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HILLABOBO GH. OHIO. THURSDAY, MAY 18, 1876. THE CENTENNIAL The Great Anniversary Exhibition in Philadelphia. Views of the Exhibition Buildings and Full Descriptions of the Various Departments. Arrangements for the Centennial. The act of Congress which provided for " celebrating the one hundredth an niversary of American inde nendence, by holding an International Exhibition of arts, manufactures, and products of the soil and mine," authorized the creation of the United States Centennial Com mission, and intrusted to it the manage ment of the Exhibition. This body is composed of two commissioners from each State and Territory, nominated by the respective governors, and commis sioned by the President of the United States. The enterprise, therefore, is dis tinctly a national one, and not, as has sometimes been stated, the work of a private corporation. The Exhibition was opened on May 10, 1S76, and remains open until November 10. There will be a fixed price of fifty cents for admission to all the buildings and grounds. ' The centennial grounds are situated on tne western bank of the Schuylkill river, and within Fairmount Park, the largest public park in proximity to a great city in me worm, and one of the most Deautuul in the country. The park contains 3,160 acres, 450 of which have been inclosed for the Exhibition. .besides this tract, there will be large yarns near Dy lortneexnibition of stock, and a farm of fortv-two acres has alrenriv been suitably planted for the tests of plows, mowers, reapers and other ag- uuiuiurai macninery. The Exhibition buildings are approach ed by eight linesof street cars, which con nect with all the other lines in the city, and by the Pennsylvania and Reading railroads, over the tracks of which trains will also run from the North Pennsyl Tania and Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore railroads. Thus the Exhibition is in immediate connection with the entire railroad system of the . Country, and any one within ninety miles of Philadelphia can visit it at no greater cost than that.of carriage hire at the Paris or Vienna exhibition. An important special exhibition will be made by the United States govern ment, and has been prepared under the supervision of a board of officers repre senting the several executive depart ments of the government. A fine build ing of four and a half acres is provided for the purpose, space in which will be occupied by the war, treasury, navy, in- tenor, post-office, and agricultural de partments, and Smithsonian Institution. The Women's Centennial executive committee have raised $ 30,000 for the erection of a pavilion in which to ex hibit every kind of women's work. To this collection women in all nations are expected to contribute. The list of special buildings will be from two hundred to two hundred and fifty. Most of the important foreign nations England, Germany, Austria, France, - Sweden, Egypt, Japan," and others have put up one or more struc tures each, for exhibiting purposes, or for the use of the commissioners, exhibit ors and visitors. Offices and headquar ters of this kind, usually of considerable architectural beauty, are provided by the States of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Missouri, Kansas, Virginia, West Virginia, Nevada, Wisconsin, central art gallery, opposite the principal entrance. The art exhibition includes, in addi tion to the worksof contemporary artists, representative productions of the century of American art those, for stance, of Stuart, Copley, Trumbull, West, Alston, Sully, Neagie, Elliot, Cole. These, as well as the works offered by living artists, have been passed upon by the committee of selection, who visited, for the purpose, New York, Bos ton, Chicago, and other leading cities, order to prevent the needless transpor tation to Philadelphia of works of not up to the standard of admission. A large number of orders and frater nities have signified their intention hold gatherings at Philadelphia during the period of the Exhibition. Among fhose which may now be enumerated, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Inde pendent Order of Odd Fellows: Grand Encampment, Independent Order CARPENTERS' HALL. of Odd Fellsws; Grand Lodge, United States, Independent Order oi Odd Fel lows; Grand Commanderv ' Knio-hta Templar ; Grand Army f the Republish rcuyerian cynoa ; wiieaoni Ulns: Portland Mechanic Blues; Welsh Na tional Eostefodd; Patriotic Order Sons America; California Zouaves of San Francisco; an international Regatta! ic .unc iurumuic companies ; national Board of Underwriters ; State Agricul- tural Society; Second Infantry, N. G. oi taiiiornia ; rmiade.'pnia Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church ; Cincinnati Society; California Pioneer Society; American Dental Convention ; Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America ; In dependent Order of B'nai Berith ; Na tional Alumni Association; Salesmen's Association; Fifth Maryland Regiment; Seventh New York Regiment; Ameri can Pomological Society ; Malster's Association of the United States; Army of the Cumberland ; Humboldt Monument Association, Christopher Co lumbus Monument Association; Board of Trade Convention; International Typographical Congress; Rifle Associa tion of the United States; Centennial liegion; Philadelphia County Medical society; International Medical Con gress; Old Volunteer Fire Department of Philadelphia; German Rifle Club; Army or the Potomac, etc., etc. Main Building. This is a parallelogram, runnimr pjint and west 1,876 feet long and north and south 4G4 feet wide. The larger por tion is one story hieh. the interior height being seventy feeli and the cor nice on the outside forty-eight feet from the ground. At the centers of the longer sides are projections 416 feet in length, and on the ends of the building projec tions 216 feet in length. In these which are in the center of the four sides, are located the main entrances, which are provided with arcades upon the ground lioor, and central facades 90 feet high. The east entrance will form the principal approach for carriages, visitors alighting at the doors of the building under cover of the arcade. The south entrance will be the principal approach from railway cars. The west entranceopens upon the main passageway to two principal build iugs, the machinery and agricultural halls, and the north entrance to Memo rial Hall (art gallery). Towers 75 feet ia height rise at each corner of the build ing. In order to obtain a central feature, the roof for 184 feet square at, the center has been raised above the surrounding past in in "art to are the of has led us to secure the accompanying illustrations and the latest information relative to its progress. Notwithstand ing the inertness of American exhibitor?, the position of the Exhibition on tenth of May is far in advance of that any formor International Exhibition the same time. The following description will give complete iua oi ine extent or grounds and the size of the buildings : The Exhibition buildings are located in Fairmount Park, which adjoins builtrup portions of Philadelphia on north-western border. This is a beauti ful park of 2,740 acres, upon which city nas already spent over ?ti,000,000, and is now annually expending a large sum in auornments and improvements. Through it runs the Schuylkill river, bordered by high banks and ravines, and its treat natural beauty baslntii by art. The building are located on some of the most beautiful gxts the banks of this river, grovf s of stately trees surrounding them, spendid views of river and landscape being alluded. The buildings stand from 112 feet 1 20 feetabove the highest tide-water level in the Delaware river, and fully that heightabove the Schuylkill. Philadel phia is a city of 800,000 inhabitants, containing 133,000 dwelling houses, large proportion of which are owned their occupants, and this number is be ing increased at the rate of 6,000 a year. Girard avenue, oneof the chief streets Philadelphia,leadsdirectly from the heart of the city to the entrance of the main Exhibition building. This is a highway one hundred feet in width. crossing the Schuylkill river upon the magnificent iron bridge seen in the background of the frontispiece, and which was erected at a cost of f 1.500,000 expressly to furnish good facilities access to the Exhibition grounds. This avenue passes through the park in westerly direction, and is a very fine drive. Bordering it on the right hand are the Exhibition grounds. These coverabout 236 acres, which are inclosed for the buildings, in addition to which there are other inclosures for the dis pis Vi inc plays of horses and cattle. At the lenna Exhibition of 1875, the inclosure. including that for the horses and cattle. which was ol considerable size, covered 260 acres. The buildings at Vienna gave about 2,000,000 square feet ground floor surface for exhibitors, and covered forty-two acres. There were originally provided at Philadelphia fifty acres of buildings, giving 2,107,000 square feet of surface, but applications for space are so numerous as to render enlargment necessary. The articles exhibited have been classified in seven departments, which, for the most part, are located in ap propriate buildings, whose several acres are as follows : 1. Mining and metallurgy ; 2, manufac tures; 3, education and science, main building, 21.47; 4. Art, art gallery, 15; 5. Machinery, machinery buildin?, 14 6. Agriculture, agricultural building, 10 ; 7. horticultural, building, 1.5. Total, 48.47. The first of them which one reaches in coming lrom the city is the main exhibition' building; but the only point from which a comprehensive view may be taken of "them all is from the summit of Georee's hill, on the western margin of the Exhibition MEMORIAL HALL. Iowa, and Delaware; and others lave followed the example, A number of trade and industrial asso ciations, which require large amountsjof space, are provided for in special buildings. Among these are the pho tographers, the carriage builders, the glass makers, the cracker bakers, the boot and shoe manufacturers, besides quite a number of individual exhibitors. The great demand for space ren ders this course necessary to a con siderable extent, especially for exhibit ors who have been tardy in making their applications. - In the main exhibition building, for example, 333,300 square feet of space bad been applied for by the beginning of October by American ex hibitors only; whereas, the aggregate space which it has been possible to re serve for the United States department is only 160,000 square feet About one third is consumed by passage ways. The machinery building, like the others, is fully covered by appli cations. There are about 1,000 Ameri can exhibitors in this department, 150 English, and 150 from other European countries which is about 250 more than entered the Vienna machinery exhibi-J tion. Extra Provision 'W Been made! for annexes to accommodate the hydraulic machinery, the steam hammers, forges, hoisting engines, boilers, plumbers, car penters, etc Tower in the machinery hall will be chiefly supplied by a pair of monster Corliss engines. Each cylinder is forty inches in diameter, with a stroke of ten feet ; the fly-wheel is thirty-one feet in diameter, and weighs fifty-five tons; the horse-power is 1,4U0, and the number of boilers is twenty. This engine drives about a mile of shafting. For the art exhibition, the most eminent American artists have been at work, and it may be confidently stated that, especially in the department of landscape painting, the United States will present a finer display than the pub lic has been led to expect. Quite aside from the contributions of American ar tists, applications from abroad call for more than four times the exhibiting epac afforded by the great memorial hall. Provision for the surplus has been made in temporary fire-proof buildings, though all exhibiting nations will be represented in the central art gallery. The secretary of the navy arranged that a United States vessel should call at convenient European porta, to collect and transport hither to the Exhibition the works of American artists resident in Europe. Among the ports des ignated, are Southampton for Eng land, Havre for France, Bremen for Ger many, and Leghorn for Italy. Mr. Bell, the eminent English sculp tor, who designed the groups for the plinth for the great Albert memorial in Hyde Park, London, has repro ducad in terra cotta, at the cele brated works in Lambeth, the one which symbolizes America. The figures in this group 'are colossal, covering a ground space of fifteen feet square. It is placed in the great ierea lor the protection of the Greek portion, and four towers 48 feet square and rising to 120 feet high, are intro duced into the corners of this elevated roof. This gives ventilation as well as ornament. The main building gives 936,008 square feet of surface or nearly 21 acres. Its ground plan shows a cen tral avenue 120 feet in width, and 1,832 feet in length which is the longest avenue of that width ever introduced into an exhibition building. On either side of this is another avenue of equal length, and 100 feet wide. Between the central and side avenues are aisles 4S feet wide, and on ihe outer sides of the building smaller aisles of 24 feet in width. To break the great length of the roof-lines three transepts have been introduced, of the same widths and in the same relative positions to each other as the longitudi nal avenues. These cross the building and are 416 feet in length. The intersec tions of these various avenues make at the center of the building nine spaces, free from supports, which are from 100 feet to 120 feet square, and which aggre gate 416 feet square. The general eleva tion of the roof of all these avenues varies from 45 to 70 feet US Pn lnf 8"" bKen thoroughly grade! The building rests upon the ground, and prepared. The foundation consists of piers ot masonry, the superstructure be ing composed of wrought iron columns, placed twenty-four Jeet apart, which support iron roof trusses. There are six hundred and seventy-two of these col umns in the entire structure, the shortest being twenty-three feet and the longest one hundred and twenty-five feet long. Their aggregate weight is 2,200,000 pounds. The roof trusses and girders weigh 5,000,000 pounds. The sides of the building, to seven feet above the ground, are finished with brickwork in panels between the columns. Above this there are glazed sashes. The roof covering is of tin, that being the best roofing known in this climate to resist leakage. The floor ing is of plank, upon sills resting upon the ground, with no open space beneath. Turret surmount the building at all the corners and angles, and the national standard, with appropriate emblems, is placed over each of the main entrances. In the vestibules variegated brick and tile are introduced. Louvre ventilators surmount all the avenues, and skylights the central aisles. Light, of which there will be ample supply, comes from the north and south sides almost entirely. There underlie the building two miles of drainage pipe, the water supply and drainage system being complete. Officers for the foreign commissions are placed along the sides of the building, in clo. proximity to the products exhibited. Officers for the administration are at the ends. The design of the building is such that all exhibitors will have an equally fair opportunity of exhibiting their goods to advantage. There is comparatively little choice of location, as the light is uniformly distributed, and each of the (pace devoted to products is located upon one ot the main thoroughfares. Our International Exhibition. girl, The great interest felt by our readers in the success of this national enterprise t Centennial Board of Finance, whose unex- grounds, the point of view taken in the frontispiece ; and here the spectator will find the machinery and agricultural halts in the foreground, and the main building and art gallery in the distance. Looking at them from this point, it will be seen that the northern faces of the main and machinery buildings are in a line; that they are divided by an av enue, but connected by a covered way, and that the length from the extreme of one building to the extreme of the other is" very great more than two-thirds of a mile. Running along the northern length of these buildings is a boulevard one hundred feet in width, which is traversed by a double line of narrow gauge cars, for the accommodation of visitors. Three hundred feet back of the main building, their centers being in a line, stands the art gallery. Next northward, and on the further side of Landsdowne valley, which is crossed by a bridge, is the horticultural building back still f it, northernmost of the prin cipal structures, is the agricultural building, and midway between this and the machinery hall is the site of the building for the exhibition to be made by the United States government Machinery Building. This structure is located about five hundred and fifty feet west of the main exhibition building, and it is prac tically a continuation of that edifice, the two together presenting a frontage of three thousand eight hundred and twenty-four feet from their eastern to their western ends, upon the principal avenue within the grounds. This build ing consists of a main hall, one thous and four hundred and two feet long and three hundred and sixty feet wide, with an annex on the southern side two hun dred and eight feet by two hundred and ten feet The entire area covered is five hundred and fifty-eight thousand four hundred and forty-four square feet, or nearly thirteen acres, and the floor space afforded is fourteen acres. The chief portion of the building is one story in height, the main cornice upon the outside being forty feet from the ground, and the interior height to the top of the ventilators in the avenues seventy feet, and the aisles forty feet. To break the long lines of the exterior, projections have been introduced upon the four sides, and the main entrance is finished with facades extending to seventy-eicht feet in height. The eastern entrance will be the principal approach from railways and from the main exhibition building. Along the southern side are placed the boiler houses, and such other buildings or special kinds of machinery as may be required. The plan of the machinery building shows two main avenues ninety feet wide, with a central aisle between and an aisle on either side, these being sixty feet in width. These avenues and aisles together have three hundred and sixty feet width, and each of them is one thousand three hundred and sixty feet long. At the center of the building there is a transept ninety feet in width, which at the south end is prolonged beyond the building. This extended transept, be- return to Indiana except as a viator. the of at a the the the the en hanced on to a by of Memorial Hall or Art Gallery. BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF THE GROUNDS. of a of ginning at thirty-six leet trom tne building and extending to two hundred and eight feet, is flanked on either side by aisles sixty feet wide, and forms an annex for hydraulic machines. The promenades are : In the avenue fifteen feet wide, in the aisles ten feet, and in transept twenty-five feet. The walks extending across the building are all ten feet wide, and lead at either end to exit doors. The foundation of this building are piers of masonry, the superstructure consisting of solid timber columns sup porting roof trusses, constructed of straight wooden principal beams and wrought iron ties and struts. The columns are placed in longitudinal lines, and in these rows stand sixteen feet apart. The columns are forty feet high, and support respectively the ninety-feet roof-spans over the avenues at a height ery, with an average floor space of 303 square feet. ' Horticultural Building. The city of Philadelphia made a liberal grant of money to provide for the horti cultural department of the Exhibition an extrenielyHrnate and commodious building, which is designed to remain in permanence as an -ornament of Fair mount Park. This structure is located on a terrace bordering the Schuylkill river, a short distance north of Memorial Hall, and has a commanding view of the Schuylkill river valley and the north western portions of Philadelphia. Ro mantic ravines running down to the river are on either side, separating it on the south from Memerial Hall and on the north from agricultural building. These ravines are being spanned by ornamental looking from transept to transept, the vista is extremely imposing. A portion of this building is supplied with steam power for the use of agricul tural machinery. The four courts in closed by the nave and transepts, and also the four spaces at the corners of the building, having the nave and end tran septs for two of their sides, are roofed, and form valuable spaces for exhibits. The ground plan of the build ing is parallellogram 510 feet by 820 feet, covering about ten and one-quarter acres. Sixteen foreign nations reserve space in this building, and in the 147,572 square feet which remain, more than 1,000 American exhibitors are to be accommodated. This necessitates special buildings for the collective exhibits of their natural reseurces provided by the different States. SIDNEY LANIER'S SUBSTANTIAL CANTATA Ti e following is the cantata written by Mr. Sid ney tamer, and set to music by Mr. liu'lley Buck, which was sung at the opening oi the tVuteuniai Exhibition. SIDNEY LANIER'S SUBSTANTIAL CANTATA The Centennial Meditation of Columbia. I. From this hunilred-terrncetl Hirht Stglit more large with nobler llklit Ranges down von towering years ; 11 nuibler smiles und lord lit r team Shine and fall, shine and fall. While old voices rise and call Yonder where the to-and-uro Weltering of my tang Afio Moves alKiut the mo?elet4 base Fur below my resting place. n. Mayllower, Mayflower, slowly hither flying, Trembling Westward o'er yon talking sea. Hearts within Fareuell drnr England sighing Winds without Hut Uir in vain leplvinu, Ciray-lipp'd wavesaiw.ut the shomed, crying io Jt shall not br ! III. Jamestown, out of thee IMyinouth, thee thee, Albany Winter erics, irfrctzs: Amtyt Fever cr ies, if biun: A way ! H linger cries, Yr xatre; Atrait f Vengeance cries, 1 owr ijiares xhall stay ! IV. Then old Shapes and Masks of Thing., Framed like Faiths or clothed like kings (ihosts of (iocds once fleshrd and lair, tirown foul Bads in alien air War, and his most noisy lords, Tongued with lithe and poisoned swords lirror. Terror, Kageaud Crime, All in a windy night of time Cried to me from land and sea, So! Thou shalt twt tr ! Hark! Huguenots whispering ;ea in the dark. Puritans answering ymin the dark! i. like an arrow snot true to bis mark, larta through the tyrannous heart of I'eriial. . 1'atience and Labor and solemn-souled Trial, Foiled, still beginning, Boiled, but not sinning. Toil through the stertorous death of the Night, Toil, when wild brother-wars new-dark the Light, Toil, and forgive, and kiss o'er, and replight. VI. Now Praise to God's oft-granted grace, Now Praise to Man's undauuted face, Despite the land, despite the sea, I was ; I am ; and 1 shall be How long. Good Angel, oh, how long ? Sing me from Heaven a man's own song ! " Long as thine Art shall love true love, , Long as thy Science truth shall know, j Long as thine Eagle barms no Dove, ' Long as thy Law by law shall grow, s Long as thy tied is God almve, Thy brother every man below, 80 long, dear Land of all my love, Thy name shall shine, thy fame shall glow 1" VIII. Oh, Music, from this height of time my Word un fold, In thy large signals all men's hearts Man's Heart behold ; Mid-heaven unroll the chords as friendly flags un furled. And wave the world's best lover's welcome to the world. I MACHINERY HALL. of forty feet, and the sixty feet roof- spans over the aisles at a height of twenty feet. The outer walls are built of masonry to a height of five feet, and above that are composed of glazed sash between the columns. Portions of these sashes are movable for ventilation, and Louvre ventilators are introduced in continuous lengths over both the ave nues and the aisles. The building is entirely lighted by side lights from the north and south. Space in machinery hall has been allotted as follows : ; Square feet. 35,725 . 1,098 11,219 9,379 4,000 1,SS6 - 8,lfifi 4,300 2,448 1,500 585 408 300 Great Britain! Germany..Hm France. Belgium Brazil A ustna. Sweden. ...mm.... Canada... Spain. Russia...... Ienraark H.. Chili Norway.............. bridges 590 feet long and sixty feet wide, for convenience of access. Carriage roads, a railway, and foot-walks will pass over them. The horticultural building is de signed in the Moresque style of archi tecture of the twelfth century, the chief materials externally being iron and glass, supported by fine marble and brick work. The building is 383 feet long, 193 feat wide, and 72 feet high to the top of the lantern. The main floor is occupied by the central conservatory, 230 feet by 80 feet, and 55 feet high, surmouuted by a lantern 170 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 14 feet high. Running entirely around this conservatory, at a height of twenty feet from the floor, is a gallery five feet wide. On the north and south sides of this principal room are four forcing houses for the propagation of young plants, each of them 100 feet by thirty feet, and covered by curved roofs of iron and glass, which, appearing upon the exterior of the build ing, a flue feature. A vestibule In addition to the grounds within the inclosure, an eligibly-located stockyard, 22 acres in extent, has been provided for the display of live stock, which will be exhibited in a series of shows during the months of September, October, and November. Two farms, moreover, ot about 50 acres each, have been suitably planted for the trials of agricultural machinery. Independence Hall. The hall of independence, on Chestnut street, between Fifth and Sixth, was commenced in 1729, and completed in 1734, having been designed for the use of the Provincial Assemblies ; and the long hall formerly in the upper story was often used for grand official banquets given to governors, distinguished strang ers and generals, and to the members of the First Congress when they arrived in 1774. It was orijrinally decorated with a stately steeple, 'which was taken down in 1774 on account of decay ; only a small The Building Flags. 1 Buildings on the Centennial grounds carry over each entrance a numbered banner surmounted by a small flag. The color of the flag corresponds with the border of the Danner, and indicates the class to which the building belongs, viz : Blue Buildings erected by the Cen tennial commission. Red United States and State build ings. White Foreign buildings. Yellow Restaurants, places of enter tainment, etc. Green Miscellaneous buildings. For convenient reference, a separate set of numbers has been adopted to each of the following four subdivision of the grounds inclosed for Exhibition pur poses : 1. Buldings located south of the Ave nue of the Republic carry en banners hln numbers htween one and fifty. v" ' . fi t -i i : 1 . .1 l. r t r:' very 30 feet effaaret separates the two forcing houses on each side, and there are similar vestibules at the center of the east and west ends, on either side of which-are apartments for restau rants, reception rooms, offices, etc. Orna mental stairways lead from these ves tibules to the internal galleries of the conservatory, as well as four external galleries, each 100 feet long and 10 feet wide, which surmount the roofs of the forcing houses. These external galleries are connected with a grand promenade, formed by the roofs of the rooms on the floor, giving a superficial area of about 17,000 square feet I he east and west entrances to the horticultural building are approached by flights of blue marble steps, from terraces eighty feet by twenty feet, in the center of each of which stands an open kiosque twenty feet in diameter. Each entrance is beautified by ornamental tile and maiblenork, and the angles of the main conservatory are to be adorned with eight attractive fountains. The corridors connecting the conservatory with the surrounding apartments fine vistas The United States will probably oc cupy 300,000 square feet. This machinery building has very superior facilities for shafting, and double lines will be introduced into each avenue and aisle at a height of about twenty feet A Corliss steam engine of 1,400 horse power will drive the main shafting. There will also be counter lines of shafting in the aisles and special steam power furnished where necessary. Steam power is to be furnished free to exhibitors. In the annex for hydraulic machines there is a tank sixty by one hundred and sixty feet, with ten feet depth of water. It is intended to ex hibit all sorts of hydraulic machinery in full operation, and at the southern end of the tank there will be a water fall thirty-five feet high by forty feet in every direction, and the beauties of the surrounding park, with the river flowing in front ana more than one hun dred feet beneath the building, add to the attractions. Extensive heating ar rangements are provided in the Dase ment, which is of fireproof construction, and the restaurant kitchens are also located there. Surrounding this building there are thirty-five acres of ground, which will be devoted to horticultural purposes, and have been suitably planted. In this plot there is an extensive series of sunken gardens. The Agricultural Building stands north of the horticultural build ing, being separated from it by a ro belfry wai left to cover the bell until the year of 1828, when the present steeple was erected as nearly like the ancient one as circumstances would permit The ancient bell, formerly used for the clock, is remarkable for its prophetic inscrip tion. Originally imported from England in 1752, but cracked in its first ringing, it was recast in Philadelphia, and the in scription, " Proclaim liberty through out the land, and to all the people there of, " was placed upon it. This was more than twenty years before the independ ence of the colonies was dreamed of ; yet when the Declaration was signed this very bell was the first, by its merry peal, to "proclaim liberty throughout the land." It now occupies a place in the south vestibule of the building. The ' Declaration of Independence was signed Avenue of the Republic and west ef Belmont avenue, carry on banners red numbers dred. between fifty and one hun- 3. Buildings located east of Belmont avenue and south of Fountain avenue, carry on banners white numbers be tween one hundred and fifty and two hundred Liberty Bell. The famous Liberty Bell was originally cast in England, in 1751. It contains the following inscription : "By order of the Assembly of the Province of Pennsylvania, 1752." Also : "Proclaim liberty throughout all the land, and unto all the inhabitants thereof." . Before the bell was properly hung, it ; j wide, supplied from the tank by the pumps on exhibition. There will prob ably be a larger exhibition at Philadel phia of processes of manufacture than at any previous exhibition. The appli cations for space have been so numerous as to require the addition of three an nexes, covering two and one-half acres, while numerous private exhibitors will put up buildings for their own use. The machinery hall proper will contain above 1,200 American exhibitors, having an average space of 270 square feet ench a more compact arrangement than has been accomplished previously, since at Vienna there 959 exhibitors of machin- ' ana a pull aitogetner. mantic ravine, and has a commanding view of the Schuykill river and the northwestern suburbs of Philadelphia beyond. This building illustrates a novel combination of materials, mainly wood and glass, and consists of a long nave crossed by three transepts, each being composed of truss-arches of Gothic forms. The nave is 820 feet lone by 125 feet in width, with a height of 75 feet from the floor to the point of the arch. The central transept is 100 feet wide and 75 feet high, and the two end transepts. 80 feet wide and 70 feet high. Its interior appearance re sembles that of a great cathedral, and in cnestra. in the chamber on the left of the princi pal entrance. Sjiuc years since the antique architectural decorations and furniture of this room were removed, and their places supplied with new furni ture and tapestry in modern style. This error has since been repaired, as far as possible, by restoring the hall to its ancient appearance. The portraits of nearly every one of the signers now adorn the walls. Open daily. The original Declaration of Indepen dence will be on exhibition in the National Museum in Independence Hall during the entire timeof the Exposition. wagons .' vanowry jyetcs. was cracked by. a strike of the clapper, and was recast in this country. It was finished and hung in June,' 1753. In 1777, at the time the American forces were compelled to evacuate Philadelphia, this bell, together with Christ church chinifs, was removed to Allentown, to prevent them lieiug melted into cannon by the Pnglish ; at the close of the war it was returned to Philadelphia and con tinued in constant use until 1S28, when it was replaced by the prtsent bell. The old Iwlf now h.-tngs ia the old State lloue ill Philadelphia. A FINE display is that of the School of Design, of Cincinnati. 3337c THE CENTENNIAL. Opening Day— Decorations—Large Attendance—Celebrities Present —Inaugural Ceremonies—illuminations and Bouquets. [From our Special Correspondent.] The opening day was preceded and ushered in by a severe rainntorm, but, before eight o'clock, sunlight broke through the clouds, and, till four p. m., a more auspicious day could not have been desired. The dust was laid, and tree and shrub and lawn were clad in the liveliest green. And not till hours after speech and song and the chimes of bells were ended, and a large portion of the visitors had retired lrom the grounds', did the windows of heaven again open and give us a Noahic shower. But it cleared off again before sunset, to enable LIBERTY BELL. Philadelphia to exhibit herself in a street promenade. THE DECORATIONS throughout the city were profuse be yond all precedent. The streets were ablaze with the flags of all nations. Pub lic buildings, stores and private resi dences were covered with them. The Ledger Building alone had one hundred and eighty. The State House, on Inde pendence Square, was literally enfolded by them and with paintings of the coats of arms of the thirteen original States. Go where you would, houses, cars, car riages, carts, horses everything that could hold a flag-staff, big or little streamed with them. Nothing like it ever has been seen, and probably never will be again, except the Fourth of next July. THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE present in the Grounds and Buildings, on opening day, was variously estimated at from 200,000 to 300,000, but cannot be accurately known, as no record was kept, except of those who paid their entrance fee. But it was very large and could only be reckoned by the acre and the square mile. They everflowed the buildings, the grounds, the streets, the hotels, the cars, and every available space. Tbero must have been hundreds of thousands present within the grounds, besides a great mul titude of outsiders too impecunious or too parsimonious to pay an admission he. And when the rain came pouring down, and when after five o'clock the visitors were required to vacate the Ex hibition Buildings, they thronged the streets, filled all the hotels, restaurants and shanties adjacent, levied upon all street cars, cabs, express wagons, ice carts, beer and grocery wagons, and every other available vehicle to shelter them from the storm, or carry them into the city; and yet not more than one-fourth of them could be accommodated, and the rest had to trudge homeward afoot through the most adhesive and inter minable mud. The occasion demon strated the utter inadequacy of street and rail cars, and public and private con veyances to transport visitors to and from the Exposition, on a gala day like this. On all ordinary occasions they would be amply sufficient THB CELEBRITIES PRESENT at the opening were numerous and dis tinguished. The most conspicuous were President Grant and his cabinet, Doin Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, and the Em- jPress, the Judges of the United States Portugal at the Centennial. All of the articles from Portugal for exhibition at the Centennial Exposition are placed in their various departments. Portugal, in this Exhibition, has paid special attention to agriculture and in dustry. In the former department there are 2,304 exhibitors, of which number over one thousand exhibit wines and cork. Portugal has already in America a very extensive market for cork, and a medium one for the black woolen cloths manufactured in the province of Aleua tejo. There is also an extensive collec tion of soaps, oils, etc., in order to dis play in the most satisfactory manner to the United States the different resources of Portugal, by means of which the com mercial relations between the two coun tries may be developed. Ten Million Visitors. Of the grand tot-il of the crowds of visitors Who will visit the Centennial grounds during the summer, an exchange says, the lowest estimate is lO.OOO.OuO, and this is 200,000 behind the visitors at Paris, but nearly 3,000.000 more than the visitors at Vienna. The exhibitors at Philadelphia will exceed 860,000. As compared with other International Expositions, that of Philadelphia is in many points, superior to all that have preceded it It lacks the compact arrangement and general brilliancy of Paris, and is, of course, inferior in mat ter of fine arts and in Oriental pro ductions to that of Vienna. In the display of machinery it is incomparably ahead of anything the world has ever seen, and the Department of General Manufacturing has never been equaled. As an exhibition of what the Western World has done, in all branches of human pursuit, and a means of comparing their progress with the East, it is, of cou rse, unapproached, and that is unquestiona bly its chief excellence. The repre sentation of the nations of the world Is complete with the exception of Greece and a few of the South American Repub lics. The space covered by the Exposi tion exceeds that of any previous one; two hundred and thirty-six acres is the total. Major Alexandek S. Macomb died suddenly in his chair in the Union Club House, New York, a few days since. He was the son of Major-General Ma comb, U. S. A. He graduated at West Point in 1835, and served until 1841, being on frontier duty at Leavenworth, Kansas, for two years or more, in 1840 becoming a Captain in the Second Dragoons and an Aid-de-Camp on his father's staff. He then resigned from the army, and married a sister of General Phil. Kearney, and had two daughters, one of whom is the wife of Mr. D'Haute ville, of New York city, and the other is a Mrs. Fane, a member of the family of the Earl of Westmoreland. The large possessions of the Macombs, far up town in New York, once included Macomb's dam. Mr. Macomb's death was caused by the bursting of the aorta. His age was sixty-two years. The inventor of the Baltimore air ship has offered to use his machine to illuminate Philadelphia on the night of July 4th next for the paltry sum of 1750. He will provide his air-ship with ten first-class silver-plated reflectors, ten feet in diameter, which will be suspended from the car at a height of five hundred feet. Each of these reflectors will have a brilliant calcium light, and the inven tor declares that with his apparatus he can illuminate an area of four miles, and make it as light as day. If the project succeeds it will open the way for provid ing cities with simpler and cheaper means of illumination than they now possess, and abolish forever the feeble and flickering gaslampa that are such a nuisance. Easton (Pa.) Free Pros : He didn't look like a depraved young man ; he had more the appearance of one of those in satiable youth that invariably give the keepers of cheap hash houses a cold chill as they pass by. We greeted him cordially as we stepped forward with our cash-in-advance smile to learn his wants; but when he mildly asked : " Don't you want a correspondent te go down to ttt HORICULTURAL BUILDING. Supreme Court, Generals Sherman and Sheridan, and representatives of the army and navy. The central figure the one regarded with most interest, and the one most enthusiastically cheered, was JJom Pedro, in plain citizen's dress without decoration of any kind, a manly-looking personage ot large physique and brain, who wastes no time on ceremony, and is resolved to learn what is worth knowing of the people and institutions of this country. Congress and the diplomatic corps of all nations, and the great office holding mob of the country were there in full force. Mrs. Grant with her matronly ways, and the ladies of the Cabinet Ministers, the wives of foreign Ministers, Mrs. Gillespie, head of the Women's Department, and many others of local fame graced the platform. THE INAUGURAL CEREMONIES wereojiened by a salvo of artillery, and the national airs of all nations, by Thomas' orchestra. Then followed prayer by the Right Rev. Bishop Simpson, the singing of Whittier's hymn, a presenta tion address by John Welsh, President of the Board of Finance ; a cantata by the chorus of a thousand voices, with orchestral accompaniment, and a mag nificent bass solo by Myron W. Whitney, of Boston, encored and repeated to the unbounded delight of the immense mul titude. His deep.clear voice rose above the noite and confusion of the vast con course like the song of the angels over Bethlehem's plains, and every murmur was hushed and every heart thrilled. Then came the address of Joseph R. Hawley, President of the United States Centennial Commission, in clear, ringing toDes that all could hear, in presentation of the Exhibition to President Grant The President's respome was delivered in so low a tone as to be inaudible, ex cept to those near the stand. The press has generally reproduced the essential features of the proceedings. My impres sions), f the whole affair can be given in few words. The former proceedings were all prearranged and circumscribed by fixed limits, and save the concourse of people, Whitney's solo, and perhaps Hawley's speech, there was nothing spontaneous or inspirational about them. So far as -the display of the world's in dustries and the concourse of visitors are concerned the inaugural was a grand EUCCIS4. CLOSING SCENES. The day was closed by illuminations and banquets, distinguished and wealthy citizens feasting the more illustrous guests. The chief line of attraction was Chestnut street, and the central object Independence Square. Several calcium lights illuminated Independence Hall with its patriotic drapery, and crowds of people surged back and forth, welled in and out of the Hall, and rolled upChest- nut, westward, and filled the north and south streets for indefinite spaces, till a late hour of the night This morning there fluttered at the rising sun niore than a million national flngs in the City S. M. BOOTH. Centennial and properly represent your influential sheet f we just said: "Please remove your hat till we gaze upon that noble brow." Then we grabbed out our branding iron and numbered him 18,231. It is estimated that up to the time of the closing of the Exposition on the first evening over two hundred and fifty thousand people had passed in at the gates. No exact count can be made, as the registering arrangements were not complete, and thousands entered with out any registry. In the city the ex citement and jollification were kept up nearly all night, and Philadelphia wore such an aspect of liveliness and gayety as has heretofore sceemed impossible. " My son," said a Boston parent, as his eighteen-year-old ot&pring stood, carpet-bag in hand, upon the threshold, "you are going to the Centennial. Promise me that, during your absence, you will shun bad company and keep your feet from the doors of ale-houses and billiard faloons." "Father," re plied the young nun, with the memory of the last caucus floating through his mind, " I cannot I go uitinstructcd and unpledged." The Centennial commissioners report that the hotels and boarding houses in Philadelphia, are capable of accommo dating 98,000 visitors, and that private accommodations can be secured tor 20,- 000 more. Board can be had, it is said , from f 1.50 to 5 per day. A bound bottomed boat ud by Dr. Kane during his last Arctic voyage is in the Government building. Every Philadelphia girl with a spark of ambition in her Mature expects to catch a lord during the Centennial. A New York firm furnishes a pair of booti for the Centennial made from the skin of a human being. A glass ca-e of electric eels from the Senegal and the Nile are in the Egyptian department In France eggs are not sold as they an Here, so mucu lor a auzen, wueiuer big or little, those of the large Brahma or Creve Cienr counting the same as the little Bretons or Bantatns. The eggs Drought to market are verified by agents appoint' d by the administration, who are called " mireurs compteurs," and the eggs are submitted to three opera tions first, counting to.verify the num ber of eggs in the panniers; passing them through riugs to test their size and value; and final inspection to separate the clean and fresh from those state or addled. Small eggs in the market! of Paris are thoee which will pass through a ring of four centimeters. Hence, French egg merchants have riugs of ditlerent sizes to try the eggs. A careless Dubuque (Iowa) boy swallowed a revolver cartridge one day last week, and his mother doesn't dare to " wollop " him, for fear he'll go off.