borhood, can counteract the evil influence by twenty years of devotion to objects ol charity and reform, with an ample fortune at his command; therefore, Bin I sorrow ful whenever I think of what ague bittern did here. Better disease better chilld and fever and ultimate death on account of them, than : poverty and degradation and death from drunkenness. Am 1 not right?" . , I could but answer Mr. Pinney in the affirmative, aud then he said: "Now, sir, I have never opened my heart to any man out of my family as I have done to you. I was led irresistibly into my coufession, and it seems to me for good. In reparation for what evil 1 have done, I can do nothing more than I am doing, but to set my wrong example and the curse' of our settlement before the world. You are at liberty, sir, to publish my confession." ' ' While Mr. Pinney was thus explaining himself we had walked out of the garden. through his house, an j I was about to take leave of him. I thanked him for his hos pitality, and promised that at the earliest opportunity I should set his warning exam ple before the world. 1 " It needs no argument to convince can did men atthisday, that one year spent in the promotion of drunkenness can not he atoned for in twenty years of earnest labofin the promotion of religion or edu cation. There must be a terrible reckon ing for those who spend life-times promot ing drunkenness. It is pitifuljndeed. that few only are visited with such compunc tions as changed the channel of Mr. Pin ney's energies. The Girl with the Tin Pail. Earth's blossoms ihrire not In the shade, Unblest by gentle showers from Heaven; ' But that sweet flower, by kindness made To hud and bloom, will never fade, And tr.ily are its odors given." Some twenty-five years ago, I was an apprentice bov in the then "city of mud," now the goodly city of Rochester. The business of which I was obtaining a knowl edge was conducted upon Exchange street, though I boarded in one of the streets in the western part of the' city. In going to my tea, I was in the habit of meeting, almost every evening, for many weeks in succession, a small, well dressed and good looking girl, with a pail in her hand. At length my curiosity became ex cited, and I resolved to ascertain, if pos sible, the daily errand of the girl. -Hav ing met her the following evening, I ac cordingly turned on my heel, and followod her at a distance that would not excite suspicion in any one. I at length saw her enter a small shoemaker's shop on South St. . Paul . street. I subsequently learned that the shop was. owned by an industri ous young man, and an excellent mechan ic, and that he was the young girl's hus band. He had been married a few months. and possessing no other capital , than a good name and robust constitution, had re solved to economize by hiring a house in the suburbs of the city. . ..His breakfast was- always ready for him by daylight, and taking his dinner with him, he saved the hour each day which most' persons spend in going and in com ing from . that meal. Many economists would have been satisfied with the saving of so much time as this between the rising and going down of the sun, but not so with the young shoemaker. He also wish ed to save the hour usually devoted to tea, and therefore had that meal daily taken to him by his pretty little wife. This arrange ment enabled him to spend the whole day. and as much of the evening as he chose. in his shop.. ' , ,.i The industrious habits of the shoemaker were soon discovered and met with their due reward. -. Customers flocked in upon him, and he was obliged not only to rent a larger shop, but to employ an additional number of workmen. But the increase of his business did not wean him from the plan he had early adopted for the saying of time; his third meal still having been ta ken to him by his wife, in the tin pail. - About this. time. I left the city, and did not return for about twelve years. '.-1 had not, however, forgotten the shoemaker; having, from ' my first knowledge of him discovered the germ ef success in his man per of life-, l yiaited the place where his eld shop had stood; it had given place to a new brick blook; In vain 1 looked about for the sign it was nowhere- to be seen I was at length informed by a friend that about two years previous he had. removed "Do you know anything of his circum stances?" 1 inquired. "1 do. In the first place he took to Ohio about five thousand dollars in cash, some three thousand of which he invested in real estate near Cincinnati; he has already realized three times the amount. The oth er two thousand he put into a pork estab lishment, and the sum yielded him a large profit. But if he had not resorted to spec ulation," added my friend, "he could not but have succeeded in life, so thorough were his business habits, especially as those habits are seconded by an industri ous, little wife." I have recently returned from a visit to Ohio, and have seen again the shoemaker and his wife. He is now in the prime of life, and possesses ample fortune, and an unsullied reputation for honesty and prob ity. Never having any personal acquain tance with him, I introduced myself as a Rochesteronian. This was late in the af ternoon. I very cheerfully accepted an invitation to take tea with him. Improving a moment of silence at the table, 1 remark ed: "I fear, Mr. II., you are not so great an economist of time as you used to be." "Why not?" he inquired. "When I first became acquainted with Mrs. II.. you could not afford to go home to tea, and she used to carry it to you." "In a little tin pail," said she, bursting into b? laugh. Exactly." "Indeed, Mr. W., have you known us so long?" I then made myself known as the former apprentice of Mr. R.. and was immediately recognized by Mrs. H., as one of her ear lier street acquaintances in Rochester. "But the pail; what do you think has become of that?" "That I suppose has long since been numbered with the things that were," I answered. "By no means," said he, ar the same time tipping a wink to his wife. She arose from the table, and left the room, and soon returned with the identical pail, as they both assured me. I need not say that it bore palpable evidence of the ravages pi time- . ' "But what is -our object in preserving that pail?" "Its associations. We look upon it as one of the earliest instruments which con tributed to our success in life." I soon after took my leave of Mr. and Mrs. II., and (heir interesting and happy family; and not a day since then has my mind been without its remembrance of the Girl and her Tin Pail. Schamil. the Leader of the Circ as- ' sians. It is almost certain that the Circassians will take an active part in any war accept ed by Turkey against Russia; and it is as certain that in such an event we shall hear of daring exploits on the part of Schamil, their brave chief. ' We have every reason to believe that Schamil has succeeded in bringing about a defensive union between all the tribes of the Caucasus, and that he possesses their unrestricted confidence. Some accounts represent him as being al most an idol, and the people as imagining him to have a charmed life. Their enthu -I si asm, indeed, may well have been stirred by his past career. 1 he first time we hear of Schamil is in 1 832. In that year, a devout Mussulman. Kasi Mollah, held a chief command in the bands of Lesghians; Tehetchentzes, and other tribes of the eastern chain, and the steppes abutting on the Caspian and tra versed by the Koisu. Kasi Mollah s repu tation for sanctity was greater than that which he acquired for the higher military qualities, although a dashing leader, and individually one of the bravest of the brave. He was brought to bay in 1832. by Gen. Rozen, at a place called Gumri. Encircled on all sides, almost the last scrap of food devoured, nothing remained, in the opinion of Kasi Mollah, and about thirty of his most zealous disciples, but to hew for them a path through the Russian bay onets, to freedom or to Paradise- -either alternative to them was a welcome one! Phis resolution finally taken, thev sudden ly emerged from the fastness they could no longer hold, and burst upon the Rus sian troops with the shock of an avalanche, and the furious distorted yells of a troop of madmen. For one or two brief mo ments, it seemed that they must escape, so far through the beleaguering circle of their foes did they cleave their desperate way, before the momently recoiling l anks re closed around them, and ih'oy fell by twos and threes, wildly fighting to the last, rid dled by musket balls and bayonet slabs. Kasi Mollah "died with his hand on his beard, and a last prayer murmuring from his lips;" and his pupils perished with him,,all save one, and he the bravest and fiercest of them all, who broke through the encircling bayonets, dashed at headlong speed past the more distant lines of run ning fire unharmed; reigned suddenly up as he reached tho angle of a mountain gorge, into which he knew none dared to follow, shook his red scimitar, and hurled a defiant execration in the faces of his baffled foes, and the next moment, with an exulting shout of "Allah, II Allah?" dis appeared in the dark mountain pass. - This fortunate horseman was Schamil. the future Iman (preacher,) the prophet soldier of the Caucasus, whose escape, as just describe, many of his followers, to this day, firmly believed was due to the direct interposition of the angel Gabriel! Schamil, who is one of the dark-eyed, dark-haired, partly 1 artar race of Tehet chentzes, was born at Tscliirsker, a place of about 3000 inhabitants; and after his escape, from: Gumri, he employed several years in perambulating the mountains of the Lesghain chain, preaching wherever he went . with fervid eloquence upon the sacred duty, devolved . by God,- upon .all true believers to extirpate the intrusive in fidel, and the paradisal rewards - which death in so high and holy a cause must infallibly insure. This prophet call, as it was deemed, to battle from the cupolas and minarets of the sublime and towering Alps, gradually kindled the latent fanati cism of the mountaineers to a flame, which soon communicated itself to the dwellers in the cities and steppes of Daghistan, and the adjacent valley and plains. The story of Scnamil's miraculous escape from Gen eral Rosen, by favor df the archangel, Gabriel, was repeated from - mouth to mouth with endless variation and addi tions his daring skill, and success as a soldier confirmed the illusions of a credu lous bigotry; and he gradually drew around his standard, and to his sway, the multi tude of rugged warriors whose swords have inscribed so many victories upon the backs of the Russian armies, and to this hour presented an invincible front to their dismayed, and practically discomfited ad versarirs. ' Many well authenticated instances of his daring are related in a number of Chambers' excellent -"Repository," pub lished some months since. One or two of these may interest the reader at this junc ture: r' In 1830 Schamil found himself sur rounded by General Grabbe, and 12.000 veteran Russian troops, at Achulko, a kind of mud encampment perched upon the top of a rock upon the banks of the Koisu. The position of this place was so strong, that the attr mpt to storm it was abandon ed after the loss of 15.000 men; but Schamil had soon a deadlier foe than General Grabbe and his army to contend with hunger; hunger, verging upon fam ine, came before a week had passed This was known in the Russian camp, and the place having been strictly invested on all sides, it was certain that the hour of surrender could not be long delayed: "On the last day' but one of August, Gen. Grabbe learned, from an emaciated Lesghian, whom his soldiers had caught whilst attempting to crawl past the block ading lines, that not a particle of food was left in Achulko; that Schamil Bey propos ed to escape that very night, with one or two comrades, by means of a rope lower ed down the face of the rock to the Koisu; and Achulko, he added would be surren dered immediately afterwards. A strict watch was immediately ordered to be kept at the indicated spot, and directions were given to awaken the General at whatever hour of the night the capture of the re doubled Schamil might be effected. ', ; "Just before diwn, one two three men were seen to cautiously descend by a rope, let gently down on the river side, as predicted, who were of course instantly secured, and hurried off to the General':) tent. One of the captives admitted, in the flurry of 4he surprise, as was supposed; that he was Schamil; and this was con firmed by the Lesghian, through whose information tho important prise had beui secured. General Grabbe was delighted, and an estafette was forthwith dispatched with the tidings, that the notorious rebel, Schamil Bey, had been caught, and order ed to be shot out ol hand. Whilst all this was going on, the rope, which, had been quietly drawn up again, was once more lowered, and this time oi.Iy one man de scended by it, who reached the river un observed, leapod upon a raft that just i t that critical moment swept by; and the too hastily exultant Russian General was aroused to a knowledge of the trick that had been played him, by shouts of Scha mii!" from the mud wall of Achulko, in exulting reply to the waving of a small, green flag by the true Schamil, as he swept down the swift Koisu, in the dawning sun light, presently to find himself amidst hills and amongst friends, that would render successful pursuit, if attempted, hopeless impossible! ' ' "Achulko surrendered at discretion; the huts were burned; and General Grabbe retraced his step in very angry mood, with a daring attack upon his rear guard, bv the ubiquitous and indefatigable Schamil. at the head of a large body of horsemen, exasperated to fury. The Iman was beaten off with difficulty; and tho victorious gen eral's march , was sullenly resumed, and concluded without further molestation. Labor and Money Power. The Rev. Mr. Chapman, who is, per haps, the most eloquent pulpit orator in the Union, thus discourses of the achieve ments of labor, He asks: . "Who can ad equately describe the triumphs of labor, urged on by the potent spell of money? It has extorted the secrets of the universe, and trained its powers into myriads of forms of use and beauty. From the bos om of the old creation, it has developed anew the creation of industry and art. It has been its task and its glory to overcome obstacles. Mountains have been leveled and valleys been exalted before it. It has broken the rocky toil into fertile glades; it has crowned the hill tops with fruit and verdure, and bound around the very feet of oceans, ridges . of golden corn. Up from the sunless and hoary deeps, up from the shapeless quarry it drags its spotless marbles, and rears its palaces of pomp. It tears the stubborn metals from the bow els of the globe, and makes them t'uetile to its will. It marches steadily on over the swelling flood, and through the moun tain cliffs. It fans its way through the winds of oceans,- tramples them in its course, surges and mingles them with Hakes ol hre. Civilization follows in its path. It achieves grand victories, it waves more durable trophies, it holds wider sway than the conqueror. His name becomes tainted and his monuments crumble; but labor converts his red battle-fields into gar dens, and erects monuments significant of belter things. It rides in a chariot driven by the wind. It writes with the lightning. It sits crowned as a queen in. a thousand cities and sends up its roar of triumph from a million wheels.. It glistens in. the fabric of the loom, it rings and sparkles from-the steely hammer, if glories in shapes of beau ty, it speaks in words of power; it makes the. sinewy; arm strong with .liberty, the poor man's heart rich with content, crowns the swarthy, and sweaty brow with honor and dignity, and peacev-V;.; ..j PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. Fellow Citizens of the Senate ' and of the House of Representatives : The interest with which the people of the republic anticipate the assembling of Con gress, and the fulfilment, on that occasion, of the duty imposed upon a new President, is one of the best evidences of their cM pacity to realize the hopes of the founders or a political system, at once complex and symmetrical. While the different branches of the government are, to a certain extent, independent of each other, the duties of all. alike, have direct reference to the soured of power. Fortunately, under this system, no man is so high, and none so humble, in the scale of public station, as to escape irom the scrutiny, or to be exempt from the responsibility, which all pthcial func tions imply. ' ' Upon the justice and intelligence" of the masses, in a government thus organizod, is the sole reliance of the confederacy and the only security for honest and ear nest devotion to its interests, against the usurpations and encroachments of power on the one hand, and the assaults of per sonal ambition on the other. .. The interest, of which I have spoken, is inseparable from an inquiring, self-govern ing community, but stimulated, doubtless, at the present time, by the unsettled con dition of our relations with several foreign Powers; by the new obligations resulting trom a sudden extension ol the field of en terprise; by the spirit with which that field has been entered, and the amazing energy with which its resources for meeting-the demands of humanity have been develop ed. -5. -.'',.:' " Although disease, assuming at one time the characteristics of a wide-spread and devastating pestilence, - has left its sad traces upon some portions of our country. we have still the most abundant cause for reverent thankfulness lo God for an accu mulation of signal mercies showered up on us as a nation. It is well that a con sciousness of rapid advancement and in creasing strength be habitually associated with tn abiding sense ot dependence upon Him who-holds in his hands the destiny of men Bnd of nations. : Recognizing the wisdom of the broad principle of absolute religious, toleration proclaimed in our fundamental Jaw. and rejoicing in the benign influence which it has exerted upon our Social and political condition, I should shrink from a clear du ty, did 1 fail to express my deepest con viction that we can place no secure re liance upon any apparent progress, if it be not sustained by national integrity, rest ing upon ihe great truths afiirmed and il lustrated by divine revelation. In the midst of our sorrow for the afflicted and suffer ing, it has been consoling to .see how promptly disaster made true neighbors of districts and cities separated widely from each other, and cheering to watch the strength of that common bond of brother hood, which unites all hearts, in all part of this Union, when danger threatens from abroad, or calamity impends over us at home.. . ' . . , - o Our diplomatic relations with - foreign powers have undergone no .. essential change since the adjournment of the last Congress. With some of them, questions of a disturbing character are still pending but there are good reasons to believe that these may all be amicably adjusted. V; ror some years pa&t, Great Britain has so construed the first article of the conven tion of the 20lh of April. 1818. in regard to the fisheries of the northeastern coast, as to exclude cur citizens from some of the fishing grounds, to which they freely re sorted for nearly a quarter of a century subsequent to the date of that treaty. ; The United .States have never acquiesced in this construction, but have always claimed for their fishermen all the rights which they had so long enjoyed without molestation. With a view to remove ell difficulties on the subject to extend the rights of our fish ermen beyond the limits fixed by the con vention of 1818, and to regulate trade be tween the United States and, the British North American Provinces, a negotiation has been opened, with a fair prospect of a favorable result. 1 o protect our fishermen in the enjoyment of their rights, and pre vent collision between them and British fishermen, I deemed it expedient to station a. naval force tu that quarter during the fishing season. - : ; Embarassingquestioits have also arisen between the two governments in regard to Central America. Great Britain has pro posed to settle them by an amicable, ar rangement, and our minister at London is instructed to enter into negotiations on that subject. . r ; . ; A commission for adjusting the claims of our citizens against Great Britain, and those of British subjects against the United States, organized under the convention of the 8th of February last, is now sitting in London for the transaction of business. It is in many respects desirable that the boundary line between the United States and the British provinces in the northwest, as designated in the convention of the 15th of June, 184G, and especially, that part which separates the I erritory of Washing ton . from the British: possessions on the north, should be traced and marked. I therefore present the subject to your notice. With France our relations continue on the most friendly looting. 1 he extensive commerce between the United States and that country might, it is conceived, be re leased from some unnecessary restrictions, to the mutual advantage of both parties. With a view to this object, soma progress has been made in negotiating a treaty of commerce and navigation. Independently of our valuable trade with Spain, we have important political relations with her, growing out of our neighborhood to the Islands ef Cuba and rorto Rico. I am happy to announce, that since the last Congress no attempts have been made, by unauthorized expeditions within the United States, against either of those colonies. Should any movement be manifested with in our limits, all the means at my com mand will be vigorously exerted to repress it. 'Several annoying bectirrenceil1 have taken place at Havana, or in the VrcfrHtjr of the Island of Cuba, between bur citizen : and the Spanish authbritier. ,! m ll ' Considering the proximity of that isitftiS -. to our shores lying, "as' it 'does;-ftf 'tl -track of trade between some of 'our1 trV cipal cities and the suspicions vigilihoe with which foreign intercourse, partictitaV-' ly that with the United States, UalheHe guarded, anfepetition of such occurrerieea . may well be apprehended-'"As fitMdfpW matic intercourse is allowed between'Otif :. . consul at Havana and the Captain Genet- . . al of Cuba, ready explanations Oannbt'to made, or prompt redress afforded"wnere injury has resulted. ;,; AH com plaint 'orttltB . part of pur citizens, onder lhe present at , rangement. must be, in tho first place, pr- . sented to this government, and then Tew- red to Spain. Spain again refert IF to Iter' local authorities in Cuba for investigation, and postpones an answer tifl ehe has-hafd fiom thoso authorities.1 -To avoid? theie irritating and Vexatious delays, a proposi tion has been made to provide for Hrel appeal for redress to the Captain -GneTal . by our Consul, in behalf of 'eur tinjureki . fellow-citizens. Hitherto tia: government -; of Spain has declined to enter" intowiy such arrangement- This- course' ow; ir part is deeply regretted; for , withoqt some i arrangement of the kind, the goOdwftief standing between the two countries may be: exposed to occasional interruption. Our minister at Madrid is instructed tore new the proposition, and to press it again V upon -tho consideration of her Catholic : Majesty's government, r' .:?- jfWarfJ tnii ; For several years Spain has ben ball ing the attention of this .Government;!. claim for' losses by some of her suljecta, in the case of the schooner .MAmistadl." This claim is believed to rest on therobli-" gations imposed by ohi existing treaty with that country . Its justice was admit ted, in our diplomatic correspondence wkU . the ' Spanish Governments aa earlyv. . ' March, 1847; ' and one: of ray; predecne- v sors, in his annual message of that yrar, : recommended ' that . provision- should be ' made for its payment.--. In JanuaryWtblt . was again submitted; to. CongretabyHbe V executive.; 1 1 has received a fayoraWefta sidoration by committees of both breaches but as yet there has been : no final atrt&ti ;. upon - it. I - conceive that good; ifeiih - r ' quires its prompt, adjustment, Md 'pfw- sent it to ycur early and favourable consul eration. ', TtPr&Attvaptt . Martin Koszta. a Hnngnnan by- btrtli, came to this country in J850f-and .declar ed his intention, in dde form of; law, & become a . citizen . of the Ueited rStal. After remaining here nearly two;yipt visneffTurkey.' " W hilerrSnWf ffj;$tf was forcibly . seized, taken on; bosrAfen " Austrian brig of war, then lying in lite-Mr- ; " bor of that place,:. and thereeonfiaed ;in ; : irons, with the avowed design to leke iug t : into the dominions of Austria.- -Our,)-8ul at Smyrna and legation ij Const an ti- -no pie interposed for his release, buk thejr . frffort were ineffectual.. While i thus,sn-..: prisoned, Commander Ingrabam.'witihtUe : United -States ship ,of-war. St,LLoujs4't- -rived al .Smyrna, and. after inquiring. injtj the circumstances of the. case, came to fim conclusion that Koszta was entitled 1o, Ur protection - of this ; government,- and toeje. v energetic and prompt measures for JiU- ; : lease.' -Under an arrangement between -. the agents of , the United. States -and of Austria, he was transferred jo -the custody of the French consul-general,: at Smyrna, there to remain Until he should Ae diepos- " ed of by' the mutual agreement of the Con suls of the respective governments at, that . . place. ?; Pursuant to that agreement ba been. released i and is how-on his; way 4o . the United States; iV-'.?.'fcH&rw.'i; f''' The Emperor of, Austria has-,fnado; the -. conduct of our officers , who. look, part irt this transaction , a subtecl of grave corn- ' ; plaint: Regarding Koszta aa still his.autf- ject, and claiming a righMor seize'Jnni - within; the. limits of the .Turkish empire, he has demanded of this .-government U consent lo the surrender of the prisoner : a disavowal of the a eta of its agents, nrt - satisfaction for the alleged outrage., , AftT a careful, consideration : of the,cae, -J ..r came to the conclusion that. Koszta-was ' seized without legal authority at Smyrna; that he was wrongfully detained ton poerd - 1 ' ' of the Austrian brig of war; thettetbe ' time of his seizure, ;he was clorned frithv the nationality of the United States; nd ; - that the acts of our officers, under the ctrF ; cumstances of "the case,., were justifiable, ' and their conduct has been fully,. apprav- ed by me, and a compliance with the sew-v eral demands of the Emperor - of Vu'slrja has been declined. T :- -,. - V v(f.j For a more full account of this transact L tion and my views in regard to vj,fef$r' to the correspondence between the charge " d'afiairs of Austria and the. Secretary af ' State, which is herewith transmitted,. , Thf -principles and policy therein maintained . - ; on the part bf.lhe United States,', will. - .;' whenever a . proper occasion occurs, be J applied and enforced, '.X.J'-- The condition of. China, at. this time, '-. renders it probable that some, important changes will occur in that vast empire; 'V which will lead to a more unrestricted in- " tercourse .with it. The commissioner ''lb that country, who has been .recently p- ' :. pointed, is instructed to avail Itimstlf of all occasions to open and extend. our com- : . ; mercial relations, not only with the empire r3 of China, but with other Asiatic nations. In 1852, and expedition was sent to'Ja- ; pan, under the command of Commodore '"'.! Perry, for the purpose of opening comroer-' , cial intercourse with that island. ' Jntellf- ?5 gence has , been received of ; lus ' arrival; , ; there, and of his having made kown to the Emperor of Japan the-object of his' visit; s;v but it is not yet ascertained how far' the ' ' Emperor will be disposed to abandon his V restrictive policy, and open that populous v , country to a commercial intercourse with the United ; States. , ; v ' ' v It has been my earnest denire' to tnain-" tain friendly intercourse with the, govern -" ments upon ibis continent, and to aid them , in preserving good understanding" emoDs; ; ' . . - r, . . themselves.'.'.' With Mexico, a disputi h v" ii; :;i 1" i"' - i ? .' .