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TRACHOMA A NATIONAL MENACE—By Alfred C. Reed
X enemy which we have fought at ports of entry and on our far l, frontiers has suddenly appeared \n our very midst. The dread invader trachoma. Its victims we have long seen among Alaskan native?, our own reservation Indians, and the tmmi- j grants at our gates. But now we find j that the disease has stolen a march on us and made our own American ! stock its prey. The foothold it has j gained puts it in a position to menace ' the nation. Down in the beautiful mountains of Kentucky live a people of the purest American ancestry. Stalwart, brave, en during. unmixed with other blood, they show the sturdiness of the pioneers who followed Boone to the virgin wilds beyond the ranges. The mighty train of American development has swept by, leaving them side tracked, forgotten, neglected, in the hills of their adop- 1 tion, an unknown people In the midst i of a busy careless .nation. The poorer amolig them live for the ' most part in snfall and sparsely scat- ! tered log cabins. Families number usu- j ally 10 to If* members, all of whom J eat, sleep and live together in the one I room of the cabin. The common wash ! basin outside the door is often a large I stone with a hollow in its surface, dif ficult to empty or clean. To this each | user contributes his share of germs. Hanging next to it isf the large fam ily towel, which is on duty for days in succession. Cabins have no windows at all or small ones at best and all openings are scrupulously closed at night in the winter time. Ventilation is of the poor est at any time. Close intermarriage, lack of even rudimentary sanitation and monotonous ill suited diet predis pose children to many ills including tuberculosis and other infectious dis eases. Ringworm of the scalp, uncor reeled defects of vision, adenoids and enlarged tonsils and hookworm infec tion are common. The unkempt and neglected condition of these children is pitiable. Many are mentally back ward and defective. The typical moun taineer, however, is usually intelligent and wide-awake even though illiter ate. The social and economic needs of these mountaineers of Kentucky, Ten nessee, Carolina and Virginia are be ginning to be recognized. But it has remained for Dr. John McMullen of tiie federal public health service to call attention to a most serious dan ger now menacing them. In a recent investigation he found trachoma pres ent In an alarming and unsuspected degree and the blindness and defect ive vision resulting from it responsible for an incalculable* impairment of so cial, economic and Intellectual effi ciency. Trachoma is a communicable disease of the eyelids w hich If untreated, usu ally progresses to blindness and prac tically always causes Interference With vision. Among 4000 persons examined Dr .McMulltn found that 500, or 13H per cent had trachoma. From 3 to 18 per cent of the school children were affected. One of the Important factors in the spread of the disease Is the com mon family towel. Most of the cases receive no treatment and each case be comes a local focus of contagion. It appears that the disease must be of long standing in these mountains, and that It is getting progressively worse. Trachoma is chronic and persistent. Treatment for it must be long con tinued and carried on with unremit ting care. To prevent its spread among the southern mountaineers. Dr. Mc Mullen emphasizes the need of a cam paign to show the importance *>f san itation. fresh air, clean homes and per sonal hygiene. Stereoptiean lectures in public buildings and schools will help. Visiting nurses and social workers are needed to preach the gospel of sanita tion in the individual home. Other so cial agencies must be organized to In clude the entire affected territory. E's pecially among school children cases of trachoma should be isolated. Schools must be properly lighted and ventil ated. Actual care and cure of existing cases offers the greater problem. Pub lic clinics ought to be established sim ilar to the one now conducted by l)r. ‘j. A. Stucky, under the auspices of the IV. C. T. U. settlement school at Hind man, Ky. Movable field hospitals in conection with these ctinics could af ford surgical treatment to cases re quiring It. The name cases and ter ritory should he covered periodically hy distrlet visiting nurses. Groat patience and long continued effort as well as much money will be needed to eradi cate trachoma from those mountains. But with Perseverance and enthusiasm the task can he accomplished. Trachoma has been found most de structive among the American Indians, particularly among those leading a reservation life. In some of the reser vations in the southwest, trachoma is found in from 63 per cent of the In dians. Over 6000 Indians were treated in 1911 for trachoma and at the tra choma hospital of the Indian service at Phoenix, Arizona, over 800 were op erated upon and treated. Dr. M. II. Foster in a report to the Secretary of the 'Treasury on January 23, 1912. stated that of 1364 Alaskan natives examined by him, 15.6 per cent had some eye trouble and 7.2 per cent from all parts of Alaska suffered from trachoma. In some sections of the southwestern portion of Alaska the dis ease was present in 25 per cent of the native population. Dr. Foster urged the great need of a government home for blind natives in Alaska and the pro vision of some trade or occupation to relieve their present pitiful condition. Among immigrants 2504 cases of tra choma were certified in the fiscal year 1911.' At Ellis Island alone 718 cases wore certified. Considering th^ pitiful conditions into which the disease, throws its victims, the serious extent to which it Is already prevalent in the country, and its economic and social menace, effort to prevent the entrance of now cases and the establishment of new foci of contagion becomes imper ative. Trachoma has been shown to be a public health problem of national con cern. Prompt, persistent aud energetic measures must be undertaken by local, state and national health officers to check its further spread and to erad icate it where it is already present. (Exclusive Service the Sunday Press Bu reau.) MEN WHO HAVE MADE ALABAMA—GEORGE P. HARRISON—By B. F. Riley, D. D. IN a recent work, the title of which I ‘•Social Life of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century," is presented the history of the original families of repute which emigrated from England to the Old Dominion, among the names of which appears v that of Harrison. From this family have come two Pres idents of the United States as well as ether distinguished citizens in differ ent states of the union. Gen. George Paul Harrison of Opelika is a descend ant of that original Virginia stock which was so conspicuous In laying the foundation stones of the stato on the shores of which landed the first English colony. The name of Harri son is found mentioned in distinguished connections In many of the southern and western states. Gen. George Paul Harrison, the sub ject of the present sketch, was born on the ‘‘Montieth Plantation," near Sa vannah, Ga.. March 13, 1S41, and bears k his father’s name in full. The father was, for many years, prominent In Georgia, politics, serving many ses sions iti the legislature of that state, from Chatham county ami during the late war between the states, command ing a brigade of state troops. After the war tho elder Harrison Ayas chosen a member of the constitutional con vention of Georgia, aiding materially in framing a constitution adjusted to the new order incident to the close of I the war. Our present distinguished citizen, Gen. George P. Harrison, was class ically trained in the famous academies for which Savannah was noted before the period of hostilities, the chief of which schools were the Monteith and Effingham academies. From those ad vanced studies in his native city he Avent to the Georgia Military institute at Marietta, from which ho was grad uated in 1S61, with the degrees of A. B., and C. E., as the first honor man of his class. He was scarcely i!u at the outbreak of the war and in Jan uary, 1861, she shared in the seizure by the state of Georgia of Fort Pu laski, which was taken possession of on January 3, 1S61. With Ills co*rse i at Marietta still uncompleted, Mr. Hay- j rlson enrolled in the service of the j state and was commissioned a second : lieutenant in the first regiment of j Georgia regulars. In the spring of that . eventful year, while yet war was un- j declared, he was detailed by Gov. Jo seph E. Brown. Georgia's "war gover nor." as catnmandant of the Marietta Military institute, where he was en abled to prosecute his course to com pletion. Rejoining the First Georgia regulars, he became its adjutant, and went with the command to Virginia. He particle pated in the earliest fighting of the war, was with his regiment at the affair at Langley's farm, and in other brushes with the enemy. In the winter of ’61 and ’«2. he was commissioned the colonel of the Fifth Georgia regiment of state troops, and was assigned to the protection of the coast of the state for six months, when the regiinept was reorganized for regular service in the Confederate army, with the retention of Colonel Harrison as Its commander, his command now be coming the Thirty-second regiment of Georgia Infantry. The regiment was as signed to service at Charleston, where it remained until near the close of the struggle. Though still ranking as colo nel, Harrison was In command of a bri gade about 15 months during the years ‘68-64. The three brigade commanders, Generals Hagood, Colquitt and Colonel Harrison, commanded, by turn, on Morris island, during thi' large part of the siege of Charleston. When tho assault was made on Fort Wagner on July 22. 1803, Colonel Harrison was speedily sent to re inforce the garrison, and arrived in the nick of time, saved the fort and put to flight th«v assailants. In a contest of several days on John’s Island, he was in complete command of the Confederate forces, and here he won distinction by his coolness, courage ami strategic abil ity. After the final fall of Wagner Colo nel Harrison was assigned to a separate command with headquarters at Mount Pleasant, a part of his command still garrisoning Fort Sumter, over which the Confederate colors floated till February, 1865. During a period of lSt>4 Colonel Harri son was in command at Florence, S. C., where he built a stockade for 25,000 fed eral prisoners, who were so humanely eared for by the young commander as to excite the attention of Ueneral Sher man, who. when he captured Savannah, ascertained where tho Harrison home wu a, as the family was now residing In that city, and Issued a general order to his troops respecting Its special protec tion. In 1S64 tho brigade which Colonel Har rison commanded was sent, together with that of General Colquitt's, to turn buck the invasion of tho federal General Sey mour, In Florida, the object of Seymour being to isolate Florida from the rest of the Confederacy. Colonel Harrison shared in the honors won by General Col quitt tn the decisive buttle at Olustee, nod was at once commissioned a briga dier, being, it Is suld. the youngest gen eral In the army. He was not quite 23 years old when he received his commis sion as a brigadier general. His brigade became a part of Walthall's division, Stewart's corps. On the retlrefnent of the Confederates before Sherman, Into tho Carolinas, the task was assigned to General Harrison of covering the retreat of Hardee. Gen eral Harrison shared in the closing scenes of tho drama in the Carolina*, was twice wounded, and once had a horse killed under him. He had Just passed his twenty-fourth birthday when his com mand surrendered at Greensboro, N. C. While in camp, General Harrison ap plied himself to the study of tho law, as hi* prospective profession, to the prac tice of which he was admitted soon after tho close of hostilities. Removing to Ala bama, ho located first at Auburn, and later removed to Opelika, where ha* since resided. Elected commandant at the Alabama university, he accepted, after first declining the position, after retiring from which, ho was made commandant at the State Agricultural college, as It was then called, at Auburn. After a year of service there, he abandoned all else and devoted himself to his practice. His service for tho public wras soon in demand, and In 1875, ho was eho*en a _L.. member of the constitutional convention of Alabama, serving In the same capacity In his adopted state, in which his honored father was serving at the same time in Georgia. Then followed hie election to the state senate, in 1880, be becoming the president: of that body In ’82, serving two years. In '92 he was chosen a delegate to the national democratic convention, and in ’94 was chosen to fill the unexpired term' of the Hon. W. C. Oates, who had become governor, the district indicating at the sumo time Ills choice to succeed himself two years later. As a distinguished Mason, General Har rison is the chairman of the committee on Masonic jurisprudence of the grand lodge of Alabama. The United Confed erate veterans have shown ther appre ciation of General Harrison by choosing him in 12 successive elections us major general of the Alabama division. In 1912 he was chosen, at Macon, Gu., lieutenant general of the army of Tennessee depart ment. which position lie now holds. A man now of 72, he resides at Opelika, ns the chief counsel of tho Western of Ala* bam a railroad. A LEGISLATIVE PROGRAMME—By George Eaves, D. D. AS concerns her protection of her own sons and daughters, Dame Columbia is a very stupid and careless mother. Recent visitors from Germany have marvelled that American factories are so ill-equipped with pro tective devices. It is only the other day that the matches we all use ceased to be stained with the blood of the workers. On railways and In mines we • laughter more pimple than any other nation. This, the greatest republic of •11 time, whose boast It is that she alone •ecures to the earth "government of the people, for the people, by the peo ple," has beeu and Is the most Indif ferent to the wholesale maiming and killing of the people. Just for dollars! Just because the protection of the w’orlcer seems a heavy tax on manufacturers’ profits! All our boasted democracy was proving fustian and hypocrisy so long as we were con tent, as Mr. Bryan put It, to crucify man upon the cross of gold. While au tocratic Germany and old, king-vener Hting England, and all Europe even to Bulgaria and Spain, were progressively safeguarding their toilers, making treaties to co-operatively shelter their women folk from over work, this land of the free and home of the brave was hesitatingly watching the greedy eyes of Mammon, listening for his forbid ding roar. She should have been hear ing the cry of the wounded, workers in • thousand mines and mills. She should have been wiping the eyes of 10,00(1 widows and their babes. But • long with her unmatched volumes of private generosity and beneficence, America was jealously unwilling to pro vide legislative guardianship of the weak and dependent. But this is of the past. A better spirit .has supervened. Cities are making war on dust and smoke and bad housing. Social education is looming upon our j too free and too indifferent souls. We are in danger of going to the extreme of war on the investor in our new-born zeal for the protection of the worHer. So at least the shy promoter thinks, be cause he is fearful and most sensitive when anything happens that even re motely affects the money market or the price of stocks. There is indeed a new contrition and a new conscience in industrial America. The truth' has come to the governing intelli gence of the land, alike in offices of great employing concerns and In offices of gov ernors, congressmen, senators, representa tives, that the care of the people’s health and welfare is the first and most neces sary investment in the world. And so we may expect that new laws will be made and new interpretation given to old laws for safeguarding of human life, for the protection of the wage-earner, for the re straint of pernicious greed, shortsighted even in its own interest. That great international association for labor legislation, which has succeeded so well in care of the working folk of Eu rope, has for its counterpart In this land the American association of the same name. Patriotic and perfervid orators of the spread eagle variety ffliould study the “Review” published by this American as sociation. It would give them pause In their most daring flights of eloquence and might even induce a little wholesome chastening of the soul. Our vast national bulk, with industrialism only at Us dawn in many sections, the need of separate ac tion in each of 4<J free and self governing commonwealths, our fear lest laws to pro tect the poor and dependent should fright en capital and drive it to some less con scientious competitor, all help to explain the hesitancy of America in this field of labor legislation. East year the great triumph of the association was the law taxing poisonous phosphorus matches in order to protect the workers, of whom a majority were women and girls. Its new programme involves seven or eight die tlnct features and affects tlic majority of these states. It includes: 1. A law to provide one day's rest in seven. 2. A law to protect workers from lead poisoning. 3. A law to extend the uniform reporting of Industrial accidents and occupational diseases. 4. Iaw! providing for the automatic compensation of workmen, (a) Federal employes, (bf all working people under state investigation of accidents and oc cupational diseases. 5. I jaws securing protection for working women from needless waste of physical power, by long hours and had conditions of employment, etc., in all states. 0. Ijiws providing for efficient factory inspection in all states. The lteview has for Its frontispiece a map of America, showing the states which do or do not provide efficient factory inspection. Those states which insist on civil service requirements hi factory in spectors are colored red. There are five of these. New' York. New' .lersey. Massa chusetts. Illinois and Wisconsin. Those states which require that the factory in spector shall have practical experience and knowledge of factory life are marked blue. They are four In number: Ohio, Indiana. Kentucky and Minnesota. All other states are marked black, which Indicates that they have no legal require ments of technical training in their fac tory Inspector. It should be said, however, that at least one state, marked blark, has a fac tory inspector who is adequate for the task, our ov.n Ur Oates, who also In cludes inspection of jails and almshouses with that of factories. This, however, means that one or two men have too much ground to cover, though it also moans that our condition Is not fairly Indicated either by our color on the map or by the laws on our statute books. 1. Concerning the day of rest, we have the law but, here as elsewhere, it Is not enforced, because it is not very intelli gently constructed. The value of rest one day in seven does not wholly depend upon the Identity of the <1ny chosen, although it would be well if ail of us could rest at the same time and quit an atmosphere of rest at once even to all cars and mills and furnaces. Since this is impracticable, it is worth while to require of all employing concerns that they shall not burden the life of their employe by making improper drafts upon Ids vitality through refusal to allow him a seventh day’s respite. The daily toiler gets a respite every night or day, and the fatigue-exhaustion is overcome. But Haegler’s chart shows that this daily cessation nevertheless fails to prevent a steady depression of forces unless it is corrected by a recurring rest day. once a week. The modern statistician tlnds himself supporting the social science of ancient Hebrew laws. It is physiologi cally necessary that workers have a sev enth day's rest, or they will wear out before their time. The old south knew this. The new south is tempted to ig nore it. and to deal less generously witli her sons than the old south dealt with the slaves. For all the way from Maine to California American workmen are be ing robbed of their rightful Sabbath, guaranteed by the old laws that arc writ ten upon the constitution of the human race. The nation sets an example for us not to follow! The civilization of the sot Uh has elements worth preserving In the new age, and this is one of them. Can we not enact a lawr that can be and shall he enforced, securing the lights of all working folk to a day of rest? Or must we wait and loiter till indus trial interests dominate us, and force our consciences to accept us necessary what Is only necessary to big dividends? L\ So far as 1 have been able to dis cover there is as yet little manufacture in this state which involves the con tract of workmen with lead fumes, and their consequent poisoning. But it would be a mistake to suppose that there is therefore no need to protect the worker from this peril because we produce no lead. It Is reported that noarly 160 trades employ lead in some essential form and that thousands of workmen are exposed to Us deadly I>erlls. All tho bullets ever made of lyad have probably killed fewer peo tfle than those who have fallen vic tims of what Pliny long ago called the "slaves' disease," because carbonate of lead for paint was made by slaves, since tho task was no job for free, men. The killing began long ago ulid still continues. Here again Europe leads the way and wo must follow. Drastic laws have boon enacted In England and on the continent. France wll shortly oven prohibit the use of harmful lead salts within her borders. But the protection of people from this form of danger Is no difficult. It would seem that ah sodlute cleanliness and sanitary effi ciency In shops and workers does eli minate the danger from lead salts, to which painters, for Instance, are ex posed. It would also seem that a sys tem of ventilating hoods, where lead fumes are made, renders them harm less. Strange Indeed that laws should he necessary In eases of this sort! But seeing they are necessary, is It not better and easier to anticipate the evil than to wnlt till It Is established and entrenched among financial Inter ests? I trust lhal Alabama will come Into lino with this general programme iff Industrial legislation and so lock the stable door before the horse is stolen. 3. The same consideration applies to the repot ling of diseases and accidents. Why a law should be necessary lo re quire such reporting It Is hard to see; Tor in our simplicity we might sup pose that all employers are gentlemen who walk In the light and have nothing I to hide in their relations with employes. And yet, alas, the facts are otherwise. I though so many splendid examples may be found of men who weleime investi gation. The new' conscience takes the ! form in part of a doslre to know the, cash of 'production in terms of com- j lnunal Welfare, including provision for all who suffer by production. And since the eternal forces of nature have decreed that Alabama shall be an in dustrial state, laws requiring uniform reports of accidents and dise-ases de veloped by the occupations of indus trial life should surely be enacted here. Only thus can comparison be made with our competitors, or the cost of pro duction computed. 4. Many have discussed workmen’s compensation laws. All that needs now to be done is to enact them in such form that they shall work without the interference of the cheap “shyster.” who lias been getting most of the ad vantage of the present anarchy. All the world has them. Only bis “free dom” stands in the way of the Ameri can workmen’s adequate protection. Whereat the devil and his angels poke one another in the ribs and mutter the sacred word: “Freedom!” with gibing lips. Homething is needed in the direction of trustworthy information. It is not only occupational diseases and accidents that need to he reported, but progressive de velopments of safety devices, sanitary provisions, extent of home industries, the sanitary conditions under which all work is done. A commission In this and other southern cities should lie reporting all available facts, especially upon the wage and working conditions of the negro and of the white man and woman In competi tion with the negro. What is considered desirable by the association for labor leg islation is a broad and authoritative man ner of acquiring facts and classifying them concerning industrial hygiene. 6. Alabama is among the backward states in provision of protection for her women in Industry. She puts no limit upon the number of hours per day or per week during which girls may be re quired to stand at the iroulng board or at the counter, or to drive the sewing ma chine, or to tend the telephone, or to ply any oilier trade. Many western states arc In the same condition, but among southern states—Georgia, the Carolina*, Tennessee, Louisiana, Virginia, Ken tucky—have gone ahead of us, as have California, Washington, Utah, Colorado. Oklahoma, the Dakotas, Wisconsin anil Minnesota In the west. The movement is towards a stronger generation of children by the simple art of conserving \ th$) physique* of their mothers; and the ' inspiration of the movement is the larger religious patriotism which has been born. It is safe to say that 25 years hems this generation of Alabama people will he reckoned crude and barbarous in Us provisions for the welfare of women. For it Is crude and barbarous, only it takes a community centuries to see itself In the mirror of fact. 7. And yet sudden legislative leaps are to be deplored and suspected. It is not enough to have beautiful taws written un less they create the force that will ap ply them. Georgia, for instance, has n«j Inspector to enforce the factory law. though she claimed In Ult no fewer than 104,588 wage earners. The point for thoughtful and progres sive minds is that today is the day of preparation, that we hi may bo as happy, as well as well housed and as we the people in other section but ns eternal justice ant. - <• require on our behalf. Cloi draw the days of vast con Ultlons In this southern land. Shall they crowd upon us to their own degradation and ours, or shall they come to a land of equal laws, of equal opportunity, of real democracy, because in social spirit as well as in physical environment this Is “the sunny south?’' HEART TO HEART TALKS—By James A. Edgerton THE Clean Language league ot Amer ica is making a campaign agumst the use of profanity, suggestive * nras. certain ragtime songs and slang. So far as profanity, vulgarity and some Df the ragtime music are concerned, the league's work should he applauded. Perhaps also as to some of the slang ex I pressions. But let them not become pur l lets and old fortes in censoring everything i called slang. Some of these slang phrases are most expressive and alive. They are the new minted coin of speech. All language in the making is called ilang by some people. Shakespeare wrote in the slang of his day—that Is, in the language that was new-and his words have become classic. The slang of today Is the dictionary of tomorrow. In this progressive age there is no need to become afraid of a thing simply be cause it is new, even though it be a new phrase. The idioms ot each language were at one time its slang. Yet it is these idioms that give It character, piquancy and life. Much of the slang of today will die. of course. It ought to. But not all of it. .Nor Is any self appointed school of cen sors capable of saying just what words end phrases will die and what will live, j There is a higher court—that of all the j ptopie, and not only those now living, but those yet to be born. Language is not a marble statue, the lame yesterday, today and forever. Rather It is a lake, ever in motion and led by springs. Words are constantly dying or Becoming obsolete, and others are being born. Very many of these baby words and phrases we call slung. Others are made up by scientists or oth ers from impossible Greek anti Latin com binations. The slang ones have at least the advantage of being shorter and hence better. The slang of each age fits the activities and thoughts of that age. What could hi more expressive than "making good," I "delivering the godos" or "on tbf: job?" j Not elegant perhaps, but vital. Don't dam the springs that bring living waters into the lake. Kach flay ami each community has its own story of some humble hero or heroine w ho offered his or her life for others. Many of these tales never set- print. Oth ers are told only in the local papers and do not reach the great world beyond. A ft w, perhaps, receive mention ifi the city papers. That is bt*cause such deed- are beeom- | Ing common. We are taking the words J ami example of the'Naaarene so into the ! very fiber of our lives that seif sacrifice is expected. Ona of the latest talcs concerns Joseph ) Dube of New Hartford, Conn. At the age of -1. with all his life before him. this I lad lost both his legs in rescuing ids cous in. Anna Castonguay, from falling tinker Hie wheels of a moving train. In the hospital later, where he lay in a critica 1 condition, Joseph Dube said quietly: “I’m satisfied: I saved Anna.'’ There is high hope for a race, an age 01 a nation that breeds su< h men. You never heard of Joseph Dube he- J fore; you may never hear of him again, j hut do not imagine that such dets^s are lost. j Somewhere and somehow is kept an im p€'*0****m segord of the thing* that 410 good, that are pure and high and unsel fish. This record will go to make up the song of the ages. The name of Joseph Dube is written in that book. Somewhere ami somehow is being reared a temple of God in the city of man. The deed of Joseph Dube is one of the stones in that temple. Somewhere and somehow is being builded a royal highway through the ages, leading to the era of heaven on earth. Joseph Dube’s sacrifice is a mile stone in that highway. He saved more than one life. Human ity is bound together in 1000 unseen ways, and he who rescues another in some sense rescues all men. I want you to engrave the name of humble Joseph Dube on your heart, and some day, all unconscious to yourself, , perhaps, it will help you to save a life, to help a friend or to be a little hit more unselfish, honest and true. No, no, I cannot talk painting. No one ! does who is a real painter. It is dis cussed in omnibuses, in cafes, in drawing ' looms, but not here.—Hilaire Germain Ingas, greatest living French painter. There is no harm perhaps in talking j art" if one knows anything about tt. ! There may even be no positive harm in talking it if he knows little or nothing. ; In time he may learn. Yet is there any- ! thing under the sun more "stale, tiat and ur.profitable!’ than the chatter about art by near artists and people with a smat tering of the subject? Yee; there is one thing worse, and that is so called "artistic temperament.” What Is art? Is it not art to do one’s 1 work well in whatever field lie occupies? I.' he known his subject, loves his work and makes a finished product, Is not that art? What need Is there to develop Jiidiosyncrasies and "temperament” in conscientious, inspired and worth w hile, Work? If we confine art to the narrower defini tion of painting, sculpture, music, drama, poetry and the like, wherein Is there gieater need here than elsewhere for ail that twaddle about ‘‘temperament?’* The big winner in these fields, as in any other, is the man who learns ull j about his subject, is a master of detail, | sinks himself in his art and works, works, works. That word "work" is really the key word of the whole proposition, fciuc cess cannot he won without It. It Is not "temperament" that is needed half so I much us ordinary, old fashioned, dig Into j it industry. The greatest artists, whether In paint ing. music, the drama or elsewhere, work j ay hard and us honestly us winners In I any other field, and in most cases they | have no more “temperament" than a suc cessful lawyer, teacher or business man. ! Indeed, moat of the temperament twad dle comes from sinattcrer* and half 1 baked people, who know next to nothing I of what they are talking. The thing misnamed "artistic tempera- j ment" seems to have little place other ] than as a veil for affinities, poses, vani- | tic.-', bad temper bordering on boorish ness j end other forms of piffle/ and self In- I diligence. Art is a high term, and it is infinitely hopeful that there is an artistic awak ening in America, hut there is no more relation between "artistic temperament’ and the real thing than there is between a quack and a scientist or between a fakir &ud an avatar. It has been exactly 400 years since Vas co Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pa cific ocean. This year, as a sort of gigantic <juad ricentennial of the event, we arc prom ised the opening of the Panama canal. Through the range of hills on which Balboa stood the big ditch will bear the world’s commerce from “sea to shining sea." The Panama canal has been the dream of centuries. It was only made an ac complished fact when a race came im patient of dreams and eager for deeds. The actual work has occupied but few more years than the dream did centuries. Immense obstacles had to be overcome. There are always obstacles to any worth while work. Hundreds of millions of dollars had to be raised, tens of thousands of workmeji had to be procured, hundreds of machines had to be created and set In place, great engineers bad to be put in charge, a mountain range had to be removed, and a fever laden clime had to be transformed to one of health. All of these things have been accomplished with speed and ef ficiency and without much noise. Not only so, but the work is being completed short of the date originally promised. Pi ai*» hath her victories no less renowned than war. You and J. reader, are a part of the na tion that performed this great work. < erinot we as Individuals be equally ef ficient? We do not have to dig canals perhaps, or do any other gigantic act attracting the attention of the world, yet our tusk is as important, relatively speaking, as that of piercing the isthmus and wedding two oceans. A building is made up of many parts. Tf one bface is missing the structure is not complete or safe. Our position may be that of a brace in the social edifice. It thus becomes essential to all that we do our work well. If it is important to society as a whole, •however, it Is infinitely more important to ub as individuals. It means the dif ference between success and failure, be tween prosperity and poverty, between honor and dishonor, between comfort and misery. v Jt means, if wo do not live up to our port, that we are losing a life. r,< t us each reduce his mountain range, pierce through his isthmus of difficulty overcome disease, organize his forces, and wed the ocean of desires and dreams to that of accomplishment. It is only thus that our ships will < omc in. bearing their richly laden carg >68 to bless our own and others’ lives. Abou ben Adhem may his tribe Increase! Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace SUFFRAGE IN SERVIA—By Xavier Holden SOFIA, February IT*.—(Special.) — Fresh war is threatened in the untranquil Balkans. Not be cause peace negotiations are unsatis factory, because Ferdinand has not got enough: because Hervia is not to keep Albania: or because some p< are sore about Sulonica. The cause of trouble is the resurgent suffrage! te. The resurgent suffragette has not > et got to the stage of seizing the coat tails of King Ferdinand or stoning King Peter’s konok, as have, her .sisters in other lands. But she is active and irritated; and the Terrible Turk him self has aroused no worse political pas sion than her ultimatum, “We women must have votes.’* This passion has overtaken Bulgaria, and also progressive riervia, where women are already farther ah« ad in tho professions than they are in Germany or France. The war has given women their chance and they are not neglect ing it. For the past few weeks Madarne Vasilisa Petroff, wife of a Phillippappo ils lawyer has been running a very strong suffragette agitation. The agita tion feeds mainly on the great services rendered during the war by women nurses, uniform makers and even sol diers. “But the greatest thing we are doing.” she says, “is becoming widows. Every Bulgarian 'woman who has sent her husband to die on the battlefield is a fresh argument why women should have votes.” Woman's suffrage is an old cause In Bulgaria. Before the war the Women’s Emancipation union had 1700 members and it lately beeamo affiliated to the international suffrage movement. The war brought 400 fresh members. The Bulgarian man regards the movement with suspicion. Of the political parties the only sympathizers are the radicals and the democrats, neither of which counts for much. During the lo years fighting the women have gained only one viciot That is the right: to vote for the elections of the schools manage ment committees. The right to sit as members of the committees has been refused. .Madunic Petroff is preparing a poti Hon to Queen Eleonora. The petition begins by reciting words used by Kir.„ Ferdinand to members of the English lied Press Mission. "My wife," said the Incautious Ferdinand, "Is worth * 1,#*0 soldiers." if one woman Is worth 1*.**9 soldiers, urgues the logi cal petition, then one woman might Imvc at least the same political power as one soldier lias. The petition asks Queen Eleonora to use her Influence In pushing the women's emancipation movement, thereby "showing the world that both halves of ilie Bulgarian na tion are worthy of freedom." By the occupation of the male popu lation in the war the women found themselves promoted into necessary be ings. Seine cleaned tho streets, others drove cabs and a few even applied lo he enrolled as patrolmen. Three were enrolled and their drill begun. But tin three soon discovered that they were not wanted. With all the men fighting their country's battles, there was no one to get drunk, to give black eyes or to steal pocket handkerchiefs and the patrolman’s occupation wus gone. So llio three were discharged. M. Queshoff, son of the prime minister, who had been serving In the foreign ministry and was drawn as a reserve officer, perfected a plan for employing women in the ministry to replace men gone LO the front. Twenty were en trusted with the copying of confidential dispatches and they kept the secret. S-rvia's women's emancipation move ment Is booming better than Bulgaria's, it is older and Mervia has hundreds of women doctors, teachers ami even some women engineers. Bervla led almost all Europe In giving women a show of political power. In 1878, the year In which Bervla finally threw off Turkish suzerainty, women were given the right to vote In municipal elections. Only 1- |ier cent of adult women could then read and write. Tho right of municipal voting has never been exercised. The courts when asked to decide on the matter, said wisely: “Women have a legal right to vole, hut it cannot he recognized us it is against the custom | of Bervla." The Servian Women's Suffrage League is seven years old. It ih always hovering on the verge of suc cess. When women doctors and teach ers demand a right to vote for the Skuptchlna. they were hacked by many j eminent men. including Prime Minister j Pashltch. They lost by only six votes I Servian social democrats support In , theory women’s suffrage, but they do not support It in practice on the ground that the suffrage organization is un friendly to them. For practical work th© suffragists have to rely on M. Vul witsch, chief.of the young social party, and now minister of education. Vul witsch works hard for th© cause, and h© has promised to open several new fields for women’s activity in teaching. The present minister of the interior also hacks women's rights. Other min isters are unfriendly. The former war Minister Pavlowltsch proposed to em ploy women sopyist clerks in the war office. IPs project caused an open re volt among the men. A real hacker of the Hervtan suffra gists Is Prince Arsen© Karageorg* - viteli. brother of King Peter. Frivolous brave, hurdup Arsen© lias dearly loved many women in his day, anil he shows them his gratitude by wishing them votes. When Arsen© has any money— which is seldom—he gives small Hums to the suffragist organization. II© is a close friend of one o the most prom inent suffragist leaders, Madame Mari© Gruyltsch, the half French widow of an Agriculturist of Niseh. Madam© Gruy itscli is a remarkably handsome woman. When her husband died in 1906, she gave half his property to the woman’s suffrage league. Hho is now busy or- ! ganizing a “national demand for votes'’ which i • to he based on what women have done and suffered during th© war. Forty-two Servian women, she says, have taken part as soldiers, and two were killed. Thus do Bulgaria and Strvia progress. From Montenegro and Albania com© no echo of this emancipation movement. But H is expected that the bravo Mon tenegrin will show his thankfulness for his wife's services during th© war by not whacking her so hard as is now the custom, and that the Albanian will yoke his wife less roughly to the plow. And saw within the moonlight In his room, Making it rich and like a lily in bloom, An angel writing in a book of gold. Exceeding peace had made Ben Adbem bold) And to the presence in Hie room he said, “What writest thou?” The vision raided its head And, with a look made of all sweet ac cord, Answered, "The names of those who love the I*ord.” "And is mine one?” said Abou. "Nay, not so,” Replied the angel, Abou spoke more low, But cheerily still, and said, "I pray thee, then. Write me as one that loves his fellow men.” The angel wrote and vanished. The next eight It came again, with a great w'akening light. And showed the names whom love of God had blessed— And, lo, Ben Ad hem's name led all the rest! — Leigh Hunt. I have found one of the tribe of Abou ben Adhem. He Is a farmer in western Kansas. His name is peter Schofield. This winter a stock plague raged in Peter’s neighborhood. It was said to be the worst disaster in that part of tho state since the grasshopper scourge. Sonic of the farmers lost all their horses and were too poor to buy others. One morning was found tacked on the door of the schooIhouHc near Peter Scho field's home _ this notice signed by his name: “The Lord has spared my stock. My horses have gone through the epidemic without loss, and I have 20 head to loan to my less fortunate neighbors without charge for plowing. Those who need are welcome to them.” A simple thing, you say. Yes, that is the beauty of it. Just a simple act of kindness, but the kingdom of heaven is made up of such If peter Schofield has been of the same kidney as some of tho modern trusts he wcuid have taken advantage of his mo nopoly on horses ahd have charged about three prices in hiring them out to his neighbors. If lie had been of the breed of those who play to the grandstand and hire a press agent to exploit their virtues lie would have sent the notice to nil tho newspapers, accompanied by his picture end a sketch of his life. Ho did neither. It was quite by accident that the newspapers learned of the inci dent. The Lord has been good to him, and Peter had gratitude. He could not repay the Lord, so passed the kindness on to ids needy neighbors. Remember this when you make up your list of those who love the Lord, and do not forget that of Peter Be ho ft eld. But write him down, like Abou ben Ad hem. as one who loved Ids fellow men. Paint and powder act like so much dirt.—Dr. S. J. Crumblne, dean of School of Medicine, University of Kansas. The only way to improve on nature is to stimulate nature to improve on her self. Luther Burbank has learned this secret, n« has every successful gardener, horti culturist. breeder and farmer. % The same laws apply to the human world. The way to be beautiful of face and 11 ody Is to have beautiful thoughts, & beautiful character and health. Why do women of the twentieth century mar their race* with paint? c:ivagos do the same, but wo are sup posed to have passed the savage stage. A lady one day meeting an overpainted Kiri on Broadway said rather sharply, “Wash your face.” Many physicians have testified that powder and paint stop the pores, roughen and poison the skin and so produce ugli ness in the at tempt "to force beauty. No man of good taste, real insight and appreciation was ever -pleased by a paint ed face. If ills Innermost feelings were known it only revolted and disgusted him. Some teachers, to discourage the use of paint, urge athletics. They testify that Kiris who play basketball, row, walk or take healthful exercise soon get rid of the nonsense. There is nothing more lovely than a beautiful woman. There is nothing more horrible and ugly than an overpainted one. Paint does not conceal ugliness, but rather uccciituutcs and advertises It. It require* a leal artist to paint a beau tiful picture, but most of the face paint ers are mere amateurs and daubbers. The real artUt conceal* his art until it I s'.etrfH pure nature, but the face painters Ido not conceal their paint. Nature is moro beautiful than all her imitators. It may seem an extreme state n tin, hut it is ur honest belief resulting from long observation that no woman's face was ever improved by smearing grease and floor upon it. I think most men share this view. Cleanliness, health, exercise, right diet and good thoughts are the secrets of beauty. If any artitlcial aid is used let it be the taco massage. Anything beyond this Is vanity that defects Its own end*. Paint and powder constitute an attempt to obtain admiration under false pre tenses. What the Trouble Was From the New York Sun. "When 1 started In at my desk this morning." said a man who writes things for a living. “I found right away that the work was dragging. 1 had a job all market! out In my mind and ready to begin on, but my Ideas didn't flow; realty they only tickled, and at that haltingly, and over that I wondered mildly. “I had enjoyed my breakfast as usual, end hud looked over the paper, smoking the while my usual stogie, and T ought to be fit and ready, hut somehow 1 wasn't: and so 1 sat buck for a moment and won dered. m "And then It struck me thut there was Something wrong m the room, somehow It seemed oppressive and nuiet, still, very still. There was something wrong here, surely, and then all of a sudden It struck me; and when I looked up, sure enough the clock had stopped! "It is curious about people and clocks. Some people can't work with a clock in the room; I couldn't work without one. And It Is Joet the same about clocks In sleeping rooms; some folks can't bear them there; 1 couldn't go to sleep without on*. "And 1 must ha%e a clock in the room in which 1 work. It Is a friendly thing to me, and 1 have an idea that it vitalises the air. gives It life. When I am at work I never hear It strike and I never hear it ticking; but if the clock should stopT"