OCR Interpretation

The spirit of democracy. [volume] (Woodsfield, Ohio) 1844-1994, January 09, 1856, Image 2

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rTSgBSEC Witt."!1
Gentlemen of ' tfia &nale ,
mii Iloiutf.of Riprescntafu'cs:
The Constitution of the Uiiited States pro
vides that Qtaigres. shall assemble annually
on the first Monday of December, and it has
ljjciisiialfor the Presidcnt,ta make no com
mivwcation of a publiocharacter to the Senate
adAlouita'of Representatives until advised of
war readiness to receive it I have deferred
tamthifl,a&g3 until the close of the first month
of the se.s:jion, but my convictions of duty
wilrti'eniijto loh'ger to postpone the dis
liMge of. the obligation enjoined by the Con
ftltutiohupdif the President "to give to Con
grfel infJnijiatjiori of the state of the Union,
una n-ecbWmehd to ' their consideration such
Measures 3 hehalljtidge necessary and ex-
. It is a matter of congratulation that the Rc-
pttMic,ttt frauijuilly advancing
WViuei ity and "rreace. v v'
tftY3"M relations of amity continue to exist be
,VKU vuiy?u otaics ana an loreign pow-
rs, wun some ot tnem "rure nnMtum r
m a career of
epehdin!?. which mav rormi tiA MTKii.lsri.
riOTi"'ot- tongrC83w ' '
-alOkJsueh questions, the most important is
eatot .wWfiJv arises out of the negotiations with
iT?cat,i3ritain in reference to Central A mrri
ca. By the convention concluded between the
two Governments on the 19th of April. 1350,
Ji0Partlcs covenanted, that "neither will
ci uvjuuiiv, or joriuv. or co onize. or nR-
4n!e,,)t" exercise any ' dominion over Nicara
'O.osta diica,' the Mosquito coast, or any
part of Central America." - -
It was the undoubted understanding of the
tfllfift ia making this treaty, "that all
present states oi tnc lormer lie-public of Con
wai ABenc, ana. tnc entire territory of each,
would thenceforth enjoy complete indepen
dcneeJ'liAd thatf both . contracting- parties cn-
ng- parti
'jgAg&l dually and t th e satn e e x ten t fc r
. prta8rifrand the future: that if citherthen
any claim of right in Central America,' such
"'ekimnd ttiroccupation cr'nnthority under it.
. . II i . ..... - '
were anreserveaiy relinquished by the stipu
latlatisof the -Convention; and that no dorain-
"lonwasiiiereaucr to bo c-xcrcned or assumed
htAlHf part of Central America,' by Great
VBrilaWrirhVUnited States. ' ' . .i
JJ1TRi8 Gdvernmeht consented to restrictions
"IfiYegatd region of country, wherein we
"MH'fepecifift and pecpliar interests, only upon
the conviction that the like restriction were
fntKe km sense obligatory on Great Britain.
ibfHhi8 understanding of the force and
attt&A'tir thtti- conyeriticm,"it would " never have
, been7rin)dudedby us.
i 'Sh'ilekt was'this-'timierstkndinron the part
v. wic uuni-u oiaief", uiai, m correspondence
WIeas-'with ' the ratification of the ,
trVetion,-it"!was distinctly expressed, that!
,0fliefteMulc:oreriant3 f' non-ocenpa'tion were
not intended to apply to the British establish'-"
5eat aVfhBalize.' Thia qtialiScntion is to be
fi3cribed',t(i? the fact; that, in Virtue of the buc
ssfiW tratiess;witK'' previous sovereigns of
the country, Great Britain had obtained a con
ftfcMoVbf the'rlght to cut "riiahogony or dye
rW6tJda , at' the Ualize; but -with positive excln
S'Wofffcrf all domain1 or sovereign tr;' and thns it
Wnfii'iSs the -natural 'construction and nnder
stood" inipbri of the - treatr As to all the rest
"fif ne'Wgicin to:-which ; thb stfpnlations ap
we1 ';f;i;
. bftif ifyw;' btocajni !pprcirt,: af an early
"flfRyairter: ent'ering upon" the 'discharge of my
present functions, tha t Great Britain still con
vmreliiHhe exercise or assertion f 1 iro-f nn.
'tton4dnlyjftealled tho Mosquito -coast", and cov
crSfine 'eritire length-of tho State' of Nio
Wgui?, tnAlK'lJkrt of Costa -Rica: that she re-
a91grdidaUj"bxtipn(Iinff-lts limits at the ex
penssfof tW'Slate of :Il6hdurRS,'and that she
"t'a'd'formlxlly-colohizefl a considerjible insular
8rotiif Rnbwh'as the Bar Islands, and belone
gtf rlghac':that State. ' - ; -tlidsoi'cts.or
'nretension of Clrfitt. Ttri-
'tar,Wrig- contrary to the rights of the States
JbfhtraI'Atner;cx,'and to the manifest tenor
of her stipulations with the United States, as
B,1ihdcstood ; by : this government, hare been
i"adetbc'"'Bubject of negotiation - through the
tf&eh&tf"liiBiaiM? j-a't'-'icfftlon. '' I . transmit
nflwaii! iW matmctions Ha him on th i n:ih-
e an'JS'corre'spbndence between him and
the Brrflh" Secretary for Foreign Affairs, by
But -.the establishment at the Bnlize, now
reaching far beyond its treaty limits into the
State "of 'Honduras', and that tpf the 'Bay.
Islands, appertaining ot right to lue same,
State, are as distinctly colonial Governments
as those of Jamaica or Canada, and therefore
contrary to the very letter as well as the" .spirit
ot thc convention with the United fc tatcs, ns.;t
was at the time of ratification, and now i, un-
leratood by this government. .
The interpretation which the British govern
ment, thus in assertion and act, persists -in as-:
evibing to the convention, entirely ehanjtffl it.-
character. iule it holds us to all obligation4"
it in a great measure releases Groat Britain
from those, which constituted the " considera
tion of this government for entering into the
convention. It is impossible, in my "judge
ment; for the United States to Acquiesce in
such a construction of the respective relations
of the two governments to Central America.
To a renewed call by this government upon
Great Britian, to abide by, and carry into ef
fect, the stipulations of. the convention accord
ing to its: obvious import-, by withdrawing from
the po3cssion or colonization of portions of
the Central 'American States of Honduras,
of Nicaragua, and Costa R:c:. the British
Government has at length replied, affirming
that the operation of the treaty is prospective
only, and did not require Great Britain to
abandon or contract any possessions held by
her in Central America at the date of its con
clusion. - . - " .,
Tlite reply substitutes a partial isue, in the
r.ljipn r,-f in frrnArit: ntia rtp ami f Wit liri
nited States. ThciBrilish government pas
ses over' the question of. the rights of Great
Britain, real or supposed', in Central America,
and assumes that she-had such rights, at the
date of the treaty, and that those lights com
prehended the protectorship of the lusqiuto
Indians, the extended jurisdiction and limits
of the Balize, and. the colony of the Bay
Islands, and thereupon : proceeds by implies
tian to infer, that if the stipulations of the
treaty be merely future in effect, Great Britain
mar still continue to hold the contested rior-
tions of Central America. The United StatC3
cannot admit either the inference or the prem
ise.1?. We steadily deny, that, at the date of
the treaty, Great Britain had anv possessions
there, other than the limited and" peculiar - es
tablishment at tho Balize, and maintain, that
if she had any, they were surrendered by the
convention." ; ","' ,
The Government, , recognizing the , obliga
tions of the treaty, has of course desired to
see it executed in good faith'-. by both parties
and in the discussion, therefore, has net lool:
ed to rights, which we might. assert, independ
ently of the'trecty in corsideraticn of our
geographical position and of other ' circum
stances, which create for tts -relations to the
of our mercantile . marine is not interdicted
either by the international, or by our muni
cipal law, .niid therefore docs not comprornit
ojur neutral relations wi'tV Kussia. V ..
; But our municipal law, in accordance with
the law of nations, pcrcmtorially forbids, not
only foreigners, but our.own citizens, to fit out
jtliin the limits of the United States, a ves
sel to" commit hostilities against any State
with which the United States are ut peace, or
mv : foreign armed
to increase the force
vessel intended for
sucU nefstiiitics against a
frienuly fotato.
Whatever concern may have been
ciihcr of the belijrcrai'it powers lost
felt by
- The colony of Newfoundland, having enact
ed the laws required by;" the treaty o June,
1854, is now placed on the same : footing, in
respect to commercial intercourse w ith .the U;
S. as the other British North American prov
inces. ".- i ;
The commission which that treaty "contem
plated, for determining the rights of fishery
in rivers and mouths of rivers on the coasts
of the United States' and the, British North A
merican ; provinces, .has been organized and
has commenced its labors ; to complete which
there is needed further appropriations for the
service of-another season.;
FOUND pits. r
Mm 'iff
armcd cruisers or other vessels in the - service j In pursuance of authority, conferred by a re
fbr nil
obSiSpa'ff1 r.Mb Dcrccive ina: tne two govern
lejijdlry,widelyjand Irreconcilably as to
;thexpastructi6nbf .tho convention, and its ef-
Bf itai" ; so con3truos-the convention,
iU (ruaintain 'unchangev.t all her previous
3.1 J9onB over the;'ilpsquit6 ."coast and in
wwlw parts' of Central Aracrici. Those
pretnsicms, as to tue Musquifo , const, are
jtJfcw4?lpAt assumption of political relation
betweeni 'Greai Britain and tho remnant of a
Jjribeof; Indians on that coast, entered into at
a'Ji 'inhe whop ! the whole country was a colonial
pdssession,' of Spain. It" cannot bo eucccss-
..fallv ponlroverted, that, by tho public law of
Europe and. America, no possible act of such
Indians. 05 their, predecessors could confer on
i11eil;'Britain"an y 'politicalrightsl
' Great Britain docs not allege the assent of
. oto coast, Sae has, on the contrary, by ro
'' neatcd 'and successive treaties,' renounced and
.I.Hh..i..l.Arl All riFntanainua r ry rWT nml
recoirnizodi' the. full and edvcreiirri rizhts of
, vpain.Tn the roost equivocal terms. . Yet these
j rjreiensions,1" so Without solid foundation in the
" be.gmVpg ft4 tbuirepeatcdly ' adjured, were,
jt at a--recent period,. revived by Great Britain
ii iho Central American States, the le-
4gtlraate successors "to all the ancient jurisdic
'tiinof Spain in that region.. , They wcro first
appjiedj puly 'to a "defined .. part of the coast of
iaruafierWars'to the whole of its At
j1pb'4cpast,'.ahl lastly to a part of the coast
1 f fiosti Rica: and they are now reasserted to
this "irx: tentl
On the eastern coast of Nicaragua and Cos
rtxta RicaJh the interference of Great Britain,
j , tbou li j oxer tcel. at one time in tho form of mil-
,-fA X'im'afTn'n''r ihn rtr.rt. nf-Rnn .Tnn.n del
. Vnrtp' iben in the peaceful possession of the
"p'prpiate-authorities of the Central Ameri-
' - i.' x...i.r
over uie
..jrcan .i
'tTisfcttpi. exercise of a protectorship
Iiquito. triVc of Indians. ,
Central American State., different from those
of any government of Europe.
r'Ihe' British Govcrn-me.nt. in its last commu
nication'; although well knowing the" views of
the United states, still r declares that it sees
no renson why a conciliatory spirit may not
enable the two -governments to overcome all
obstacles to a satisfactory adjustment of the
subject. '. ; ' ."
, Assured of the correctness of the construc
tion of the treaty constantly adhered to by
this government, and resolved to insist on the
rights of. tho Unitedv3tnte9, yet,acttiated ; also
by the same desire, which is avowed by the
1 . 1 ..... m
untisn government, -to remove nil causes o:
serious misunderstanding between the two na
tions associated by so rnany ties of interest
and kindred, it has appeared to me nroper not
to consider an amicable solution of tuo con
troversy hopeless
Apere is, However, reason to apprc
that with Great Britian in .the 'actual occupa
tion of tho disputed territories, and the treaty
thercforo . practically null; so far as regards
our rights, this international difScnlty cannot
long remain, undetermined, without involving
in. serious danger the friendly relations, which
it is the interest as well as the duty of both
countries to cherish acd preserve" ; It will
afford me sincere gratification, if future efforts
Bhail result in the success anticipated hereto-;
fore with more confidence than the aspect of j
the case permits me now to' entertain. . , , , , ,
One other subioct of ; discussion between
the United States ami Great Britain," has
grown out of the attc.rppt. which, the exigen
cies of the war in which chq is engaged. with
Bussia induced her to make, to. draw recruits
from the United States.
It is the traditional and settled policy of
the United States to maintain impartial . ncitr
trality during the wars, which from time to
time occur among the great powers of the
world. Performing all the duties of neutral
ity toward the respective bcligcrant states, wc
may reasonably expect them not to interfere
with our lawful enjoyment of its benefits.
Notwithstanding the existence of such hostil
ities, our citizens retain the individual right
to continue all their-accustomed pursuits by
land or by sea, at. liomo or abroad, subject
only to such restrictions in this relation, as
the laws of war, the 'usages of nations, or
special treaties, may impose, and it is our
sovereign right that our territory and juris
diction shall not be invaded by either of the
beligerant parties, for the transmit cf .t their
armies, the operations ' of fleets, the levy of
troops lor eeryice, : the fitting out of crui
sers by or against either, or any other act or
incident of War. And these undeniable rights
of neutrality, individual or national, tho Uni
ted states will under no circumstances surren
dcr. : , .. ' -'-' ' '' '
In pursuance of this policy, the, laws. of
the United btates do not lorbid their citizens
to sell to either of the beligerant powers, ar
tides contraband of war, or to take munitions
of war or soldiers on board their private ships
for transportation; and although, in so doing,
the individual citizen exposes his property or
person to some of the hazards of war, his
acts do not involve any . branch of national
neutrality, nor of themselves implicate the
government. Thus during the progress of
the present war in Europe, our citizens have
without national responsibility therefor, sold
gunpowder and arms to all buyers, regardless
of the- destination of these articles.' Our
merchantmen have been, and still continue to
be, largely employed by Great Britain and by
Jb ranee-,-. in transporting troops, provisions
munitions of war to the principle seat of
t ..1 . rt.l
oi one mignt.oc m.tcu out in tr.e ports oi tins
country to depredate on the property of the
other, all -suoh fears have proved to be utterly
groundless. Our citizens have been withheld
from any such act or purpose by good faith
and by repper t for the law.
While the laws of the Union are thus' per
emptory in their prohibition of the equipment
or armament of beligerant cruisers in our ports
they provide not less absolutely that no per
son shall, v, i thin the territory or jurisdiction
of the United States, enlist or enter himself
or hire or retain another person to enlist or
enter himself, or to go beyond "the" limits or
jurisdiction ef the United States with intent
to be enlisted or entered, in the service of any
rine or seaman on board of any vessel-of war
letter of maroue or privateer.' And those
enactments arc also in strict conformity with
the law of nations, -rchich declares that- no
State has the right to raise troops for land or
sea service in another State without its con
sent, and that, whether forbidden by the mu
nicipal law or not, the ' very attempt to do it
without such consent is an attack on the na
tional sovereignty.
Such being the" public rights and the muni
cipal law of the United States, no Bolicitudc
on the subject was entertained by this govern
ment, when a year- since, the British Parlia
ment passed an act for the enlistment of for
eigners m the military serv.ee ot Great ISrit
ain. Nothing in the face of the act, or in its
public history, indicated that the British' -gov
ernment proposed to attempt recruiting in the
l nited crairs: nor tiui it ever give inuwauuu
of such intention to this government. It was
a matter of surprise, therefore, subsequently
that the engngernent of persons within the
United States to proceed to -Halifax, in the
British province, of Nova ?totia, and there
enlist in .the service of Great Britain, was
going on cxtcrinivcJy, with little or no disguise.
Ordinary legal steps were taken to arrest and
punish parties, concerned, and so put an end
to act? infringing the municipal law and de
rogatory to our sovereignty. Meanwhile
suitable representations on the subject were
addressed to the British government.
Tberenpon it became known, by the admis-eir-n
of the British government itself, that the
attempt. to draw recruits from tlm country
originated with it or at least had its approval
and sanction; but it: also appeared that the
public agents engaged in it had "stringent
instrnctions" not to violate the, municipal
law of, tbe United States.' V "
It is difficult to understand how it should
have been supposed that troops could be rais
ed here by .Great Britain, without violation of
the munlcipiai law.
The unmistakable object
of the .law was to prevent ''every', such act,
which if performed, must be cither in viola
tion of the law, or in studied ' evasion of it;
and in cither alternative, the act done would
be alike injurious to the sovereignty of the
Unitcd'Jgtatcs. . .
In tho meantime, the matter acquired addi
tional importance, by the recruitments in the
United States not being iliscontinued, and the
disclosure of 4he fact that they were prosecu
ted upon a systematic plan devised by official
authority; that' recruiting rendezvous had been
opened in our principal cities, and depots for
the reception of recruits established on our
frontier, and the whole business conducted
under the supervision and by the regular co
operation of, British Officers civil and milita
ry, some in the jorth American provinces,
and some in the United States. The complic
ity of .these officers in an undertaking which
could only be . accomplished by defying cur
solution of the senate xf the United . States
passed en 3d of March last, notice was given
to Denmark, on the 14th of April, of the stip
ulation ot the subsisting convention of friend
ship, commerce, and navigation between that
Kingdom and the United States, whereby ci
ther party might after ten years, terminate the
same at the expiration of one year from the
date of notice for that purpose.
The considerations which led me to call the
attention of congress to that convention, and
induced the senate to adopt the rcsoltion refer
red to, still continues in full force. The con
vention contains an article, which, although it
does not directly engage the United States to
submit to the imposition of tolls on the ves
sels, and cargoes of Americans passing into
or from the Baltic sea, during the continuance
of the treaty, yet may, by possibility, be conr
strued as implying snch submission. The ex
action rf those tolls not being justified by any
principle of international , law, it became the
right and the duty of the United States to re
lieve themselves from the implication of en
gagement on the subject, so as to be perfect
ly free to act in the premises in such a way as
their public interests and their honor shall de
mand. I remain of the opinion that the U. States
Ought not to submit to the payment of the
Sound elues, not so much because of their a-
j mount, which is a secondary matter, but be
cause it is in effect the recognition of the right
of Denmark to treat one of the great maritime
highways of mtions a3 a close sea, and the
navigation of it as a privilege for which trib
ute may be imposed upon those who have oc
casion to use it.
' This government, on a former occasion not
unlike the present,signalized its determination
to maintain the freedom of the seas, and of I
the great natural channels of navigation.
The Barbary states had for a long time coer
ced the payment of tribute from all nations,
whose ships frequented the Mediterranean.
To the demand of such payment made by them
the United States, although Buffering less by
their depradations than many other nations,
j returned the explicit answer that we prefered
war to tribute, and thus opened the way to the
relief of the commerce of the world from an
ignominious tax, so long submitted to by the
more powerful nations of Europe.
li the manner of the payment of bound
duties differs from that of the tribute formerly
conceded to the Barbary states, still their ex
action by Denmark hag no better foundation
in right. Each was, in its origin, nothing but
a tax on a common right, extorted by tho.se
who" were at that time able to obstruct the free
and secure enjoyment of it, but who no longer
possess that poAver.
Denmark, while resisting our assertion of
the" freedom of the Baltic Sound and Belts has
indicated a readiness to make some new ar
rangement on the subject, and has invited the
governments interested, including the United
States to be represented in a convention to as
semble for the purpose of receiving and con
sidering a proposition, which she intends to
wrongs complained ofby this government.
Spain has not only disavowed and disapproved
the conduct of ; the officers- who illegally seiz
ed and detained the steamer Black Warrior at
Ilavanna, but has also paid the sum claimed
as Indemnity for thc loss thereby, inflicted on
citizens of the Uniteel.States. ..!;
Tn consequence of a "destructive hurricane,
which visited Cuba in 1844, the supreme au
thority of Jt hat island issued u decreee per
mitting, tho importation,; for a peri odj of six
months, of certain building materials and pro
visions, free of duty, but revokod it whena-
bout half the period only had elapsed, to the"
injury of citizens of the United States, who
had proceeded to act on the faith of that le j
cree. The Spanish
refused in-
military operations, and in
t1-eir sick and wounded soldiers; but. such use
oftwevs to insert false entries in their books
ofrferd or.accountjj or 6 make false returns.
ana ai, requiring wirm,uii me xcrmiuauonoi
their scrVtecto deliver fo their successors all
booksfecOKjs,and other objects of public
naturl In their" custody. -. jfj ...
part, from duties on imports,rts magnitude af
fords - gratifying evidence.oCtheprpsperitj .
not-only cf our commerce,- bpi of the other
great, interests 'upon. W hich that jdepends. v ".--.
The principle that alUlnoneys not rqufrtTd a
for th&current expenses-.-vf.the . goyfirnjtncn '
should remain. for active employment in tho
hands 'of the people, -antf the- conspicuouViact
that the ann ual revenue . fromaJl sources, ex-; -ceed,
by many millions of donarstne'amoirnlt
needed for a prudent and economical adIriisT .
tration of public affairs,' cannot fail' to sug-l -gest
the preprietyof arr'carlyjcyisionaad;
reduction of the: tariff, duties on importsthat,
1.1.1.: .: t. .i '.- ; -
which unquestionably require? essential, modi
fications, a departure from the principles of:
the present tariff is not anticipated. ,
- . AlOIY. , . . T' -.
The army, during tho past year, has been ac
tively engaged in defending the Indian front- -
j lcr, the slate oi the service pennittmg'; but '
lew aim bimm garrisons in our permanent
iui iiuciiLiuus. jLuc uuiiiuuiiai reeiniems an- . .
thorizcil at the last session of Congress bare
already been sent to the field. " All the duties
which devolve oh the' Inilitary establishment,:--.'
have been satisfactorily-performed," and the
dangers and privations incident totho ebar- :"
actcr of the services required of our troops
have furnished additional evidence .of -i-tujeir
courage, zeahand capacity to meet any requi
sition, which their country may make-'unon - .
them. :' j : ;- ' .- s-v-t;? -Tt-v-iv"5
' The recommendations heretofore -made for . -a
partial organization of the army, are Salao :
renewed. The thorough elementary education
given to those officers, "who commence their,
service with the grade of 7 cadet, Qualifies
them, to a considerable "extent,'. tp?i'.'p.e'rom -the
tlutics of every arm of - the . service:,; but
to give the highest efficiency to artillery -requires
the practice and special study of tftany
ycars; and it is not, therefore bdieyei'fp, be
advisable to maintain, in time xf peace, a
larger torce ot that arm than can be usually
employeelin the duties appertaining-" to-the V
tics of the staff, in all its various -.branches,
belong to the movement of troops, and -the
efhciency of an army m the field would mate- .
rially depend upon the ability with: , which -those
duties are discharged. ..,,ih: -- .?:; V .-'
For the---details of the 'military Kptie3.
the distribution of the troops, ;an,d additional.
provisions required for the military service, I .
ueranincation to the parties aggrieved until re
cently, when it was assented to, payment be
ing promised to be made so soon as the amount
due can be ascertained. -'r: 1' v
Satisfaction claimed for the arrest and
search "of the steamer EI Dorado has not yet
been accorded, but there is reason to believe
that it will be, and that cause, with others, con
tinues to be . urged-on the attention of the
Spanish government. I do not abandon the
hope of concluding with Spain some general
arrangement, which, if it do not wholly pre
vent the recurrence of difficulties with Cuba,
will render them less frequent,' and whenever
they shall occur facilitate their more spceely
settlement. ' '' r "''
Mexico. ' ' ''. -The
interposition of this government has been
invoked by. many of its citizensj'-oh account
of injustice done to their person and, property;
For, which Mexico - is responsible. - Ihc un
happy. situation of that country, for some time
past, has not allowed its government to give
due consideration to claims of private repara
tion, and has appeared to call for and justify
some forbearance in such matters oh the part
of this government. But, if the revolutiona
ry movements, which have lately occurred in
that republic, end in the organization of a sta
ble government, urgent appeals to its justice
will then be made, and it may be hoped, with
success, for the redress of all complaints of
our citizens. . ,
In regard to the American Republics, which
from their proximity and other considerations,
have peculiar relations to this government,
while it has been my constant aim strictly to
observe all the obligations of political friend
ship and of good neighborhood, obstacles to
this have arisen in some of them, from their
own insufficient power to check lawless mrup
tions, which in effect throws most of the task
on the United Ltates. " Thus it is that the dis
tracted internal condition of the State of Ni
carajrna has made it incumbent on me to ap
peal to the good faith of our citizens to abstain j refer to the report of the Secretary of War,
from unlawful intervention in its affairs, and and the accompanying documents. i-'":"'
to adopt preventive measures to the sameentl,
which, on similar occasions, had the best re-
suits in re-assuring the peace of the Mexican
States of Sonora and Lower California.' ' -
TREATIES."' .'"'.' '
Since the last session of Congress a treaty of
amity, commerce and navigation,. and for the
the surrender of fugitive criminals, with the
kingdom of the Two Sicilies ; a treaty of
friendship, commerce and navigation with Ni
caragua; and a convention of commercial re
ciprocity with the Hawaiin kingdom, had been
negotiated. The latter kingdom 'and the
State of Is icaragua have also acceded to a de
claration, recognizing as international rights,
the principles contained in the convention be
tween the United States and Russia, of the
22d July, 1S;')4. These treaties and conven
tions will be laid before the Senate for ratifi
cation." TREASURY. ' '' ' ' :
RTihinif, for the rnnitalizqUon of ib Sound dura ! The statements made in my last annual mes-
and the distribution of the sums to be paid as
commutation among the governments, accord
ing to the respective proportions of their ma
ratime commerce to and -from the Baltic. I
have declined in behalf of the United States
to accept this invitation, for the most cogent
reasons. One is, that Denmark eloesnot offer
to submit to the convention the question of her
right to levy the Sound dues. A second is,
that if the convention were allowed to take
cognizance of that particular question, still it
would not be competent to deal witn the great
laws, throwing suspicion over cur attitude of international principles involved which affects
neutrality, and disregarding our territorial the rights in other cases of navigation and
rights, is conclusively proved by the evidence
elicited on the trial of such of their agents as
have been apprehended and convicted. Some
of the officers ; thus implicated are of high
official position, and many of them beyond
our jurisdiction, so that legal proceedings
could not reach the source this mischiet.
These considerations, and the Tact, that the
cause of complaint was not a mere casual oc
currence, but a deliberate elcsign, entered upon
with full knowledge of our. laws and national
policy, and conducted, by responsible public
functionaries, impelled me to present the case
to the British Government, in order to secure
not only a" cessation, of tho wrong, but its
reparation. Tho subject is still under discus
sion, the result of which will be communicated
to you m due tunc.
1 repeat the recommendation submitted to
the last Congress, that provision be made for
the Appointment of a commissioner, in con
nection with Great Britain, to survey and es
tablish the boundary line, which divides the
Territory of Washington from the contiguous
British possessions. By rcasoiTof the extent
and importance of the country in dispute,
there has been imminent danger of collision
between the subjects'of Great Britain and the
citizens of the United States, including their
respective authorities in that quarter. The
prospect of a speedy arrangement has con
tributed hitherto to induce on both sides for
bearance to assert by force what each claims
as a right. Continuance of delay on the part
of the two governments to ret in the matter,
will increase the dangers and difficulties of the
controversy. .
: Misunderstanding exists ' as to tho extent,
character and value of possessory rights of
the Hudson s J3ay company and the property
of the rugit.s bound Agricultural company,
reserved in our treaty with Great Brftaiu rel
ative to Orecon territory. I have reason to
believe that a cession of the rights of both
companies to the United States, which would
be the readiest means of terminating all ques
tions, can bo obtained on reasonable terms ;
and with a view to this end, I present them to
tnc attention ot congress.
commercial freedom, as well as that of access
to the Baltic. Above all, by the express terms
of the proposition it is contemplated that the
consideration of the Sound dues shall be com
mingled With, and made subordinate to a mat
ter wholly extraneous to tho balance of pow
er among the governments of Europe.
V hue, however, rejecting this proposition,
and insisting on the free - transit into and
from the Baltic, I have expressed to Denmark
a willingness on the part of the United States,
to share liberally with other powers in com
pensating her for-any advantages, which com
merce shall hereafter derive, irom expendi
tures made by her for the improvements and
safety of the Sounds or Belts.
I - lay before you, herewith, sundry docu
ments on the subject, in which, my views are
more?' fully disclosed. Slum Id no satisfactory
arrangement be soon concluded, I shall again
call your attention to the subject, with recom
mendation of such mcSsnres as may appear
to be required in order to assert the right3 of
the -United States, so tar as they arc altccted
by the pretensions of Denmark.
I announce with much gratification ,that since
the adjournment of the last Congress, the
question then existing between this govern
ment and France, respecting the French con
sul at San Francisco, has been satisfactorily
determined, and that the relations of the two
governments continue tobe of tho inostfriend
ly nature.
A question, also, which has been pending for
several years between the United States-and
the Kingdom ot Greece, growing oui oi me
Sequestration, by public authorities of that
country, ot property belonging xo uie present
American consul at Athens, and which had
been the subject of very earnest discussion,
heretofore, has recently been settled to the
satisfaction of the party interested and of both
With Spain, peaceful relations are still main
tained, and some progress has been made in
securing the redress of wrongs complained of
Experience gathered from ' events, which -
have transpired since my last Annual message
has but served to confirm the opinion then ex
pressed of the propriety of making provision,
by a retired list, tor disabled officers? and Tor
increased compensation -to the "officers retained
on the list-' tor active duty.: r All the reasons
which existed, when these measures were rec
ommended on former ; occasions,:.'.. continue
without modification, except so far as circum
stances have given to some of them additional -
lorct?. -e , -f -r V,.'V'VT f V "
It is not, as in the case of artillery,' a spe
ciality, but requires, also an intimate knowl
edge of the duties of "an officer of the line,"
and it ia not doubted; that to .complete the
education of . an officer for either the line or
the general staff, it is desirable that be shall
have served in both.- wWltli-iluslview, it was
recommended , on a former . occasion that the
duties of, te. staff should, beamlVperform
cd by details from the line; and.witn aconvic-
.1 . . .1 Li 't .1 - "i t': 1.
uon oi uiQ auvaniages wnicu wouiu resuu
The report of j the Secretary of th Nary
herewith submitted, exhibit in fulblke naval op-
. .1 . .1 A 1
sarc. respecting trie anticipated receipts anu
expenditures of the Treasury, have been sub- j from 6uch a change, it ia again presented for
atantially verified. - . - the consideration of , Congress. , ;
It appears trom the report ot the aecretary
of the Treasury, that the receipts during the
last fiscal year ending June SO, 1855, from all
sources, were 65,003,930; and that the pub- Orations of the pas year, together with the pres
lie expenditures for the same period, exclu
sive of payments on account of' the public
debt, amounted to 56,305,393: During the
same period, the payments made in redemp
tion of the public debt, including interest and
premium,- amounted to $9,844,528.
The balance in the Treasury at thci begin
ning of the present fiscal year, J uly, 1, 1855,
was SI 8,03 1,976; the receipts for the first
quarter, and the estimated receipts for the re
ent condition of the service, and makes sugges
tions of further legislation,: to which' your atten
tion is invited. -k "': . - , .
The coastrnction of the six stcam-frlgatea,
for which appropriations - were made at te last
Congress, has proceeded in the' most atfsfac.tory .
tnanner, and with such expedition as to warrant
the belief that they will be ready for service early
iu the coming" -'spring A-Important Una addi
tion to our naval force, is;, it still remains ind-
aining three quarters, amount together, to jquate '.to 'the" contingeut exigencies ofttpro
J7.014.784: thus affording in all, as '. the i tection of the extensive sea coast and yastvcom-
.i. . i " ; :i r t TT..: ca. Trf-:
of this fact, and of the acknowledged wisdoWof a
gradual and systematic increase of the-nary an
appropriation is recommended for .th'ecbnstruc
tion of six steam .sloops-of-wai;. T. Jt'C-tl
In regard to the steps taken in execution of
the act of Congress to promote the .'efficiency ofr
the navy, it is unnecessary for me to. say more
than to express entire concurrence m the:, obser
vations on . that subjecVprcsented by ths "Secre
tary iu his report. . - . .-.. . ..- l- V i
It will be perceived by the report of the Post
master General that the gross expenditure ;of the
department for tho. last fiscal year was nine mil
lion nine hundred and sixty-eight thoonnd three
hundred and forty-two dollars, and the gross re
duce tho expenditures, actual or estimated, for! ceipts seven million three hundred and forty-two
ordinary objects of the year, to t,lic sum ot
available resources of the current fiscal year, ;
it .f eoi! QIC Tin ; - '- :v . -!.-. I
If, to the actual expenditures - of the first
quarter of the current fiscal year; be addcel
the probable expenditures for the remaining
three quarters, as estimated by the Secretary
of the Treasury, the sum total, will be 71,
226,840, thereby leaving an estimated balance
in the Treasury on July 1, 1858, of $15,623,
863 40. . " :
In the above estimated expenditures of the
present fiscal year are included '$3,000,000,
the last installment of the ten millions pro
vided for in the late treaty with Mexico, and
$7.750'000 appropriated on account of the
debt due to Texas which two , sums make an
aggregate amount of 10,750,000, and. re-
thousand one hundred and thirty-six dollars, mak
ing an excess, of expenditure over receipts of
two million six'hundred and twenty-six thousand
two hundred and six dollars;! and that the, .cost
of mail transportation during that year was six
hundred and seventy-four thousand nine hundred
and fifty-two dollars greater ! than the previous
year. , ' ". , .. 7 " ' :
Much of the heavy, xpencutures,.i.t6'liich
tlm Traocnrv !a lime Kiiliior-tpH .ia tn lin acnnluul
to the large quantity of printed .matter conveyed
by the mails either franked, or liable to no post
age by law, or to very low rnics of postage'eora
pared with that charged on letters;" and, to. tho
great cost of mail service on railroads and by
ocean steamers- The suggestions of . the t Post
master General on the subject deserve the con
sideration of - Congress. ' - i'i'
. r tt "-
INTERIOR. t ;., : J " j
4 The report of tht Secretary, of the Interior
will engage your attention, as well for useful
suggestions it contains, as for the interest and
importance of the subjects to which they refer.
The. aggregate, amount of the public land
sold during the last fiscal year, located with mil-
The amount of the public debt, at the com
mencement of the present fiscal year, was
40,583,631, and deduction being made of
subsequent payments, the whole public debt
of the Federal Government remaining at this
time is less than 40,000,000. ';'" '
Tho remnant of certajn other government
stocks, amounting to 243,000, referred to in
my last message as outstanding has since been
paid.' . ' . ." '."'' ''" .'" .
I am fully persuaded that it would bo diffi
cult to devise a system superior to that, by
which the fiscal business of the government
is now conducted. Notwithstanding the great
number of public agents' of collection nnd dis
bursement, it is believed that tho checks and
guards provided, including the requirement of
monthly returns, render it scarcely possible
for any considerable fraud on the part of those
agents, or neglect involving hazard of serious
public loss, to escape detection. .
I renew, however, the recommendation,
horAtrtfrn-A made bv me. of the enactment of a
law declaring it felony on the part of public tary scrip or land warrants, Ukcu np under

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