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' ' .1 1 II . I ' II I 11 ' ' 1 1 11 I I . .jl ' i ' t 'I I I II ,1 II t Hi I ! I I I i.1 -I - . I J VOLUME-XXHi: WOODSflELD. MONROE COUETY, OIIIO.GVPIIIL 10,: 18C6. I THK SPIRIT' OF DEMOCRACY. : 0 ?TEB3 ' OP SUBSCRliPTIOIT: ,: i: ,T- dollara pr jitinnm, If paid la adrance; anJ tw (dollars ' arid Iftf cents if not paid in adrac;:; ''" Si 'Ni paper aoo-tinnd, xoept at the plloa"oFllii publisher nntil all. arrears. r paid' t: a Bkeoated' wit- neatness-aad'dispatob at tM fficeand at reasonabla prices'. -. TERMS OF ADVERTISING : ?k7 One Bqaare, three weeds'. One Bquar'ejllire ' Bont37, . . 8 00 Oil sqttarsir jnbnthai.viei.KK..:.. . v 5 ,00 Oi square : nin4 f&onths , . is, . ... r . j. 6. 60 Oneqnar stwelye, montiis, ,V, .V. I" 8 00 Oje-foartii colnmriione year . . ,l. .20 00 Onebaif p.vimn, one year'.5 it; 1 1 . ;30 00 One colnmn,' 6ne year . i".'. i .V. .r. ;J. . 60 00 v X3.3fwelT iiJesVor iesswill be charged as neBqnare'- '" : C7fi'- ; ' 0A11 legal aatertisements will be charged by the. Iine.;1 tatS'Jt F-oii sj. ,Rr. CUT KbtteesftirOjeJ appointment qf Ad-.JS minJstrator'B and,: Executor's; abo- 0"j Attachment Kotiees,ma6t Jbe paid Jn.I tT?adTance f .-1'.," "' , -CTFwty-lTb.'peT Wt. additional will bo . charged on th9""price"of ob work' tf not paid n, advance , ant ohl advertising If noi Jaid be ore' taken out. t sad c! ir! ;V , 5Thd XaV fef :N6 W8'paieTs.;t 1 1 ,; 1. BubScriberkwho do.ot;gIie cypress no titfB to.ie contfaryrWe eonsideredja? .fishing tcf eontaxca their subscription. j , ' If snbscribera irder th discontlntianca of heir ;newSpapers,.lhe publisher ay continue te gnd Ih em '.until kll arrearages are paid.i'-' " 3. 'If Subscribers neglect 'or Refuse to take ihei papers from? the .offices to which they are i!rectd,''tey'e ihelcLJresponsiblo. till they haV4 settled the bill, and ordered them discon Mined-hv JT .s.i . ' ;.. .- J(Jlubscriber9 ,remoT, to. other places Without rafprming the' publishers; and the pa pers are serif to' the former direction, they are held responsible r::t V'l!r";- ' " 5.' The" Courts haTe" decided that refusing tb take perio-icaWfrojn the Office, or removing and leaving th'ebi uncalled for, ,i prima facie etidehc ot inteintionaL fraud. .,vf, o:w,uiritfs:;i7V;V;; ."..J. -.PEKOUSOS O t Til EN S '&' F'E E.G US.O N: ,j if"; J-i-'Ja CS WHOLESaLB. tALERS W , , Drugsyr.i Paints-i jV.Tafnishes". -13 2-0 I L S D TTB S T XT P F , ...: p: JC-E- K T --.M D I (J I.N E MfiNEfVIlLEOHlOr f , Sole agents for the unrivalled Whits kads ' j 'Etna,'' "St. Picholas" dnd "Winsor.' ' "f WSOftlaif;:S . 1 avini resuiried thePrabtice of Med- !"fcie,-tenders' his-Professional ter- i vices to- the oituena oi . vv ooasneia i"n vioinityi. t ;h.J j -a ' C rKeSidexfoe' fie door' north Of Drigg's CM 6, V. tittomeySi atLiEiw,o't'ji H'Nr s y IL L Ei.O H I O o 'rrspeclai attent'fin paid:to'collectlos'-4m6 jr. I cJ3 iSLl-PlDeyii .lilt;, JUia,Y4, i UE LlrAIBE BEL3ION J CQ STfebl4.!-- A fini-v 91 EDWARD 'ARCIICOIiD, i AUbthVfitL-Nfitary'Riblic -AND-' - Hill iary n fti a i ii , A g :e,n t fWOOl)S?lEaP,:O0-IO;q'.miV JAMES E.. MORRIS.-, 1. '-JOHNS. WAY c - -- i r4 "J5"w -A r,i A -Atto r n 0 ysb & 0,0 iiivs 6 Uors -war. Tp;;it2r: a.JfA"'i r i - Woods field, Monroe County, OMo.tf'. -SZ3r Officer verjValtoo'a.Ne.w Store".' ' ; CCPril 1864.; ;;y? i 8r;jiAM0.S.Jl,-:..f- jjBPBlGG Aifiorneyafand, Ckjunselloys at Lav,: QrFici: Two doors nortn' of the Drug ,t6ferXr ollIonroIIotise;'0"'''"'' A . i 'H Attorney fc Cotinsello ttiiaw 3i LiXi Claringlon, Monroe, County Q. Dromise nought, and litigation used only as the1 last -4- WOODSFIELD0, MARBLE -I . TS prepared o furnish Vhl eVerythfng else ict the toiarWe line.i hr-j twd do0rie3ta of the post office, j. ,? -tfj j feb!4,'G6. NIC0LAU3W4ACtENHEIiL, f ' .2 ',?t tvl. .TV tTTTJIJ,- promptly and, faUhfuJty attend U YY . buiiness entrusted to his "cafe." '."Com- ana amicable adjustment always tirst r7ICOLAUS;;WAGENBElM, ! Sucees3or7o!. NeuVart & tof 0 tirg., iFrom the J3oston Post. '. .::: --;TIIE VETO. ; i;: BT WALTKB ASOTTII. FEB. 20j 1868.' ' God bless you, "Andy Johnson!" r . tf . Stand by your Union guns, , " While bunker's granite shaft remains And the Mississippi runs. " a - ' r ' From Maina let, the wild shout go forth, , To the, Pacific shore;.. '. : - No West no South, no fiast, no North, ' But Union e'ye'rmoref 'l I- ; Ti3 Union' thrilling bugle c'ry , .q ' . Re echoing through the land.1 '23 the reville of Liberty! ' Hark! to the summons grand! Heed no tirades, from Wilson, , Nor "earthquafte-bearing Thad," - ' s' r Nor the vain-glorious' Senator's ' - 5;; V BORKOWBD "SCMSBBi'lD."; "' ' ''". f ! -:' - ' , ,' - . Pass down the word along the line, J ' " '' - Stand fibmlt bt the biqhtI y ,!,: ' WhEH' SEtFlSH PABTISAifS'COirBIJrB, v ' 5 Teob patriots must pkitbI. ; -field noli in timeof1 danger, ' : V'- Gird upl as it draws near,; ; ' s'Tour"80ul alike a strang'er c: si To favor o to fear.:;-!'.: ? -f ; Be 'firm, as you have ever stood, ? The 'Champion of onrcausej X Of universal brotherliood',' ..' !;- Cf:-,AndDflmocratioawsl' '; '.,t :;' -i!) , . .,AtTrife; Wanted., t. Somebody who- wahts a" wife pub iisbei the following advertisement ia a St. Louis' aper: --c 5? ''.'v...! : Wanted I have lived solitary long enough a : waui. sume saa 10 iai at, quarrel, with- then kiss and make ' uj again. ' Therefore, ' I ' am ready to re ceive communications from youB2la P la- dfes and blooming widows of more ? than average' respectability, tolerable, tame in-disposition,, and. hair( of(any.'coI: or. ' - ' ! Lt ' '" l -' " As hearly as1' I can judge of myself, I am not over eighty nor under--twenty-five years - of ,'ge. am , either. :five feet eight or. eight feet five,.il forgot which. . .Weight-135,' 315 6f 531 pounds, one of. the three recollect 'each figure perfectly well? ' "but as to " their true : arf rangement -I am i Bomewhat -: puzzled. Have- a whole suit of jiair, dyed by na tarandree ;from . dandruff. jEyes buttermilk' briridle," tiDged '.wita pea grceri. "Nose' bluut," according to Ionic brder of architecture, with1 a" touch of the .composite, and a mouth between a catfish' and an alligator's made es pecially, for oratory - and the. reception of largo oysters. "Ears . palmated; long and elegantly shaped, y My whiskers are a combination of dog's haif,' moss ; and briar-bush well-behaved,' featfully lux uriant,. rfj:.yU. ,,5, . I axn . sound.in, limb and the negro question". ' 'fWear toots No." 9 when corns aro troublesome; and ca'a write poetry by themile.'with .double' rhyme ton' both edgea-r-to tead. backward,- for ward: cross- wUepT. diagonally Can play the: jew's-; harp or basedrum, and. wnistle Yankee- doodle in .Spanish.." . Airi n veryr correct in my"orals, and" first" rate atr ten-pins; andriever drink unlesiinvited.-i is ' .Am. a domestic ? animal, and- perfectly docUe.whfin towels; are tcJean ..and ehirt buttons Il, right. If I possess a pre-cm-ana'ting'' virtue Ht'is tna't 'of forgiving ev ery enemy whom I deem it hazardous-to bandre. ul say my prayers I every- night, musketoea , permitting;1, as; to---whether. I Bnorei w my sleep. I want, somebody to tell. "Money is no object,; as I never was troubled with it,L and never : expect 'to-"b'e. rshould like 'some lady; wbo is perfectly able to support a husband, or if sha could introduce me to a family where, religious exatnp would be considered''. sufficient compensa'tion It would.do just as well."' ! t : :vif;f.. y .- - i " , iu., ;.'u1JI would rathei have newspapers with putjgoverutnentjV said 4he great Jeffer sop, ,44than government without ewspa- - A clergyman lately traveling ; In "the oil regions saw a child stumbling and falling. He kindly picked her ; up saying, "Poor tfttlftdeir'nare') you . Kurt?? wheiii she cried out i J'l aia't poor Dad has struck :i i. 4 - - wo .,,?w ,. f-T7 ' r . , . ...... ,,j-';itji 7,-r; j; .:T;r "Go-it,)ld fellow-'' said two idle scape graces ..to. a onest laborer at . work, "worKaway while we plav sow and we 11 reap.;;' 'Very" likely, ':my lads,'" "replied the old ab, coollyl'b Bowing hemp J' " A YOurig mad2 obtained adivof de from his wifovin tbe i Litchfield 'County .fCt. fcuperioT Court last , y ekr, on acooiint of 'iiOjcompaUbility 'V A . few days since, the lady.-rwho .reeidea Bear Ndrthfield,' " fell te To .00.::-'' 'f-v . . A retiring Western. editor"says""that all'is'!vanlly-Fro the hour -heetarti -a.-.-iI.r .i - ... , . . . ea nis paper io tne 'present lime lie -.oas been. solicited io Jie (upon everygtYen Bubject,and cm'jt , remember ever , hay; ingt toldiaA whoieso'me " truth jitipu diminishing'' 1m 1 ' 6urfptfon s : list; ; or making an ' enemy.'? Coder' -theses ir eorastanccs of lrial, .and having; ithorj otfgb; ;jCjontempt for. himself,-be . retires .ujucc Ao,recrun nis moral consuiu- tioD; -,k'-'jL A r-'-'-n .,AJittJe'girl in PentisyTvania wasr late ly reproved for -playing outdoors"'' with boys, and informed' that, beibgveeven yeats'oldBhfe was "too hie for that now." 3 AUS F?tb all,, imaginable .innocence sh replied: " Why, the bigg er we grow the be tter we hU"e m.1" ' G ran din a tool Utile t& think; - S'-1 v iitrrihe-i c -ijK r?i' Presid e n t ' s M essa g e . He Vetoes the "Civil Rigbts" lBill. Ilis Reasons for Itetiirning the Bill. ' ' lb the Senate of .(he United Stales: . rl regret thst tlie bill which has passed both Houses of Congress, entitled "An act to protect all persons, in the United States in their .civil- rishts. . and provide means of their vindication," contains pro visions which J cannot approve consist ently with my1 sense of duty to the whole people, and my obligations to. the Consti tution "of the United States. " I am'.there fore, constrained to return it to the Sen ate, the house in which it originated, with my, objections to its becoming a law. By the . first section of the bill all persons born in r the" United States, and not sub ject to any foreign power, - excluding In- uiaoa nor. laxea, are aeciarea ip pe citi zens of the United States. .. This.j provision' comprehends tbe Chi nese of the Pacifio "States'. i Indians sub ject to taxation the people ealled gipsies,' as well as tue. entire race desisrnated as blacks, people of color,, negroes, mulat toes, and persons of .African blood; every individual of these races born in the Uni ted States is," by th6 billjtaade a citizen of the United States'. '..It does not purport to declare or confer ; any "other right of citizenship than federal citizenship. : It does not propose to give these classes of persons aBy status of citizens of States, except that which may result from their afotaVas citizens of tbe United States. The power to confer ''the risht of State citizenship is just as exclusively with tbe several States as the power to confer the right-of Federal citizenship is with Con- es3. ...Ihe right of ederal citizenship thus to bo conferred in the several excep ted race9; before . mentioned,'., is , new, for the first i. time, , proposed to be given ' by law. ' ' ; . . rlf.as is claimed by many, that all per sons who are native-born," already are by virtue of the Constitution citizens of the United States,' J.he passage of the pend: ins bill can not be necessary to make them such. ' If, on the-other hand, such persons -are not Citizens, as may be as sumed from the fproposed legislation to make them such,1 the grave question pre sents itself, whether where eleven of the. thirty-six States are unrepresented in Con gress at- this time, it is sound policy to make our entire colored- population and all other excepted classes, citizens of the United btate8."-.f.rTr u ..r,jV v . Four., millions . of them .'have Just emerged from slavery into, freedom, and can it be reasonable to suppose that they possess the requisite qualifications .to en title them all the privileges and immuni ties of citizenship of the United States? Have the people ef. the several States ex pressed such' a conviction? It' way also bo tasked ' whether it is necessary they sbould.W declared citizens in-order that they may be secured in the enjoyment of the civil rights proposed to be conferred by the bill? V '-i'l .Those rights are by. Federal as;well as State1 laws Eecured to all domiciled aliens arid fdreigner3vven- before "the comple tion of the process of naturalization, arid it may safely be assumed the same enact ments are sufficient to gire like protection and benefits to those for whom this bill provides special legislation.. 75;. , Besides, the policy of the Government, fromjts origin to the present time,w seems to have been that persons; who are stran gers to and unfamiliar with our institu tions and our laws should pass through 'a certain prohibition, at1 the end of which, before allowing the coveted prize; they must give evidence of their fitness to re ceive . arid exercise the rights' of citizens as contemplated 'hy the ' Constitution of the United States." r ' "!U;1; ' ' ; ' . The bill, 'n effect, proposes a discrimi nation against large numbers of intelli gent, worthy and patriotic. 'foreigners, ahd in favor of the negro; to who-mffer long years oi oonuage, avenues io. ireeuoin ana intelligence have just now been suddenly opened. 3 He must, of necessity," from: his previous ' .unfortunate condition of servi tude:' be iess ' informedTasi to the nature arid character of bur institutions. than he, who, coining from abroad,hasto some ex tent, "at least,5 familiarize'd himself-with the principles of a Government to-which he voluntarily 'entrusts 'life, liberty 'and the pursuit of. happiness. i- -A-sztKi apt j " -Yet It is"riow proposed by - single leg islative enactment to confer the rights of citizens upon all persons 'of African: de scent born within the extended limits of the Uriited States, ..while ; persons of ,for eign birth, who make.: our land . their homes, must undergo a probation', of .five years, apd can only) then .become citizens upon proof that they are of sood, 'moral character,: attached to ; the principles" of the Constitution 'of the United. otates,and well disposed to the good order and bap piness ot the same. tf , V) 1 The first section' ofjtho bill val"sP con. trins iri enumeration : of the' rigbs' to be erijoye'd by those chsses ee made citizeos, in every State ind Territory m the United States.' tThe' r"ighti;are;'-to' make! and enforce oontracts', tO 'sue-'the partiesto1 pive evidence; ta inherit, putchasei lease! sellj holdand , f con'Vey feal and personal property; and to hzH the- fnll and equal benefi t of all laws and proceedia gs fox the security bi persons and property as is en-; joyed by white citizens;:"' ed) ai Ui.vi a So, -too-, the are. i&ade .bjecVta tbe same punishment,- pains aud,-penalties common with white citizens, and to none o,thersj';;thns. a; perfect equality r of. the white and colored races is attempted to be fixed by Federal law in every State of.th Union. Over the vast field of State ju risdiction covered by these enumerated rights in no one , of, them , can any State exercise any power of discrimination be tween the different races. .( '. : , In . the exercise of State policy over matters exclusively .affecting the people of each State, it has frequently been thought expedient to discriminate between the two races by the statutes bf' so me of the States 'North as well as South. It is en acted, for instarie'e, that no white person shall intermarry with a negro Or mulatto. Chancellor Kent says,', speaking, of the blcs) that marriage .between them and the whites are forbidderia gome 'of the States where slavery, does not .exist, arid they, are prohibited- in '.all slaveholding States by law, and when not absolutely contrary to law they are revolting and re garded as an , offense against the public decorum, . . .. . ' ..." . I do. not say that this bill repeals State laws on the6ubject of intermarriage be tween the .' two races,' forr as the whiles are forbidden to intermarry with blacks, the blacks can only makesuch contracts as the whites' themselves are:' allowed to make,- and, therefore, can not under this bill enter into marriage contracts with the whites. .'. '. '' - ' . '.'' ! '' .' . I cite this discrimination; howeverj as an instance of tho State policy as to dis crimination, and .to. inquire whether, if Congress can abrogate all , State laws of discrimination.! between the two races in the matter of real estate, . of suits and of contracts generally ,Congress may npt also repeal the State laws as to the contracts of marriage between : the 'races. Hitherto every subject embraced iri the, enumera tion of rights contained in; the bill has been considered as exclusively belonging to the. States;' they all relate 'to the' inter nal p6licy and economy of tho respective States.. ' ' ' ; " " '.';They 'are matters which; in each State, concern tne domestic condition ot its people,' varying in' each according to its own peculiar circumstances and the earetv and well being of . it3 own citizens. - 1 do not mean to say that upon all these sub jects there are' not Federal restraints, as. for instance, in the btate power of legis lation over. contractors, there is a ed- eral )imitation that no State shall pass a law impairing the obligations of contracts: and as to crimes, that no State ahall pass an ex post facto law, and as- to money,that no State Ehall make, ariythinx but gold and silver a legal tender." . "But where can we tnd a Federal pro bibition against YbV power bfany'Sla'te'tO discriminate, as dd most of .tbe.m.between aliens and citizens, between artificial per sons called corporations, naturalized per sons in the right to hold real estate.' If it be granted that Congress can repeal all State laws discriminating between whites and . blacks in the subjects covered ' by this bill, why, it may be askedj inay not Congress repeal all State laws'discrimina ting.between the two races on the subject of suffrage and office? If Congress can declare by law who shall hold lands, who shall testify, ' who shall have 'capacity to make contracts in a State, then Congress can also by law declare who,'; without re" gard to race or color, shall have tbe right to". sit as a juror or' as a judgeto bold any office, "arid finally to vote iri. every State and territory .of thei United States: ' ' -,r , . As. respects ; the Territories ! they com o within the power 6f Congress ;for, 'as to thorn, the' law making power is the Fede ral power, r But, as te the States, no sim ilar provision exists, vesting 'in Congress the power to make rules " and regulations for therii. r" The object of the second sec tion of .the bill is to afford;dis''ctimination and protection". to colored persons in tho full enjoyment . Of all " rights; secured to them by tne preceding section. It declares that any person; who, under color pf- any law, statute.ordinancej'reg iilation or "custom shall subject, or cause to be subjected' any inhabitant of any State' or territory to .the deprivation of any-; ngu( seuuit;t,i vr pruiecicu .uy iuia act, of to different punishments, pains or penalties, on account of such person hav ing at any time been held in a condition of,slavery or involuntary servitude except as a punishment ' of crime,' whereof the party shall have been duly' convicted or by reason. of color or' race than' is : pre scribed for the punishment of white pei sbns4 shall te deemed guilty" of a misde meanor, and,' pri conviction, sbq.ll be pun ished by fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or imprisonment not 'exceeding one year, or both, in the discretion of the court. .. ... .; . , "" ' ; This section seems to be designed to apply to soirie existing and future law of a ptata or Aerniory wuicu, mayconmci with'tbe-'provisiohs of the bill now under r ' '3 .-it:--- ' t .-:ne. acting sncb forbidden JegislatioriJ by 'irri posing ane-and imprisonmens upon, tne egislator who may pess ' such conflicting aws, or upon me omcer or agents wno Bban 'pu. or attemp't.to' "put them into' ex ecutlon;;; ;-- i It means ap.official offense, riot a'cob mori' crime,'! (jommitted. against Taw" upon the person oi property '6f the black' race. Such an aet may deprive .the black man of his property, but not of his right to hold property; ' It' means ai deprivation of the right itselfiithef by the State Ju diciary pr the State Legislatrire.j" . , .IHs, therefore,' , 'assumed "that under thTa- section jnembers of 'a State Legisla ture, who' should Vote for Jaws conflicting with the provision's of tbe bijl;" that' judges' p the ' State;' Uptlr.ts who '6hould render judgmerits'lri aritagonisiri with its terms' arid .Marshals'' arid , Sheriffs who should.' as' ministerial ofiicers.execute pro cesses sanction ed by Statp laws, issued by State Judges, In execution ot their judg ments, could bp brought before other tri-i bunalsj and,there subjected to fine and inicrisontQent for the performance of the duties which such State laws may impose, j The legislation thus proposed invades the judicial power of the State.7 Ifsa'ys to every State Court or judge; if you de cide that this act; is unconstitutional, if you refuse, under the prohibition of a State law, to allow a negro to testify,, if you hold that even in such' a subject mat ter thei said law is pafamount,under color of -a State law; or refuse the ' exercise of the right :to the; negro, your error. of judgment, however conscious,, shall sab-. ject you to fine and imprisonment. ' I do'not . apprehend that the conflicting legislation which - the bill seems to coh- template,is bo likely to occur as to reader J it necessary at this unip'tp: adopt measf ure of "such doubtful constitutiouality". -Itt the. next plaoe this, 'provision . of the bill seems to be unnecessary, as adequate judicial remedies could bo adopted to se cure the: "desired end without invading the immunities of legislators always im portant to be preserved in the interest of public liberty, without assailing the.inde pence of the judiciary,: always: essential to the. preservation of individual ; rights and, without, impairing the. "efficiency of ministerial officers always necessary for the maintenance of public peace, and or-: der. f.:; : -' ' .- ,; - , vjTh'e remedy proposed by this section seems to.be in this respect not only anom alous but unconstitutional; ' for the Con stitution guarantees nothing with 'certain ty if it docs not insure the several States the rfght of making index ruling laws in regard to all matters arising within their jurisdiction, subject only to the. restric tion in the cases ot conflict with the Con stitution and Constitutional t laws of the United: States, the latter to be held ds the supreme law of the land..;, The; third . section gives the District Uourt3 bOhe United States exclusive cognizance of all crimes and offenses com ' mitted against the 'provisions of this' act, and concurrent jurisdiction-of the; Uni ted states, of all civuand criminal cases affecting persons whr are denied,'or can not enforce in the Courts or judicial tri- Dunais ot tne otate or locality wnere tney may be, any of the rights secured to them by the first.. section; of the construction which I have given to the second section, for it makes clear wbat kind of denial or deprivation of rights secured 'by the first section was in contemplations y -i he It is a "denial or privation -of such rights'ih the courts or judicial 'tribunals of the State. ' It stands,' therefore clear of doubt, that the offense and the' penal ties provided. in the second section, are priXendeTfdTtl clear .exercise. c nistunctions as a Judge, notr acting . ministerially but judicially, shall jdecido contrary to this Federal law. In other words, when a fftate Jndge, acting upon a question involving a con flict between a State law and a federal law,; and bound according to his own judgment and responsibility : to" give an impartial decision between the two, comes to the .conclusion that. the State law is valid and the federal law invalid," he must not follow the dictates of his own judg at the. peril of fine and imprisonment. .-. - ; The legislative department of the Uni ted States tbu3 takes ..from the judicial department, of the States. .the sacred and exclusive duty of a judicial decision, and converts ?the State Judge into a merP ministerial officer,, bound to decide accor ding to the will jOf. Congress. . .: .-. ;It is clear that in States which pleny tp persons whosei rights are secured-by the first section of. the bill, any .one of-those rignt9f an criminal .ano civil cases.aneci ingjthera : will,iby the proYisforisof the third .section, comp-under the' executive cognizance, of. the .Federal triburials5. It follows that .if: any, State 'which denies to a colored person any one of all these rights; and that person should commit a crime against the. laws of a; State mur der pr any. other .crimeaH" protection and punishment through the courts of the State are taken away, and he can orilybe tried' and punished by. the federal court. ' Jiow is the criminal to be .tried," if the offense is provided for and punished by Federal law ?. that law and not State law, is to govern. i It is only when the de fense,, does not happen to be within the provisions of Federal law. that the Fed eral epprts. are ;tp try . and, punish .him under, any other law; then resort is to be had .to the-commpn law as modified, and changed by . State - legislation, so far, as the same ", is. not inconsistent, with" the Constitution . and r laws - of ;therUnited States, so that over" this -yast .domain of criminal jurisprudence provided by ' each State for the protection of its own!, citi zens and, for. the; punishment - of all'-.her so ns whpvvipiatetj:itf criminallaws! "Fed eral law, .wherever it can be mae to apply displaces; States law. Th? ques tion naturally ; -arises, from -what , source Congress derives the power to transfer to Federal tribunals certain classes of cases embraced in this section. v r Thp Constitution expressly ..declares that the judicial power ' of the United States: shallextend to" all cases, ",in la apd equity arising jinder .' this" Cdnstitu,' tion, the laws , of the United State's; arid treaties made and which shalKbe",.made under their authority; to Jill cases' affect ing ambassadors or, other publicmjnis ters and consuls;' to alj cases'of admiralty and maratioe jprisdiction: to (cpritrov'er aies tp? which the United.Stafea shall be a party, to controversieB' Vjetween twp.br more Stes, between a.Sfa'to 'and citizens of. anotfcer State, between citizens pCdif ferent States', between citizens, gf the sarhe State, claims lands . Judder -grants of jdiff ereut States, and between a, State or the oiUzehs thereof, and. foreign 'St jtes$ citi zens' or Bubj'ects herOj the Judiciary ppwer of. thc-.Unitedr States; is; expressly. $et forth and defined, and the act of Septem ber; 24, 1789, estabushingithe .Judiciary Courts of the United States jn conferring upon the Federal Courts juriedictioB over cases originating in! State tribunals is careful to confine them in the classes enu-1 merated' in" the bove '.recited clatiBe of the Constitution. : r This ' eection' of the; bill undoubtedly rbomprehended :'case,: and authorizes the exercise of .powers that are not, by the Constitution, with va; the jprisdietioTi of.;the -Courts of thpjUofted 5tates,: To transfer them to those Courts would be an exercise of authority f well calculated to expjl;e distrust and. alarmT on the part of all the States, for the bill ap plies alike to, all of them, as well to those that have nat jjeen, engaged,' in.-rehel- liori , ; v;y r9-;-' - '.It way . be assumed that this "authority 13 : incident to the p'Pwergranted to- CotT'4 gresavoy s tna vonstitatipnj' aa-; raee;ny amended to enforce, by uppropriate Jegis lation the article, declaring that neither slavery nor' involuntary servitude except a i'-punishmeri t for " crime whereof ' the party shall have been duly convicted,' shall exist-withjn,'; the .United Statesor any place subject to their jurisdiction.; ..It can nothoweycr, be. justly claimed that with a view to the enforcement of this' article of the Constitution, there ? is at present any necessity for the exercise of all the powers which this bill' confers. Slavery has been; abolished, arid, at'pres ent nowhere exists within tho .jurisdic tion of the United States: nor? has there Jieennor is it likely there ,wi.lLbe any rtempts to revive it by the pepple pf the States; i :-r '2 t cffr .r However, if any suchttempt shali be made, it will become the duty of the .Gen eral Government to exercise any and all incidental powers necessary and proper to; maintain inviolate! this ; Government law of the freedmen. The fourth section of this bill provides ; that, pfficers . and agents of the Freedmen's Bureau shail"be empowered to make ' arrest3, and' that other officers may be commissioned for that; purpose by; the President; of: the United States.. - --:,-. . .. ,It also ,anthonzes: Circuit Courts, of United States, Superior courts of Terri tories'; to Appoint, without limitation, commissioners, who are to be charged with i the performance of. quasi, judicial duties.; -; The fifth section empowers the Commissioners -so to, be selected by, the Court to appoint in writing one "or more suitable persons from time to time to ex ecute warrants and other processes desi rable by the bill.,' rt ' .; . : The: numerous official agents are made to constitutute sort of police, in- addi tion to the military, and are authorized to summon & posse comiiatuSi and even to f-eyrihr--eueivrrtiea-;of -the -land ana naval lorces or tne United Ctates, or of the militia,, as may be necessary to the performance of the duty with which hey are charged. ' " 11 - Thi3 extraordinary power is o be con ferred npon agents irresponsible lo Gov eminent to the people; to, whose number the description, of the . commissioners is the only limits, and in whose hands such authority might be made a terrible' en gtrie of wrong, oppression and fraud.1- The general statutes regulating land na val forces; of the; United States,- the. mili tia and execution of the laws are believed to be adequate for any emergency which Pari occur in time of peace. -' '5 ' If it should prove otherwise, Congress can at any' time amend those laws in such manner. as, while Bubserving.. the public welfare, not to jeopard the rights, in terests and liberties of thp-pe'ople.' ' '."' " ".' The" seventh 'section provides that a fee of $10 shall be paid to each commis sioner i every case brought before him, and a fee of $5 to his deputy or.deputies for each person he ror they may arrest and take hef ore any such" commissioner," with such' other fees a3 may:'be-! deemed rea sonable by such commissioner in general fori performing such-other duties. as may be. required in the 'premises.. -. 4. , ... j. AH these " fines' arc to be paid out 'of the Treasury of the -United ! States; whe ther there is a conviction or not; but io case pf eonvictforithey are to be re ceivable from'the 'defendant It'.seeriiB to me that under the Influence "of such temptations, bad men might convert any law, however beneficial, ;info"an instru ment of persecution arid frauds ' vByrthe twenty-eighth .section- of. the bill-tbe.. United; States Courts, whioh sit only in one place for white citizens, must migrate' with the 'Marshal arid District Attorney, and necessarily with the Clerk, although it is: not mentioned, to any part of ;tho . district, supon . te order .of, the President, and there, hold a court, for the purpose ofthe more srieedy arrest find trial of 'perSoris: charged with 'a violation of thisact, and there the Judge and offi cers of the court must remain upon the order pf ,the President for thetime there in designated. .. , ' ' '? ".' The.uinth 6c'ctipn'authPrizes the Prcs-" iden't, or such p"crson as he may empbwej for that purpose, to employ such part ;of the land and;uavah; lorces of; the United States, or of the' militia', ai 'shall be ne cessary ; to prevent Ihe .violation, and en force the "execution of ' this act r This l'aiiguage seems ' Fd "emply 'a 'permaneril military force ) that fia always ', to. :;be athandand whose only business yist tp be the enforcement of t this, measure pve the vast region where " it4 is intended to operate-'; tyi!L vir.nn I jdo not propose to consider tba policy of this bill, i To nie .thes details .of the bill are vfraught with evil.- .The white race and"black raco of the South" have hitherto lived, together under k tho rela tion of -in as ter and ' ilave. Capital owning labor. Ndw thatrelatiouis phanged, and as to ownorahip,capitalan.d Jabor are divorced, they sta&d-'oow each master of itself; 4 v.rr.:;; its .it,-:;- - ; Iri "this new relation, one being neces- eary, io me oiner. . mere . win . be. a new adjustmptj, which both are deeply inter ested in makiner harmonions: eanh has "erial power in settling ' the tertnsand if kit to' the laws that regulate rcapital and labe)c iHs fonfideolly rBeTievel thet will is-uejiwtorcniy worjins ue prooiem Capital, :y lsnrue'has ,-more tntelli gence, but. laborjs never so ignorant as not to understand its ownintereat3, not to Imow .its own" value,: a-riot to'ee that capitafriiu'si''' pay atv valuer Thi3l1H rrusiraiesvinis aajusiment. It intervenes between capital anj'lali ot ' "' ' and attempts fo iittle! i cejllon'-oppo litieaIeeonomy1hToagtho--ageaoyof numerous ; officials whose interest it-will be t o ferment, discord ; .between jthe yro races, fpr,. as . the;, bxeachl.-widens, -.their perieflce 3 a v people rlivinar mndetiFed eral anctStala lawo tsucK'iyafenil fcaT that contemplated byi that details 'of this bill: haieveri before IbeenT proposed jor adopted 1 They establish sfbr the a.op.oHil ty of-the coQred;radoi:safegnirds .whieht go infinitely beyond any .that. the. Uene ral o,yerrJment .hasverrpjjdedjprjg., white race. s s. -------- . Ih'factthel distinctioX offrhcefan color is, by the billmade to operate in favor of the colored and againstt4he white race'Ihey interfere wita the tnu nieipal legislation of the States with-fhe relations' existing' exclusively between State and its sttizens', arid between! jtltf inhabitants, of the aroe,,State"',and abfi sPrbtiori and assamptiotf of poWrHiy the ' General Government,7vvhjch,!5 if-iaequi-j esced in, must saj) .and destroy ou i'edT erative system-ofimited' powers"; and breakdown the barriers which flreserylef-, the rights" of thetates: o""7 Oil is, in. fact, "another slipliiifOtattefr stride, toward. , centralizatioaj ran,d.the t concentration of alHegisla'tivei jpiwet. irf the national government Ihete'a denary fj the bill must be toVresuscitate the spirit ofrebelii'on,!! to arrest-t"progressS of .those influences' which are.Djorp close. ly drawing around the" State's "the bonds of Union and peace ihe la"metrte4;predeif cessorjn his .proclamation. eff, the Istof January, 1863, -ordered 'arid declared that all persons held as slaves'; withiricertain States and parts of States' therein design -nated, were arid thenceforward "6houlhe'J free;. And further, that, .the. Executive! Government of the United :5tafe', 'in cluding th em ili tary an 4 n it ail a'u th Pti-l ties thereof, ; would r recognise -and ma,i9-r tain the freedom of such persons.V'i This guajantee has, .hejyr jed.eed es pecially.obligatory ... andsacredL byJLhe amendment of the . Constitution "abolish- - ing. slavery throughout theJjniled" States.. I therefore fully recognize the obligatiobf to protect; anddefendthafclass of onr people whenever arid wherever ' Dr'sLall becomenecessary,rto the full extent eomj patible with the Constitution. o the, Uni- ted States entertaining, these sentimerits. It ony remains for me c to-jsaythat I will cheerfully co-operate with Congress in any measure ; that may fie .necessary for the preservation of the ci vil -rights ;pt", the freedmen, as well as those of ill other, classes of persons thronghoutthe Waited1 States by judicial proces-'undet-equ'al' and impartial -law3 or. -conformably with? thej positions of the Federal Constitution;! I now return the bill to th Sepate, a'n regret that in" considering:' the 'bill )irid' j oin t resolutions forty-two in ri"umhef:?r; which have been thus far submitted .'fof a my approval, Ifamoompelled tp w itbold my assent fxo mj a .secpnd . measure ihi' has the sanctiori"of both'Hoases of Cov gfessV' v:l '"t.iii: ' : Signed ( ' : AifD JoflSSrMl WashingtonD. C.:MaTh 7, ia66Irr;a j.--, CKriosities of .Ilumaniiy itk '"' SomFauthbr' or r6te"i,wrot'erhtiseIfe blind, as we have heard; eri the'Carlos itios-t;of '.UateratareVJ-.bCltith&'-jcelrUhil would have used up two or three pairs oij eyes if he had set himself seriously at, work.' looking but for the curiosities '61 humanity; vWe could ;have"'irieritid'ried it few to himand here they are;: vTT" ,u ; The husband that vgaysj to 'his.wif pnr a Monday night, .when jsopk is. ia revolt,; dinner ia behind-hand . and stoc- down,' "My dear, you look "tifed--let me walk' up and down with the baby while you f est! ' The wife who -expends r as much p'ains? upon her .toilet on a rainy morning when there is j no . one but -."John?, at, the breakfast-table, as she does, on the even irigwhcri,her did sweetheart is coming to3 call 1 Jus.--? n '.iiKsic'i " The basbahd; who- reads 'all.th CorH gressional debates to.i hia wife, without, meanly skipping every ;othcr: paragraph and always keeps her posted' in floating" politics 1;: "l "'' i-K ' in The wife who5 provides herself uith spools of cotton,' thimbles and, sewings work before the reading begins, and don'tj. have tp jump up oncein are. minutetto "fetch 8oinething from' the next robin!" " The man who 'is consisteat;fand feoes out -to-chop kindlings for '-exercise - after" having Tecommendedhed-making; to. hi? wife.as :a. healthful methpd of expanding the chest!; . . -:,!' . ; It s ' V'.;t ; ' The woman' wh o tells" her husbani Just . exactly how much1 money she'sent iaf that shopplrig, expedition yesterday 1 iTheman whojs.always delighted with the domestic puddings and pies, and don' : expect a daily bill of fare Tike' ntoa French restaurant r 1 " - cThewomanHvEo:idon',t lo&W iritb'-aU the envelopes in hsr husband'ji rest "pock-: etwhenjsbe; menda that garme.nti,,,, 4ji j 7, The. marit who. never .saw . a" collar. paU te'rn thatfits so much'-betfer than nis ever did 1 LilH: s?i Jie kf TheVoinao wh'ol fca't tell the olor?cS hef neighbor's new wiater bonnet I asl'II ; .The . husband who, eseciallydaring; northeaBt storms, and, during 'the prevs." lance of domestic 'toothaches makes up1 his mind that it is a great deal cheaper1 to be amiable than to 't cold ! '.Phrw logical Journal, . -. : . ) I l u" ' " -:' - - - ' s i -' --:; --'t il A empiojrmem wiu,couunue, ana wnen.it is closed", "their 'occnpatioa " will Wgoue. ; i n- ait-our oast mstory -in -alt-ouf -4x - - V f 3'