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The Birmingham age-herald. [volume] (Birmingham, Ala.) 1902-1950, March 16, 1913, MAGAZINE SECTION, Image 45

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THE BIRMINGHAM AGE-HERALD
ypLUME xxxxn_ Birmingham, Alabama, sitnday, march u>, ihin magazine section number 314
Bill Vines on the Business of Politics
MISTUR EDDITUR:
It is remarkabull how freely a
Statesman will express his furm
convictslons regarding his parly's genner
el polysles, ami also about the bonehed
ness and gennerel lncompltlnsy of the
uther political parties. It Is the easiest
thing in the world to go to one of our
grate ropubllcon statesmen, and get his
unbyased ami frank opinion aiiout ttie
demmycratie administration which has
jest cranked up the macheen of state and
is now inunkcying with the steering geer
and poking its finger round the spark
plug.
Rite off the bat he’ll tell you how verry
unfortunate, it all is, and how he veews
with alarm the unorganized hoard of
Pirates who have controle of the affares
01 ttie Nasicn. "The blzness interests of
tlie country," he seys. "is cought with thf
goods rite between the persunnel arnbl
•ions and conflicting emoslons and opln
yun8 of the leeders of the demmycratle
party," lie seys. "Mr. Bryan wants to go
one way and Mr. IVilsun wants to go
anuther nay and Osker Underwood wants
to go another way, and the rest of the
party In the House and Senate stand
around like a lot of goats sulh favurrlng
one thing and sum anuther" he seys.
•'There Is no unity of purpose," lie seys.
t
"Exsept that evvery boddy wants all the
pye he can get, and will raise a merry
racket if he don't got it. No boddy knows
what is going to he dim. The blznesg
Interests of the country has pawsed In
its pursoot of the Ultimate Consumer,
and is standing in suspeense waiting to
see how much its going to cost them.
Evvery thing Is Kiiaotick and gUieose;
nothing is for sertatn. Under the Repub
licon party evvery boddy knew what to
expect, they knew condisions would not
be disturhbed; they knew that our Infint
Industries would continuew to Its pro
tected, and that all the peepul would
would have to do would be to go rite ahed
and make all they could and turn It ovver
to 'em," ho seys. "The labbering man
knew that he would be allowed to contln
etv to work and pay taxes and go on
strikes and such things In ackordense
with our ansient institusions," he seys.
"Under Republicon rule we have had an
unpregsldlnted ery of Prosperrlt.v for six
teen yeers," he seys. "Dlvvldends have
Increesed, Crops have increased, offlse
holders have Increesed, Tnvestigasion has
Increesed, Pensclons have Increesed, and
still the peepul are not happy," lie seys.
"I weep for my country,” he seys. "It
we struggle through the next fore yeers
without a series of convulsions and pan
nicks which will lceve all of our Indus
tries in the hospital for the agreed and
infurm cripples, and without beholding J.
P. MoiHrin and John D. Rockerfeller pat
ronizing free soup houses, I will indeed
be happy,'’ he seys.
Then you interveew the Demmycratic
Statesman and get his idears about the
future of the Country.
"Onse moor," he seys. "in the histery
of the Republick the peepul air soopreem
in this country. We have rested fruin
the traffickers and Munny changers in
the Temple the rains of Guvvermint,’’
he seys. “The kornnicopfa is abroad In
the land and will Kornnicope sum for
the commun peepul. Too long has Pred
ditory weelth and Wall street dommlnated
the free institutions of our forefathurs.
The Demmycratic party stands unnited
and Ifarmonyus and with a full determ
minasion to put all the forth class post
offises in the Sivvil Servise. as soon as
the jobs air filled -with good Demmycrats.
We will reduse the tariff on evverythlng
exsept lumber," he seys. “I do not agree
with my Demmycratic Colleeges about
lumber," be seys. "Dumber is one of the
leeding industries in my districk and
I can show that the lumber industry is
wurthy of sum consideration," lie seys,
"and besides that lumber is a luxury
ennyhow, and there ought to be a tax
on luxuries. 1 think it would be a calam
rnlty to reduse the tarriff on lumber,
and I warn the demmycratlc party that
they will reck there opportunities to do
so," he seys, 'and besides that it will
defect me for the nomminasion next
time,'' he seys.
"We must have free suger,” he says.
The comtnun peepul use lots of super and
it is an outrage to tax the menny for tlie
tew,” he seys. 'T deplore the tendensy
of sum demmycrats to demand a tarriff
on suger. They air not demmycrats, they
air republicans at hart, and they want to
rob the peepul for the irhmtoter Interests,”
he seys. "The peepul have plased us in
power,” he seys, “and if we show our
incapassity to run the Guvvermlnt by
putting a tarrif on suger they will kick
us out of offise,” he seys. "I favur an
incum tax,” he continews, “an incum tax
on evvery incum above five thousend dol
lers, exsept memburs of Congress,” he
seys. “There air not menny peepul In
my dist.rick who have enny ineums to
speek of that voted for me,” he seys,
“and the rich ought to pay the expenses
of the Guvvermint.”
Then you go to see a demmycrat who
was “promminitly mensioned for the Cab
binet,” but who in sum unaccountabull
way was ovverlooked when the names
weer sent into the Senate by the Presi
ding
"Of corse," he seys, "T do not like to
commit myself rite now about condisions
in the party,” he seys. "Rut I feet* the
worst. Presidint Wllsun has not shown
that rare judgemint which for a while he
gave evvldense of posscssin,” he seys.
"This Is what we get by electing a man
to the Hyest offise in the gift of the
j.eepul who has fullered purely a Accadem
mick occupasion," he seys. "He no
sooner pulls off his ovvershoes and draws
his mileage than he begins to act foolifch,”
he seys. "T do not like to give the Presi
dint pain by sleeking of him in this man
ner, but during his first w'eek of ofrise
lie has basely truckled to a corrupt ln
flewanse in the party which I have all
along advised him against. "Before the
nommlnasion I was his warm supporter
and he frcquintly asked my advise wh h
was freely givven," he seys. "T men
sioned to him sevverel times durring the
campain, that in case he was elected
Pressidint, there weer sevverel of the
Cabbinet jobs into which sum much need
ed reforms mite be properly introdused,
and he would Joculerly slap me on the
back and suy that I was sum classy lit
tle introduser of reforms myself and that
he would always remember it," he sed.
"I do not care myself for this Cabbinet
job. T only longed to surve my country.
And T beleeved that T could smve my
country moor efftslently as a Cabblnet
officer with moor pay than '1 am now
getting than in enny in her way.”
"But cents the electslon the President
lias treeted me coldly and offish. lie
has not sought my advise. He has denyed
himself frum drinking at tlie fountain
of my experyense. By his corse he has
alienated my respect and esteem and that
of a frend of mine who is also polytlcally
pure, and Its has spoiled a perfectly good
adminnlstraiBlcn. "T sadly reer," he seys,
wiping away a t.eer of regret, "that be
fore the adminnlstrasion is a yeer old the
peepul will be yelling for the Hook."
It is Indeed tuff on our demmycratjc
statesmen, for revvenew only, who have
for yeers looked aftur there prospects
like a trained nurse, under most unfa
vurabull condision, to let the momint of
supposed tryumphant victery, see them
swivvel up and cash In, owing the pervers
sity of a billyus Individuel they have
elected Pressidint, In actuelly carrying
out his campnin statemints that he was
going to be Pressidint of all tlie peepul.
So far as I am individuellv consented,
far be it frum me to criticise the Press! -
dint. T shall give the Pressidint evvery
oppertuimity to make good before 1 wound
him with enny sarcastick refferenses to
thp way lie runs the Ouvvermlnt. If h®
sec fit to turn down the petition '1 have
sent to him setting forth a few facts
legarding my sterling worth and my abll
lity to draw the saller.v of a sertuin
position under the Guvverniiut, I *haii
not fly off the liaudie and Cuss out the
aclmiimistrasion. t will ovverlook this
error in judgcmint and give him another
change. I atn not wedded to enny mi®
perticuler job. Of corse I’m not looking
tor work, or enny thing like that, hut if
I can't get the scttaln job 1 have select
ed, who am I that I should get mad
about it and not have enny job at all?
Tf the Pressldlnt thinks that, a For rain
Ambasserdership would not becum my
peculier style of buty, but that 1 would
look well as Assistant Secretory of the
Treasury, or sum such ‘bot-not’ as that,
1 will grascfully yeeld to ids superyor
judgernint and continew to stand by ids
policies, whatevver they air. Until th®
f'ressldint proves conclusively that he is
not going to send my game to the Sen
ate, and that he is totally lncompetint to
run the affares of a grate Nasion, T atn
going to give him the bennefit of the
doubt and support the adminnistrasion. [
don't think we ought to he too selfish.
Yours trooly, BILE VINES,
Washington, D. C.
The Pantheon of the Himalayas
FAR away in distant India lie the
Himalaya mountains, truly termed
the roof of the world and the
mightiest specimens of the handicraft of
the Almighty. They are sublimely beauti
ful in the distance, they are wonderfully
impressive at the approach and positively
they are a dream in stone, in the other
terrifying in their vicinity. In one phase
they are a dream in stone, in the other
a demon of living rock. From their mighty
fastnesses flow the two great rivers of
India, and upon the apices of their loftiest
peaks was situated the abode of the In
dian gods.
The Himalayas are associated with leg
ends, epics and sagas that are replete
with all consuming interest., and it is
a marvel as well as a subject of regret
that the tales of their gods and heroes
are so little known by the western world.
Still, there may exist several reasons
for the prevalence of this occidental ig
norance, the most potent of which are
the comparatively few translations, until
recently, of Indian literature and the
lengthy, almost unpronounceable, names
of their gods, heroes and heroines.
We have always been accustomed to
look to the Greeks for Hie sources of my
thology and demi-gods, but as the Rom
ans borrowed their religion from Greece
ao the Grecian pantheon found Its pro
totypes in oriental characters, and even
Hercules may be traced to an Indian
origin.
As in the Homeric age, India has its
two wonderful epics, the one descriptive
of battle, valiant deeds and bloodshed, the
other breathing the softest sentiments of
love, delightful dalliance and weary wan
derings. The latter is known as the Ha
mayana, is almost an analogue to the
Odessey and is a book which I never tire
In perusing.
The Indian Shakc?spear is Kalidasa, who
lived about the time of Christ, and his
masterpiece is the drama Shakuntala.
which when translated by Sir William
Jones in 17S9 produced such u profound
•ensatlon in England and Germany that
the study of Sum*krit immediately became
a vogue.
I am not going to frighten nor worry my
readers with long names, but shall refer
to a few' of the shortest and most pleas
ing cognomens In relating a few of these
gems of literature and sweetest of legends.
Shakuntala was the daughter of a
nymph and being left at her birth in the
woods was nourished by the birds until
she was found and adopted by a sage. She
is met in the forest by a king who is
hunting and immediately falls in love
with her. His majesty induces the girl to
contract a marriage of simple acceptance,
and upon leaving for his capital gives his
wife a ring. When Shakuntala returns
to the hermitag? another sage pronc/unces
upon her the curse of being forgotten by
her tuishand, but later relents to the ex-*
ttiiu that Ui« king will remember his wife
V .
when he sees the ring. The girl starts
upon a journey In search of the king, but
while bathing in a sacred pool loses her
ring so that her husband fails to recog
nize her, and site returns to the forest,
where her son is horn.
However, a fisherman catches a fish
\\ liich has swallowed the ring and is
brought Into the presence of the king
upon the charge of having stolen the
ring. Upon seeing the lost pledge-the
king remembers Shakuntala and at
once setH out in search of her.
This is beautiful but it Is only a
drama and does not belong to legends
proper. One of the prettiest of Indian
legends is that of Damayanti, known
as the “pearl of girls" and a synopsis
thereof is well worth consideration It
has been translated into both the dead
and living languages from I,atin to
Swedish.
Nala was a great hunter of the Him
alayas as well as a king, but his love
for tlie beautiful once caused him to
spare the life of a handsome swan
This bird in gratitude sang to Damay
anti the charms and graces of Nala
to such an extent that the young girl
fell in love with the king and declared
that she would wed no other. Her fath
er, who was also a king, gave his
daughter, according to the customs of
those days, a tournament and great
festival which was always attended by
girls of the warrior caste and at which
they might choose their husbands. In
fact the function was known as a
svayumvara which means "self choice."
This was a time when the gods still
visited this earth and mingled with
mortals a.nd they were as amorous and
as mischievous as those of Greece or
Home. They decided to attend the
tournament and upon their way thith
er encountered Nala also en route to
(he function. They bade him go to
Damayanta and sue for them. The
king though reluctant so to do Is in
duced toconsent and by their assist
ance is enabled to gain access to the
girl's chamber where he tells her that
the gods desire her hand. She informs
Nala that she will ehoose hut him even
though tile gods themselves be pres
ent. At the tournament four of the
chief gods assume tin* appearance of
Nala and Damayanti Is unable to dis
tinguish the real object of her affec
tions. in her despair the young girl
prays to the gods and they resume
their divine attributes whereupon she
chooses Nala to the great grief of the
kings and corresponding delight of the
g&ds. The latter give Nala magi gifts:
the wedding feast is celebrated ami
Nala returns with his bride to ills
kingdom. Here they live happily anil
are blessed with two children. Isdra-'
sens and his sister Isdrasenaa.
lint gambling was a besetting vice
of that age and In Its indulgence Nala
loses all, his kiugdorn and his family,
BY C. F. MARKELL
and, transformed Into a dwarf, ho wan
ders tnto tIre forest. Here lie becomes
the charioteer of Rituparna, King of
Oudh. Damayata, who has returned to
her father's court, suspects that Nala
is at Ouhd and offers iier hand to
Rituparna if lie will drive from Ouhd
to her home, a distance of 500 miles,
in a single day, knowing that only her
husband is equal lo the task. Nala
drives Rituparna through the air and
is rewarded by perfect skill in throw
ing the dice. His wife recognizes him
by his magic command of fire and wa
ter and his cooking, lie then resumes
his true form, wins back all that he
lias lost and lives happily with Dam
ayunti ever afterward.
It seems that the only species of
gambling known ' to the Indians of
that period was in throwing the die,
but the dice were marked upon four
sides only and not upon six sides as at
present. The spots were called yugas
and typified ages, four being reck
oned the best and one the worst. One
was designated kaliyugu and represent
ed the Iron age. a metal to which the
Indians had an extreme aversion.
i have often been struck with the
similarity existing between the Indian
ami the Norse legends and mythology
and have spoken in a previous paper of
this dread of the touch of iron en
tertained by the swan maidens and
elves of the’ Norsk sagas.
The Hindus had their Bros or Cupid,
god of love, and in some respects he
is more felicitous than the wily
marksman of the Greeks or Romans,
He was the son of Faith and Fortune
and his bow wAs made of sugar cane,
while a line of bees constituted the
bowstring, lie carried hut five arrows,
each being tipped with a distinctive
flower supposed to conquer one of the
five senses. Sugar and honey are
charming similitudes of love aipl tile
domination of the senses by a flower
is tile qulntesenee of delicate, sensuous
ness.
The little god was railed Kama and
he rode upon a parrot or sparrow. He
was always attended by nymphs, one
of whom invariably bore a banner dis
playing the Makara. or a fish on a red
ground. His wife was Prlttl (affection!
and iiis daughter, Trisha, represented
desire, while Ids son was known as
the unrestained. There is a meaning
and world of thought in each of these
allegorical names.
Mankind possesses an intense pen
chant for worshipping something and
this Is tlie secret of heroes eventually
becoming deified and placed In the
pantheon. I have been struck with tills
tendency wiien visiting the tomb and
residence of Peter the Great in Rus
sia. ills relies and their depositor!**
have become veritable shrines and I
have seen the ignorant peasants cross
ing themselves and bowing before and
kissing an old garment of accoutre
ment that once belonged to the great
<*zar, who is today called by many
St. Peter the Great.
Not only ordinary mortals but plants
and beverages have become the sub
ject of apotheosis and the Dlonysiac
and Bacchic worship of the Greeks and
Rorpans find their counterpart in the
Hindu worship of soma, a strange ob
ject, sometimes the moon, again a plant
and still again a drink. As a plant has
been Identified in modern times as the
Sarcostemma viminalls and in olden
days if was collected by the light of
tiie moon on certain mountain tops. It
was stripped of its leaves which were
carried to the place of sacrifice where
the priests crushed the stalks between
stones, sprinkled them with water ai)d
placed them on a sieve for purification.
After the Juice had trickled through
the meshes of the sieve* into a vessel,
it was mixed with clarified butter and
barley and allowed to ferment when it
was offered In libation to the gods or
drunk by the priests. Tills was the
practical method of its preparation but
in the poetical sense soma was brought
from the sky by a falcon and guarded
by the Gandharvas, who were heaven
ly choiresters at the banquets of the
gods. They also regulate the course
of the horses of the sun and reveal
the secrets of heaven. They are the
parents of the first human pair, Tama
and Yami, who have preceded all to
the realm beyond.
From them aro derived ecstatic states
just as u, sudden. fear that struck au
army or assemblage was regarded by
the anctonts as being caused by the
unseen presence of Pan, and hence
called panics. Its juice was regarded
as nectar conferring eternal life and
vigor upon those who imbibed it and
over 300 lengthy hymns are devoted to
its praise. As the plant was yellow
it Is presumed that the name soma
came to be applied to the moon from
the fact that Luhu was regarded as a
yellow drop in the sky.
In the Apsaras of the Hindus we
find the analogues of the Norse Val
kyries. Instead of riding horses they
bestrode the breezes and conduct to
the heaven of Indra warriors fallen
in battle whose wives they become. But
they are very fond of throwing dice
and are accredited with good fortune
in play.
But tjie Himalayas have also their ter
rible gods or demons and their home is
nron Kuilasa. one of the loftiest peaks?
of the mighty mountains.
Here dwells Kali, “the inaccessible, ’
and few persons know that tlie name of
the city of Calcutta is but a corruption
o.f Kaligliatta, meaning the ghat, or land
ing place of Kali. She must have been
a creature horrifying to behold, for her
body was dark blue and the palms of
her hands bright red while her dishev
eled hair reached to her feet. Her tongue
protruded from her mouth, which was
marked with blood. She wore a neck
lace of human heads and a cincture of
bloodstained hands encircled her waist.
During her cult near Calcutta her tem
ples swam with blood.
Kali was hideous enough, hut in this
respect she seems to have been surpassed
by her divine spouse, Shiva. 'Phis god’s
throat was also dark blue, hut the dis
coloration was caused by poison which
v ould have destroyed the world had lie
not swallowed it at the churning of the
ocean, fie had five faces and three eyes
to each visage, one of the eyes being in
the center of the forehead. His hair was
thickly matted and protruded like a horn
from his forehead. His central eye was
encompassed by a crescent which denoted
the measurement of time by months, a
serpent around his neck marked the flight
of time by .’.ears and a necklace of skulls
and serpents about his person typified
the revolution of ages. He usually rode
a white bull and well it was that he
rode for he was so encumbered with ac
coutrements and attributes that walking
would have been a difficult process. He
earried a noose and a drum shaped like
an hour glass, a trident, a bow, an ax.
a thunderbolt, a skull-mounted staff and
a nondescript weapon called a khlnkira.
Nor wras this all; be was burdened with
a tiger skin, a deer skin and an ele
phant’s skin and he often held a deer In
one of his hands. He is worshipped to
day at Benares and the Hindu scrip
tures mention him under more than a
thousand different names.
Tils companion in the pantheon of India
is less revolting and more impressive. The
latter's name was Vishnu and in him we
again see the close resemblance to the
Norsk god I.okl. for both possessed and
employed the power of transforming them
selves into various shapes and forms.
Vishnu engaged in 10 incarnations, the
chief of which were those of a fish, a
lion, a wild hoar, a tortoise, a lion an:l
a dwarf. He moved over the great wa
ters resting upon the back of a huge
marine serpent and again one of his
principal achievements was striding over
the heavens in just three steps. The lat
ter feat he performed while in the shape
of the dwarf, Vamana. Tn the second
age of creation the three worlds, heaven,
earth and hades, belonged to the demon
Bali, but Vanama persuaded the demon
to give him as much possession as lie
could compass in three strides. Vanama
promised and was surprised to see the
dwarf cover heaven and earth In three
steps and leave nothing but hades as a
place of occupancy for the demon.
Vishnu had a peculiar mark upon his
breast and was covered with precious and
rare jewels. Those who are familiar with
Norsk mythology will recall the myste
rious battle of Loki for tin- Rransuga
necklace, and will note the remarkable
resemblance between that wily god and
Vishnu. The latter wore upon his breast
the costly jewel Kaustubha, and upon his
wrist the rare gem Syarnentuku. His
attributes were as numerous as those of
Shiva, consisting of a conch shell, a
discus, a club, a lotus, a mow and a
sword. He rode upon the garuda, a
strange creature, half man and half vul
ture. It possessed the body and limbs of
a human and the head, wings, beak and
talons of an eagle. Its face was white,
its wings Ted and its body golden. Like
Shiva, Vishnu was known under more
than 10<Hi names, and his wife was Luk
shmi, a goddess closely corresponding to
the Greek A'dirodite. Her creation was
most remarkable, and this way—when
Vishnu was a tortoise, he recovered cer
tain treasures which had been lost in the
deluge. His huge- back served as a pivot
lor the mountain Mandara, around which
the gods and demorfg twisted the serpent
Kasukl. This prodigious gyration churned
the ocean and brought up 14 precious ob
jects. Those objects were Ambrosia, a
physician to the gods; Lakshmi or beauty.
Sura or goddess of wine, ('handra or the
moon, the prototype of lovely women, the
prototype of horses, the wonder jewel
worn upon Vishnu’s breast, a celestial tree
yielding all desires, the cow grunting all
boons, the prototype of elepnants. a conch
shell which discomfit ted all enemies by Its
sounds, an unerring bow and a deadly
poison.
This is Intensely interesting, for In It
we detect many or the germs of Grecian
mythology. Aphrodite, like Lakshmi. was
sea born: horses sprung rroin the sea ami
hence Neptune, the sea god. Hist invented
horses; the celestial trees correspond to
th' golden apples of Ihsperldes, and in
the wonder working jewel we find the
trea.sure of the Rhine or Nlbelungon hord,
which Is of Scandinavian origin. The
deadly poison refers to that which dis
patched Hercules, and here for a mo
ment's divergance, which is worthy of
note Near Sardinia Is a little Isle once
known as the Island of Hercules, and
upon It grew a strange and deadly poison.
This poison was peculiar to Sardinia, of
which the tiny island was a part, and
dro^ve those who partook of it mad. Rut It.
caused Its victims to cm He just before
death, and hence our word sardonic Smile
or smile of Sardinia
Though we do not know his origin, we
can trace this man Hercules in all his
wanderings, and 1 shall write of him in
a future paper. He !-• closely alH« i to
Bacchus, both of them wciu ruii persona,
and it Is an interesting query If the two
were not one and the same individual.
India was the Hindu god of the air. and
like Jupiter wielded the thunderbolt in
the storm. He was a mighty god and
worked for noble ends. His chief labors
consisted in warring against the demons
who in the shape of dragons essayed to
deprive the earth and mortals of the light
warmth of the sun. lie Is the favor
ite in the,epics of India.
It Is a great pity that much beauty of
thought should he marred by absurd and
puerile contentlop for there are today
two great religious parties in India war
ring over the precedence of a frontal
Tnark, one faction contending ihai prefer
ment should be accorded Vishnu’s right
foot and the other equally zealous in
maintaining that equal reverence is duo
the impress of both feet.
Of the two great Indian epics the Tla
mayana appeals to me the more potently,
and in it there are unmistakable traces
of the Trojan cycle of legends. Until
the date of Valmikl, its reputed author,
is established, it must remain a mooted
question whether Homer drew his inspira
tions from Hindu sources or vice versa*
It is not for me to say.
England Fears .Jingoism
From the New York Times.
“The most ominous symptom of Eu
rope Is the revival of Jingoism in
France."
In this phrase one of the foremost
leaders of liborul opinion in England
summed up the view, taken by a con
siderable part of the press and public
of England of the recent developments
across the channel.
With the entente cordlale binding
this country to active co-operation
with France under certain contingen
cies, British Interest is obviously keen
er than that of a mere spectator. It is
no secret that there exists iu England
a school of publicists and politicians
who are convinced that Great Britain
will ionic day have to fight German ,
and believe that the longer that day is
deferred the smaller will lie England's
chance of coming victorious out of the
death grapple.
With tim improved relations of Great
Britain and Germany of l^te it is sig
nificant that this school is looking to
the recent development of what is
termed "the new spirit" in France a
the mediaeval (‘hrist.au looked at the
coming of a new crusade.
By part of the Ijo.idon press 1‘res
ident Hoi non re's presidential message,
the appointment of-’M. l(cleanse to St.
. ’ftcrsbtirg and the announcement ..f
the projected increase in military ex
penditure are extolled uj signs of th*
hi* heal pauiolibiu.

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