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Mexico's Indians Number Millions and Millions
MEXICO CITY. THE red man is a more serious prob lem in Mexico than the black man is in the United States. This coun try has over 15,000.000 people, and of these Jess than 3.000,000 are whites. There are about 6,000,000 pure 'Indians and 6.000.000 more who are red men, more or less crossed with the whites. The pure Indians are practically unedu cated. and ttiis is largely so of the mixed breeds. The greater part of them were lor years in little more than debt slavery, and today some millions of Wiem are mere hewers of wood and drawers of water on the estates of the rich haclen dadoes. Some work in the towns and others live in villages, maintaining many of the customs of centuries ago. Within the past few years Mr. Freder ick Starr has been making studies of tn 'Mexican Indians. He has traveled from here across the country down to Guate mala. City, visiting the various tribes and taking measurements of their heads, busts and of other parts of their figures. He has photographed thousands of them and has made plaster casts of many. A part of his travels was through the mountains of southern Mexico, where he found mgny Indian villages, each vil lage being a little republic. He found many new tribes and also many descend ants of the ancient peoples who inhabited Mexico during the days of Montezuma. It is through his researches and those of other ethnologists that the authorities here are studying the great political prob lems which confront them. Fifty-One Different Languages They now know that there are scores ot different Indian tribes in Mexico, and that each has its peculiarities. In 1864 one of the chief scientists of the republic, Don Manuel Orozco y Barra, foffiid that there were fil different Indian languages, and, In addition, about 69 dialects. He di vided these languages into 11 different families, and it was later shown that nearly all of these Indians had used ideo graphs and employed them in communi cating thought. One of the best known of the Indian races is the Aztecs. It was the ruling race at the time Cortez came ami there ore millions of it on the plateau today. The Aztec civilization has been so pic tured by Prescott that many think that it is about the only race of Indians in Mexico. The truth is that the Aztecs got ttie most of their civilization from tbs Toltecs, whom they conquered when they came hero from the north. They got their religion from them, and also their calendar and architecture. The Toltecs built the pyramids of Mexico, and either they or a branch of this race, known as tin Mayans, constructed the wonderful cities of Yucatan and those of Guate mala as well. 1 have already written of the ruins of Quirlgua in the Motagua valley, not far front the Caribbean sea In Guatemala, which our archeologists are row excavating. They are t Ho remains of temples built by the Mayans, who are supposed to have gone there from Mexico centuries ago. The. Aztecs called themselves Mexicans and it is from them that we get the name Mexico. Their descendants are numerous todav, but are largely peons who work for the whites, it is from them that the rank and tile of the soldiers are recruited. The Miztecas and Zapotecas Among the other Indians who have to he reckoned with, in the Mexico to come, are the Zapotecas and the Miztecas. Both of these races are noted for their intelligence, and they have already given Mexico some of its ablest men. Benito Juarez, for years the president of the republic, was a full-blooded Zapotecas, and President Portirio Diuz bad Miztoca blood in his veins. These tribes are now found on the southern slopes of the cen tral plateaus. You may see them in Pueblo, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Morelos. It is said -that their ancestors date back to the time when Mitla, Xochicalco and Zaachlla were built. The Zapotecas were never subdued by the Aztecs, and they are now growing in independence right along. There are a great many of them *••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••' By FRANK G. CARPENTER Top—Girl of Tehuantepec In Church Costume. Bottom—Young Aztecs, a Vital Part of Mexico's Future. Snapshot at a Station Two Indians From Vera Cruz in Oaxaca, a state whose population is fully nine-tenths Indian. Some are to b% found on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, where the women are noted for their pic turesqueness and for their independent ways. The Girls of Tehuantepec Indeed, the girls of Tehuantepec ari among the beauties of the North Amer ican continent. They are as straight as a royal palm tree and their forms "are beautifully rounded. They have olive skins, black hair and eyes and teeth as white as lime freshly slaked. Their or dinary costume is a jacket and skirt, the former having short sleeves and cut very low at the neck, so that it exposes their beautiful shoulders and arms. The jacket reaches almost to the waist and a strip of bare skin usually shows between it and the skirt. The skirt makes one think of that of the Burmans. It consists of a strip of red cloth several yards long. This is wrapped tightly around the hips and. tucked in at the waist. In addition to this every woman has a huipil for Sun days and feast days. The huipil is a lace decoration of enormous size, which is worn as a sort of headdress. It Incloses the face or it may extend around the neck or hang down from the head at the back like tlie war plumes of a Comanche chief. On dress occasions the girls wear also full skirts, which are often heavily embroidered with lace. These women do much of the work. They are thrifty and accumulative. They are fond of gold jewelry and like espe cially ornaments made of American twen ty-dollar gold pieces. Girls may be fre quently seen thus wearing a small for tune in gold double eagles, although their feet may be bare. The Ruins of Mitla The most famous ruins of this tribe lie within 25 miles to the southeast of Oax aca City. They are about 300 miles south of the Mexican capital and one can go there by train in less than r day. There are fairly good hotels at Oaxaca, and from there one can reach the ruins by carriage in five or six hours. Or he can go by train to San Pablo in an bout and a half and stop at the hotel there. In the latter case he will be right at the ruins and ran easily spend a day or so in moving about through them. The ruins are those of the ancient city of Mitla. They are of great extent, and the Indians say that under them lie the chambers wherein are stored the treas ures of the ancient Zapoteca kings. Some of the ruins are striking. The hall of the monoliths, for instance, has walls live feet thick and columns of enormous size. The lintels over the entrances are solid blocks of stone 18 feet long, four feet high and live feet thick, and the pillars are porphyry, rising 14 feet from the floor and extending, it is said, six feet below it. They are as big around as a whisky barrel. Next this is the salon of the Monoliths, which is 100 feet long and 20 feet wide. Its walls are 10 feet in height, and it has a floor of cement. The decorations of Mitla make yo uthink of Pompeii. Some of the floors are in mosaics, and many of the structures are wonderfully carved reminding one of the crumbling temples and fort at Delhi in India. Strange Indians of Northern Mexico Some of the most interesting of the Mexican tribes live in the northern part of the country* Chihuahua 1ms, for in stance. the Casas Grandes, which lie near the railroad on the way from Juarez to Terrazas. These Casas correspond some what to the homes of our cave dwellers, save that they were built on the level and were of vast extent. They were, in short, the first apartment houses on record. The chief building is 800 feet long from north to south, and 200 feet wide from west to east, covering an area of almost five? acres. It seems to have con sisted of three separate piles, united to lower buildings. The apartments varied in size, and the walls in places were 40 or 50 feet high, indicating that the build ings were in ruins at the time of the Spanish conquest, and very little is known of the people who built them, al though some suppose them to date back to the Moquis. Some Cave Dwellers of Mexico In Chihuahua we have the Tarahumares Indians, some of whom still live in caves, and who are sometimes known as t'he American cave dwellers. Similar homes are to be found in the Sierra Madre ir.buntains, the entrances being protected against the weather and wild beasts by stone or mud walls. Some of the caves are very large, and are reached by lad ders, or by stairways cut out inside the he uses. Others of the houses are of stone and some are of adobe, with roofs of thatch. The Tarahumares, both women and men, are noted lor their long, flowing, jet black hair. The men pull out all the hairs from their faces. They say thnt whiskers are a sign of wickedness, and they believe that the devil has always a beard. These people are said to be me greatest runners on record, and instances are known of where men have run 170 miles without stopping. They go on a slow trot, and keep it up for hours. The women can run as fast and as well as the men, and both men and women have moonlight races and other athletic sports. They sometimes race by torchlight. The Pima Indians, who are found in the same locality, are much like the Tara w A Red Faced Child of the Cactus humaree and the Tepehuannes. Another tribe nearby iet their finger and toe nails grow, in Chinese fashion. They say that cutting off the nails will produce blind ness, and that if a girl sucks the back bone of a deer her hack will grow curved and she will have the backache. These tribes are noted for their chastity, those who fall from grace being publicly switched. The Huicholes of Tepic Among the least known Indians of Mexico are some in the territory of Tepic, which lies 'on the west coast, surrounded by Jalisco, Durango and SStnaloa. Here live the Huicholes, whom the Mexicans call the barbarians. They have little to do with the present trou bles, and do not want anything but to be let alone. They have their homes in the fastnesses of the mountains and are so warlike that it was a hundred years before the Spaniards were able to conquer them. They are nominally converted to Christianity, but they aro practically barbarians and are said to be Christians only when favors aro tu be obtained. Many of thorn are hunt ers, and they snare deer in nets stretched between poles. Some of the Huicholes look much like the Chinese, and this reminds me that I have seen many Japanese and Chinese faces among the Mexican in* dlans. It may be that a part of the an cient population drifted over from Asia across Bering strait and came down here through our country. The Huich oles have a wicker chair which is just like the Chinese cane chair now in use and they employ it in their religious ceremonies. It may be that the custom of wearing long nails which I have mentioned came, also from China. The Huicholes are about five and one half feet high, and their women are very good looking. They wear short skirts and tunics of cotton cloth which they weave upon their own looms. The legs are left bare and the skirt is caught in at the waist by a girdle. The girdle, like the obi of Japan, Is moro costly than any other part of tlie dress. The women wear necklaees and they have beads in their ears. The Iluichole houses each contain but one room and the entrance is low and small like that of the Eskimo igloo. The houses are circular and they are made of stone with thatched roofs. Tin idols are kept in eaves In the hills. These people make beautiful blankets and they do fine embroidery. They have many queer customs. Marriages are made by the parents. The babies do not ‘•reop, but they crawl about on all fours like a monkey until they are able to sta nd. ^ Not far from the llulcholes live the Coras, of whom only about 2600 remain. These Indians claim to have come from the east and they look not unlike Oo reans. They have features much like the Anglo-Saxons and they consider themselves better than the other tribes about. The Coras marry at 15 and the wom en keep their beauty a long time, al though their lives are very insanitary. Their houses have no ventilation niul they bury their dead in eaves. Among the Tarascans Frederick Starr estimates that there arc still a quarter of a million of pure Tarascan Indians in Mexico. Many of these people are found about LakePatz cuaro. in the state of Miehoacan, where was once situated Tzuntzinzoon, a great Tarascan city. Tile name sounds like Chinese. This town was visited by the Spaniards in 1522 and they wrote of its civilization and arts. They told of the wonderful feather work, for which the people arc noted today; of their moth*, er-of-pearl and bon© carvings, and of their skill in enameling. Here we again see a similarity be tween the Mexican Indian and the Chi nese. in southern China is produced a kind of bird wing enamel in which the wings of the bluejuy and humming bird are employed. The Tarascans do mucli the same work, getting their material* from the humming birds of Mexico, of which there are 50 different kinds, hav ing feathers of every shape and color, running from sea green to emerald and from straw color to a ilery red. The Tarascans have a tradition which corresponds to our deluge. Their Noah was called Tespi, and when the Hoods came he made a great boat and filled it with animals and birds. As the waters subsided he sent forth a vulture, but it remained away, feeding on the dead bodies which then covered the high lands. Finally a humming bird was sent forth, ami it came back with a leaf in its mouth. I am told that most of the Tarascans still worship idols, and that every farmer has one burled in each field, with the idea that it will keep the birds and other thieves away from tin* crops. Others of the Indians are Cath olics, and 'they make long pilgrimages to the various shrines. Many of them come to Guadalupe to worship. Ac cording to their old religion they prayed to the southern cross, and looked upon the sun as their father. Today they object to doing business after sunset, and are terrified at the time of an eclipse, which, they say, will give one the harelip. The Tarascans believe in the evil eye, and they carry charms to ward off its effects. They do not like to be photo graphed, and would rather have strang ers say evil things about their children than good things. The same is true of some of the people of Palestine. Queer Customs of Love and Marriage I hear strange stories about the mar riage customs of these Indians. They are said to believe in love charms, and think the dried little finger of a dead man will surely bring luck. It takes the place of the rabbit foot of the south. Near Lake Patzcuaro the chief place of courtship, is at the spring, and the lover watches for his sweetheart to go there to bring water. When he sees her lie catches hold of her rebosa ! or shawl, and refuses to let go until she says yes. If she does so. he smashes the jar of water which she has on her head, so that it falls over her, and her girl friends thereupon give her a new jar with which she can carry the water home. The next day the man takes a load of wood to the door of his sweetheart's home, and if this is ac cepted the match is complete. She then comes to his house, and he gives her a bouquet of yellow flowers, which color is supposed to bring luck. ••••••••••■•••••■•••••••••••••••a******************* Feminism's Triumphs In Russia ! (Copyright, 1913, by Curtis Brown.) ST. PETERSBURG, June 21.—(Spe cial.)—Minister of rublic Instruc tion Casso is in deep distress be cause his four years’ attempt to stem the tide of women's higher education has failed. The national enthusiasm for women as doctors, lawyers, teachers, scholars, architects and engineers has proved too strong for him; and now the imperial duma, ordinarily not a progres sive body, lias championed the cause of ■women and of equal rights with men. The cause has not yet earned all its logical fruits, and women's practical tri umphs in the domain of medicine and pedagogy have not been repeated else where. While legislators have sanctioned tlie teaching of law to women at uni versities, the servile senate, under com pulsion from M. Casso, and his fellow thinker, Schteglovitoff, has ruled that women lawyers may hot practice. Simi larly the state claims that as engineers they may practice only in subordinate capacities. Despite this, the triumphs .which women have gained here during tlie past two years puts them far ahead of women elsewhere In Europe; and fem inists are in an exulting mood, and wait only tlie downfall of Casso in order to get the remnant of their demands. As a result of duma initiative, govern ment surrenders and feminist enthusiasm, women are now getting higher education in every important specialty which is open to man. In medicine Russian wom en have always led. At present both os regards education and as regards prac ticing they are on a level with men. Their legal duties and prospects of state employment are the same as those of men. Russia has now nearly 3000 women doctors, and in addition 10,000 dimplo jiiaed "feldschers" or doctors' assistants, and of course a host of midwives and trained nurses. In law women have Just gained the success of being allowed to study in the Juristic faculties of the universities. Altogether there are 187 girl law students and 40 girl lawyers. These lawyers are trained exactly as men; and they would be able to practice were it not for the veto of the senate. However, they have prospects of getting round the veto. In Russia a litigant who cannot pay a lawyer and Is Incompetent him self to plead can invite any friend or relative to plead for him, and the new women lawyers propose to plead In court mot as lawyers hut merely as friends of litigants or of accused persons; and in this way to prove—what nobody doubts— that In forensic capacity they are equal to men. Russian women teachers are trained everywhere, and have equal rights end compensation wdth men. For would be women architects and engineers the position is peculiar. These subjects are not taught in the universities, but In Independent technological colleges, to most of which so far women have not ac cess. Rut Bt. Petersburg has now special women’s higher courses for both the brandies. Theology is, therefore, the only do main from which women aspirants are excluded. The universities have no theo logical faculties, and grant no degrees of divinity. All male candidates for priest hood are educated in priests’ seminaries, where they live as boarders; and this makes it impossible for women to claim admission. Russians have a strong prej udice against women preachers. The main obstacle, however, is that practically no women want to become priests. Women aspiring to higher education are nearly all of the specialized “intelligentsiya" type, who thirst for an active fruitful life, and look upon the formalistic and corrupt orthodox church as offering a ca reer only for the more idle among the moujiks. Russian women’s progress in higher ed ucation is not surprising to those who know that in admitting women to uni versities Russia led all Europe. In 1861 Alexalnder IT issued a decree declaring that “the girls’ gymnasiums (secondary schools) will prepare girls for the univer sities, so that in future girls and boys may enjoy university education in com mon.’’ At that time no university in Eu rope had opened its doors to women; and as a fact progressive Germany did not do this until 30 years afterward. Alex ander II’s plan did not come wholly to fruition. Women’s higher education re mained in the main restricted to medicine; and then not In the universities, but In special “courses,” organized by university professors, and mostly subsidized by wealthy friends of demlnism. The “courses” turned out well educated wom en doctors, and they created in litera ture the type of the “coursistka,” the short haired, spectacled, untidy, violent ly progressive girl, which is now disap pearing in a newborn enthusiasm for sport und soap. In the last years Alex ander’s initiative has been revived. First ly, the courses, or women's medical col lege, founded in 1897, was recognized as equal to the men’s universities; and given the right to grant diplomas which have the same value to applicants for state employment as the diplomas of men’s uni versities. The most distinguished profes sor in the medical college at present is a woman. This reform did not get passed until after furious feuds, caused by the opposition of reactionaries. l*he duina op position was led by the notorious Kursk Right deputy, Purishkievitch, who caused a terrilic scandal by declaring that girls matriculate at St. Petersburg university in order to live wit,h students as their mistresses. Deputies Schubinsky, Count Uvaroff and many others stood up for equal rights, and the well known special ist, G. I. Turner, of the Military Med ical academy, helped the cause by de claring that women doctors will be even more necessary than women nurses on the battlefields of the future. By JULIUS OSTMANN —i i - ■ *■ — —» 1TII.-B f • ^ IiEON CASSO T*mrWW ItiiMMlnn Minister of I*n... . m Whoae Four Yearn’ Attempt to Stem the Title of \* ouuiii'm Higher Education lit Csar*M Domain Haw been a Failure. — AfTTV v ^ w . . lit . i MADAM ANTO TCHEKHOFF FninoiiM RiinmIiiii \rtreMN nn«l \ovcll»t'M Widow Who llan taiveu Three l>arx of Her Stncce KarnliiKx to Advance tl># lutereNtM of Women In RiimnIm. Present legislation admits women to all the university faculties and gives them equal rights. They can choose the medical, judicial, philological, philo sophical or. mathematical faculty, and attend all lectures. The right of pass ing a state examination giving a claim on state employment is so far confined to the women doctors and lawyers. As a teacher the university trained women has far greater rights than the univer sity trained woman teacher in Germany. She first gets her doctor’s degree, then passes a special examination pro fac. docendi in pedagogy, history of peda gogy, methodies of pedagogy, and psy chology, and then has the right to teach not only in girls’ gymnasiums but also In boys’. She can become a directress of a girls’ gymnasium, though not of a boys’. The duma declared that equal work deserved equal pay, and voted for identical salaries for men and women teachers. This success has been gained by women nowhere else. Women who have not been at a university but who have passed an examination of some foreign language course are also in fu ture to receive the samo salaries as men, and to be allowed to teach both in boys’ and girls’ schools. Teachers of this class begin at |50 a month, which for Russian conditions is very high. Tiie salary of the average ele mentary teacher seldom exceeds |12. Greatest difficulty of all is met with in organizing the training of women as architects and engineers, but during the last few years successes have been gained. Women are not allowed to study in most of the technological in stitutes; and in view of the absence of technological faculties in the universi ties they have had to provide training themselves. At St. Petersburg there are now women’s courses for architec ture and engineering with the same curriculum and tests as have the big state institutes; and from these courses are now being turned out ’admirably equipped women architects and engin eers, who are doing good work. The courses were founded in 1909 by Uni versity Professor Molas, and financed by a rich woman named Bagayeff. They began with only 20 students and now have about 90. The first nine completed their course of training in 1912, and one of them, an architect, so succeeded at her examinations and test work that she has been infited to go to Germany, where no woman architect exists. All the remaining 8 at once se cured employment on such works as the Ochta bridge across the Neva, the St. Petersburg tranmways committee, and in building a skyscraper for the officers’ co-operative stores. Just now the women architects and engineers are having trouble with the government which denies them the right to prac tise independently. “You may build houses for your friends," say the bu reaucrats, “and you may assist male practitioners, but you cannot apply for membership of architects’ and engineers’ associations; and you will not be al lowed to enter for official competitions for public buildings and public engi neering work.” The feminists propose to fight this decree in the courts, but they have small prospects of success, as the senate, which Is the higliest ap peal instance, always gives judgment in accord with the government’s wish. The struggle in the cause of women’s higher education is still going on. The cause is backed by the progressive parties in the duma, and against these stand the nationalists and the right, both fanatical anti-feminists. Outside the legislature the cause is being backed by the mass of educated men, and also by many women who personally have no Interest in the campaign. Russia’s lawyers, architects and engineers are almost unanimously in favor of women being admitted on equal terms. In most other countries professional men resist such emancipation for reasons of pock et, but with Russians progresslsm is stronger even than self interest and fear of competition. Finally the women themselves are at work. Last year they lost by death Anna Pavlovna Philosofova, the origi nal creator and foster mother of the Russian feminism, the woman who pushed forward the movement in the sixties of the nineteenth century when it had few friends. Now the friends - I are plentiful. The stage in particular is strongly represented. One feminist actress is the widow of the famous nov elist. Anton Tchekhoff, who is herself a star of the Moscow Art theatre. Ma dame Tchekhoff has given three yea.’s of her stage earnings to the cause. There are other helpful women in the business classes. One, Madame Eka terina Jasinsky, has offered to pay a third of the cost of erecting a women’s university at Moscow. Tills university would have five faculties, and make women’s higher education entirely inde pendent of men’s. FRENCH ADOPT THE CHINESE METHODS OF WHEAT CULTURE % _ • Paris. June 28.—(Special.)—Great Interest Is taken in France just now in a new method by which the yield of crops per acre Is enormously Increased. In one test case the yield of wheat has been three times above that grown In similar soil in the same neighborhood. The remarkable value of the method Is Indicated by the statement that it has made 20 grains of wheat produce 700,000 in one year. The method conslts in preparing seed beds in widely spaced lines on very mel low land, and at the end of two months dividing the tufts springing from each grain, replanting each of these rooted shoots thus detached and finally In hoe ing and earthing up these n^w plants many times. The system is not really new, but a very ancient one, used Immemorially by the Chinese, and to it iq due the enor mous yield of their Helds, which have been treated like gardens. While our farmers throw broadcast handfuls of grain on the harrowed earth, offering rich pasturuge to pillaging birds and rodents, the Chinaman, after fur rowing the earth with his wooden plow share, without turning it, crumbles each lump in his hands until it is fine like pow der. This done, at planting time he walks slowly clown each furrow, carry ing a grain drill, which is a marvel of ingenius simplicity. The sower pushes the drill in front of him, inclining it now to the right and now to the left, In such a wray that each Inclination causes the issue of a single seed, which is instantly pressed under by the track of one foot or the other. Each grain is thus planted at a distance of 16 to 20 inches from Its neighbor in every direction. At the end of a fewr weeks a germina tion begins. When the young plant is 10 or 12 Indies in height there are a score of stalks about its stem, each provided with a fringe of rootlets. The farmer covers each with loose earth by means of careful hoeing, thus raising the level of the furrow. Each stalk soon has 15 to 20 new stalks around its stem, which detach them selves. All are the Indirect issue of a single grain, which proves, therefore, to have been the parent of 000 or 400 stalks each hearing an ear. An Algerian French farmer, M. Bour diol-Humbert, has been planting wheat and oats in the same fields for five years without the application of manure. He makes his furrows 36 inches apart and plants seeds therein at a distance of 20 inches from each other. Then he har rows the earth constantly, stirring the soil, destroying Its parasite and keeping it pulverized. Fur Farming in Canada From the Montreal Gazette. Fur farming, an industry that has re cently attracted much attention in some parts of Canada, Is the subject of a book, compiled by Mr. J. Walter .Jones, B. S. A., which the Dominion commission of conservation has printed and issued. Conditions such as cleared the bison from the great North American plains have been operating to reduce the supply of every kind of wild furred creature, whether of the land or water, and this at. a time when the calls of fashion and the .growing w'ealth of the people caused the demand for the finer varieties of skins to greatly Increase. A table of prices paid at the Hudson Bay company sales in London shows that between 1882 and 1910 muskrat pelts advanced from 16 cents to 87 cents, mink from 73 cents to $6.34, dark red fox from $3.11 to $16.65, and large lynx from $4.87 to $39.85. Such rare skins as black fox and sea otter are not quoted, their value being fixed beyond ordinary commercial ratings, the former having sold, it 1h stated, as high as $2600, and the latter at times bringing $1800 and $1700. I The demands of the market and the skill of men who prepare and dye skins led to the practices that may hardly he held to be in accord with strict honesty. Some 80,000,000 rabbit skins are imported every year into London. They figure later in workshops and store windows as sable, electric, Red river, Hudson, and other “seals.” ns ermine, chinchilla, etc. Other skins are manipulated into sables, bears, mink, fox, etc. The London chamber of commerce even issued a list of substitutions which are designated as “permissible.” (This list was published in Dally Consular and Trade Reports for March 17, 1911). Raising animals for fur is not so new as might be thought. The karakul* sheep, which some have lately spoken of introducing into Quebec, Is the source of supply of Persian lamb and broadtail. It was the domestic sheep of its Asiatic habitat, but now has a greater value. Ex periments have been made In both Eu rope and America to adapt it to the new surroundings, and crossings with Lin coln and Cotswold lustrous wooled sheep are'spoken of as promising.