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Colonel Gaillard Talks on Our Avalanche at Panama j
Copyrighted, IjIS. by Frank G. Carpenter, Washington, D. C. I HAVE just had a long chat with Col David D. Gaillard, the engineer com missioner who for the past six years has had charge of the Culebra cut. 1 first met him when I wrote up the Pan ama canal of more than a year ago 3 then went with him on foot through the mighty gash which he was making In the Andes. AVe walked together from gang lo gang of the thousands of men who who were gouging out the earth, blasting the rocks and carrying the inighti trains of spoil down to the ocean. We investigated the petty volca noes and studied the slides. At one place in the canal Mother Earth had humped up her hack and thrown a rail road half way down to the battom. I photographed the colonel beside this great hump, and had Just time to change my film before another hump occurred and the railroad again went flying, being overturned under our eyes. My talk with Colonel Gaillard last night was at the Monday evening reception of the Cosmos club. He wore a black steel-pen coat, a boiled shirt, well blacked shoes, and looked more like a club man than a civil engineer who is doing one of the biggest things upon earth. When we walked together through the canal at Panama he was in his working clothes. His riding trousers were wrapped In leg gings of leather, his shirt was of flannel, and he looked as much Ihe day laborer ns any steam shovel man or as any Jamaican handling a drill. When at Panama he walks miles through the canal every day, and there is not a de tail of the excavation of which he has not a practical and scientific knowledge. He knows the work so well that he cau describe it to the amateur in plain Eng lish and the latter will understand what he says. It was In the same simple language that we talked last night. I had asked Colonel Gaillard not to deal in figures, hut to give me the story of what was going on In round numbers, and in such terms that the man on the street could understand. The Culebra Cut Every one knows what the Culebra cut Is. It is that part of the canal where the mountains had to be gouged out to make the rock waterway through which the ships can go. The excavation began at a point above sea level almost as high as the top of the Washington monument. That was on the top of Gold hill, and on the opposite of the pass the digging began, a little more than 100 feet lower. It has to go down to 40 feet above the sea level, and the amount of excavation has been estimated as enough to make a tunnel to the center of the earth so large in size that a railroad train could run through and not scrape the walls. The total amount of digging and carrying away of earth done by the Americans will be about 230,000.000 cubic yards, and the bulk of this vast sum has come right out of the cut at Culebra. In order to understand what this means. 1 would say that a yard of earth weighs over a ton and a half, and for each of these millions of cubic yards you may figure that it would take two good sized horses to Haul it In a wagon up hill and down over the ordinary farm road of our country. During my talk with Colonel Gaillard the question as to the actual amount of material which had been handled under his supervision at Panama came up, and he said: "When I first went to Panama I was In charge of the dredging in the Atlantic and Pacific divisions, and 1 there took out something like 5,000,000 cubic yards of material. In addition 1 had the Culebra cut That was in April, 1907, just, about six years ago. Since then we have ex cavated more than 106,u00,000 cubic yards. When r took charge 5.500,000 cubic yards had been taken out, and I was told that there were only 65,000.000 yet to dig. The actual amount taken out has been 50 per cent above that, and there are about 6.500,000 cubic yards still to be moved be fore the Culebra cut will be finished." The Andes Versus the Desert “Please tell me in simple language what 106.000. 000 cubic yards means?” “Ft means so much,” replied Colonel Oaillard, “that it Is hard to comprehend. When the French first opened the Suez canal they had taken out 72,000,000 cubic yards. What we have excavated in the Culebra cut alone Is one and one-half times as much. Besides, the excavations in Egypt were mostly made up of soft material and the sands of the desert. The greater part of our material has been rocK, which we had to blast out with dynamite and carry miles away to the dumps. “In simple language, if what we have taken out could be piled with vertical sides in a square inside the building lines of a Washington city block it would make a shaft reaching to a height of over six miles; and if it were loaded on railroad trains, at 400 cubic yards to the train, the cars holding the stuff would fill one continuous track reaching twice around the world at the equator. If you could put the material into a rail road embankment, 45 feet wide at the bot tom, 15 feet high and wide enough at the top for a double track line, that em bankment could be stretched from Wash 1 if.ton to many miles beyond Chicago, ar.ci siUl it would not hold all the earth." “How much more digging have you had to do than was calculated at the begin ning?” '"1 have shown you that we have al ready taken out over 10,000.060 cubic yards more at Culebra than was esti mated when we began work there. In the whole canal the excavation will be more than double the original estimate. The International board of consulting engi neers figured the total excavation for the completed lock at 90,000.000 cubic yards, and it Is now known that the ex cavation will he in the neighborhood of 220.000. 000 cubic yards. Some of this in crease has come from the widening of the canal, and a great deal is due to the additional work caused by slides and breaks." Uncle Sam’s Culebra Avalanches "What has the slides amounted to?" “So far they have added over 20,000,009 cubic yards to the material in the Culebra cut jilone. A million cubic yards is equal to a solid block 300 feet square and 300 feet high. Such a block would have a base of more than two acres, and it would rise to the height of a twenty-five or thirty story building. Twenty such blocks would bp equal to a solid block of two BY FRANK G. CARPENTER . COL. DAVID D. GAILLARD, Who has excavated the Culebra cut acres more than a mile high. Talk abou the pyramid of Ghizeh! This is esti mated to contain 3,000,GUO cubic yards Six or seven such pyramids have slii dow n into the Culebra cut, and we hav have had to move them out.'' "What are these slides?” "They are of two kinds," said Colons Gail lard. "One is the slide proper, whicl consists of the movement of materia lying on the rock bed. They are com posed of clay and earth, and may have ; great deal of rock mixed with them. The; are masses of earth, moving by gravlt: on a smooth Inclined surface of harde underlying material. The other class i known as the "break.” It conies fron the weakness of the various strata fa under the surface. They are squeeze, out by the enormous weight of the ma terial lying above them. "Take first the slide proper. In thi case the motion is very like that of a ■ glacier, and it ranges In speed from a few inches a month to fourteen feet a 1 day. In the large slides the motion is ) uniform. In one instance the speed was about ten feet per day. and the variation during the first ten days of the move 1 ment did not ambount at any time to i more than 10 per cent. That was the fa 1 mous Cucaracha slide, which covered 47 - acres, and carried down a mass of mov l ing material of several million cubic r yards.” The Danger to Ships “Is there any possibility of one of those ** -slides dropping down on a steamer in » transit and swallowing it up?” r “I think not,” replied Colonel Gaillard. I “The slide would have to move far more ■ rapidly than any we have had to fall upon a steamer in transit. The only way ' that a ship could be affected would be by one of the breaks, where the material In the bottom of the canal might rise up and the ship go aground. You remember the hump'that occurred when we were to gether in the canal. Had that taken place when asteamer was passing over the when a steamer was passing over the her keel had been within six feet of the bottom. As to the speed at which the sliCes proper come down into the canal, we have not yet had a man killed by any of them. So you see they do not go very fast. Indeed, we do not looke for any danger as to slides and breaks more than a temporary blocking of the channel, and that may not occur.” Rock Which Flows Like Molasses 'Tell me something about the ‘breaks.’ ” “The breaks are caused in every case by the crushing of a weaker underlying layer of rock through the enormous pres sure of the high bank on the side of the canal above it. If this weak layer runs across under the canal at a few feet be low the level of the bottom, the mate rial is forced laterally toward the center of the canal and is heaved up through the bed. If it Is above the bottom level It may be squeezed out from the sid4s or walls of the canal. It is just as though you had some jelly In a layer cake. If you press on the cake the jelly will ooze. Now, the,pressure is so great upon these weaker layers of rock that they ooze out as it were, or are forced up into the bed of the canal." “But how does that come%" T asked. “It Is caused b.v the disturbance of the equilibrium of the earth’s strata by the digging of the canal. As long as the strata lay one upon another the weight of the mass was equally distributed upon the bed., so that it was not possible lor any of the strata to move. When the great ditch was cut, and the material taken out, the lateral pressure which held the weaker strata in place was taken away, and the great w'eight above squeezed the weaker materials far below out into the canal. I might explain it more scientifically, but that is a rough, sim ple idea of how these breaks occur. Where they come up through the cot tom we dig the heaved, portion away, and often the broken part of the high hank settles again, causing another hump in the same locality. After a time, however, the weight of the broken ’portion of the bank is so re duced that it cannot move again. L look for all such breaks and slides to disappear gradually. They will stop as soon as the earth has accustomed it self to the changes in equilibrium made b.v the digging." "How long do you think they will con tinue?" “There will probably be slides until the excavation Is entirely completed, but they ought to stop shortly thereafter. The water will aid in preserving equeli brium, and the vibrations caused by the firing off of charges of dynamite, and that of the hundreds of loaded trains which are passing through the cut every day will then be removed. The humps w'hich come, i any should come, after the work is completed can he removed by dredging." A Sea-Level Canal Impossible “Do not the slides show that vve could not have built a sea level canal?" “It would seem so to me. The unfore seen increase indicates clearly that the construction of a sea level cunal would have been practically impossible within any reasonable time and at any reason ale cost. For such a canal the excava tion, at Culebra cut would have had to he 85 feet more than the present depth, and this would have caused a much greater relative addition by slides than has been the case up to the present time. During the month of April last 54 per cent of the total excavation made in that cut was necessitated, by slides.’ “Had you known the possibility of slides at the beginning and changed your angle of excavation, could you have done the work more cheaply?" “We might have made more regular slopes, but I doubt whether any ma terial diminution in the quantity of the excavation w'ould have occurred." “When will thq dry excavation be fin ished?" “On May 1, 1913, we had still six and one-half hill ion yards to take out. If no new slides should come we ought to be able to complete that work before January. 1914. If, however, the water Is turned into the canal In October, ns is anticipated, there* will remain still two or three million cubic yards which will have to be removed by dredges.” “When do you really expect to see the water flow into the cut?” “Prior to my departure the chairman and chief engineer said it was his inten tion to turn the water into the cut early in October. 1913.” “Does that mean that the canal will be ready for use then?” “I do not like to prophesy as to that. There are all kinds of estimates. I see that one big steamship line is advertis-^ ing that it. will send tourists through on a sixteeri-thousaml-tofi ship early in Feb ruary. 1914. I will only say, however, that it seems certain that It will be pos sible to pass ships through the canal several months before the date of the of ficial opening; that is, considerably in ad vance of January 1, 1915." “What force have you now at Panama? I suppose that the men will soon be leav ing to find other jobs?” “During the past year we, have had more men at work than ever before. May 1, 1913, the number was 46,000. That is the largest in the history of the canal.” ^ “What can Uncle Sam do with the men lie bus trained in this work?” “I know of no large public undertak ing now authorized where they could bo used. you understand that the great mass of our employes there are com paratively unskilled. That is so of the tropics. Our total number of Americans is only about 6000. Some of them will remain ori the permanent operating force of the shops and canal. Others will leave the government service, and find work under contractors or with private firms. A large number of steam shovel mer. and locomotive engineers will be ready for employment elsewhere.” Uncle Sam’s Old Machinery “What will Uncle Sam do with his ma chinery?” “Some of It will be kept at Panama, but a great deal will have to be sold or otherwise disposed of. Take the car* and other rolling stock. We have so much down there that If it were placed as closely as possible on a single track It would take up 32 miles. The rolling stock In the central division, which In cludes the Oulebra cut, would fill a track 19 miles long. This machinery will he stored and sold as fast as possible Much of it is in excellent condition.” t "Can you give me any idea hr its value?” “No. The machinery which we have la the central division cost us about $12,000, 000. but a comparatively small percentage of thut will be realized on a ^ual sale. 'Phe shovels, cars and engines are in ex cellent shape.” , “Should not the canal he tested before ships are allowed to go through it?” ”1 suppose that will be done. It is Im portant that the operating force should be thoroughly trained, and all the ma chinery brought up to the highest pitch of efficiency before commercial and war vessels are allowed to pass through. This may be done by experimenting with such craft as belong to the canal commission and are no longer needed for other work. With these vessels we could train the * operating force, and try out the ma chinery. Idle—safety appliances should also be tested, and I doubt not they will be.” I The British Cabinet Needs No Chatuaqua Trips Hj LONDON,August 23.—(Special.)—Up to date no cabinet minister in this country has threatened to go on the lecture platform on the ground that his of ficial salary is inadequate to his needs, al though the Right Honorable David Dio yd George recently assured an inves tigating committee that he wp* a poor man on the $25,000 a year—or over twice as much as is paid to any member of President Wilson’s official family— which he receives as chancellor of the exchequer. ^^Mlnisjers of the crown over here ar* t jn receipt of salaries and enjoy “per quisites” which must make the mouths of American ministers water if they know about them. One of them draws nn actual stipend of $50,000, or as much as the presidency of the United States was worth only a few years ago, while another gets $35,000 a year and fees in addition which more often than not amunt to more than his official pay. Three others live rent free, at the expense of the public, and one of these latter, the First l^ord of the Admiralty, has at his disposal besides a private yacht which cost the British taxpayer something like $50,000 a year to keep up. Jf William J. Bryan, for example, in stead of being Secretary of State for Uncle Sam, had Prime Minister As quith’s job. he would be drawing more than three times his present salary, and would also enjoy, rent free, an uncom monly comfortable as well historic of ficial residence. The Premiership of England, it Is true, is an unpaid job, the only real per quisite in connection with it being its holder’s privilege of occupying the fam ous mansion, No. 10 Downing street— now the goal of suffragettes and Scotch bailies—which often has been described and perhaps justly, as the “most inter esting house in the world.” Whoever becomes premier when a new admlnis .. lration comes into being, however, sel dom contents himself with the office, but takes unto himself also th,e portfo lio of some other minister of the crown, usually, as in the case of Mr. Asquith or Mr. Balfour before him, that of First l^ord of the Treasury, which carries with it the pearly emolument of 5000 of "the best,” as they would say over here, meaning sovereigns, or. in our mt>re democratic currency, $25,000 a year. Tt must be a lot of satisfaction to be aide to receive one’s guests in a man sion that is absolutely unique—and unique of course. No. 10 Downing street is. Comparatively few persons in this country know, by the way, that the dingy little street in which this, to outward appearance, dingy little house stands, was built by and is named for an Amer lean In the person of one George Down ing. a rather shady graduate of Har vard who nourished in the time of Charles II., but such is the fact. As for No. 10. while far from being a pal ace, being renowned for its winding passages and funny little rooms—in one of which Nelspn and Wellington met for the first and only time, and another of which was Gladstone’s favorite “den” -—it boasts of several superb apart ments. One of these is the famous ban quettir.g hall that was built by William Pitt, and others the historic old cab inet chamber—now used for clerical work—with fine long windows looking across the long garden terrace, the First Dord's reception room, where tin cabinet now meets, and the dining hall, a really magnificent room, famous for its paintings and candelabra, wh'ch holds more than 50 lights. Directly next door is No. It Downing street, an infinitely less luxurious and hifetd'ric but eminently comfortable Jjou.se where, rent free again, lives the chancellor of the exchequer. It is rather a striking coincidence, by the way, that Dloyd George, who like W. .1. Bryait, has come to be regarded as the tribune and advocate of the “plain peeptil,’ 9rould, like his distinguished contempo rary on the other side of the Atlantic, be the only member of the present cab inet to allege that his official salary is inadequate to his needs. Of the well rewarded members of the British cabinet, the first law officer of the* crown, Sir Rufus Isaacs, has the feathered nest. To begin with, he draws a salary of $35,000 a year as com pared with the $12,000 with which At torney-General M (/Reynolds Is rewarded yearly, this sum, moreover, being his emolument merely as legal advisor to the government. Unlike tlie American attorney-general, he also appears in the courts on behalf of the crown, and gets whopping big fees for so doing. Of course the yearly aggregate of these lees varies according to the number of cases in which the first law officer of tiie crown is engaged, but they invar iably amount to enough, plus th* attor ney-general's official salary, to enable the government to get a man at the top of his profession for the post. Sir Rufus Isaacs, the present attorney-gen eral. (who may have been appointed Lord Chief Justice before these linos appear in print) is, for example, one of the ablest of the English barristers, and must have given up a practice as K. C., or king’s counsel, worth from $100,000 to $150,000 a year to accept the attorney-gteneralship. Last year which brought with it the long drawn out Titanic investigation, the stat*> prosecution of Mrs. Pankhurst and th** Pethick Lawrences, the Olympic-!lawke collision case and the* suit for $100,000,000 brought against the gov ernment by the National Telephone company, was a rich one for the attor ney-general. who pocketed, in fees and “refreshers” between January) and December 31, the goodly sum of £9764, or just short of $50,000, which makes his annual income work out at a little, less than $80,000. For his appearances in the Titanic inquiry alone. Sir Rufus Isaacs received £2458, or, r'ughly. $1 2,290, this sum representing a brief fee of 300 guineas, or $15,000, and the “refreshers” at the rate of 50 guineas, ' or $250 a day. The second law officer of the crown, officially known as the solicitor-gen eral. gets a salary of $30,000, and. like his distinguished chief—“fees.” Those pocketed by the present incumbent of the post, Sir John Simon, amounted last year to $32,07 5. Like the attorney-gen eral. the solicitor-general sits in the House of Commons, and the absence of his chief, or during a vacancy be may perform the function of attorney-gen eral in all their extent. Legal luminaries are well recom pensed, the world over, and the member of the British cabinet witli the fattest official salary, or “screw” as it is col loquially termed over here, is that potent and vastly dignified personage, the Lord Chancellor. De Wolf Hopper has been taking him oft quite lately in the American revival of “Iolanthe” into „which the opera with characteristic ir reverance. W. S. Gilbert, himself an ex barrister, introduced the dignified occu pant of the famous Woolsack in the House of Lords. In the United States, we have no exact counterpart of the Lord Chancellor who. besides acting as speaker of the upper house, is supreme head of the English judiciary, and who draws an annual salary of $50,000. When he retires, moreover, he immediately enters upon a life annuity amounting to $25,000 a year. The pres ent holder of this office is, of course, Lord Haldane, who was secretary of state for war before his elevation to the Woolsack, and who is crossing tho Atlantic next month to be present by special invitation, at the groat gather ing of the American Bar Association which is to be held at Montreal. Nobody ever has accused the Lord Chancellor of having a snap. Besides sitting, clad in wig and gown, on th« Woolsack as speaker of the house of peers, he sits as a judge in that house, in the privy council, tile court of ap BY HAYDEN CHURCH fT- -.. .. I'll .. ■'»■. .... ■■ fi ■■■! im i ii i The drawing room at 10 Downing street, where the prime minister of England lives rent free The Lord Chancellor, Lord Haldane, who gets $50,000 a year, and Prime Minister Asquith, who is paid $25,000 a year and vile srent free in a historic mansion. FOR A CITY WITHOUT FLIES IIV WILLARD D. PRICE (Exclusive Service The Survey Press Bureau.) Mr. Fly, undesirable citizen, official dis tributor of typhoid, choleru infantum, dysentery, tuberculosis, spinal meningitis, is having the fight of his life in Cleve land. Tlie city has gone “3wat the fly” one better and carried through an early spring "Head ’em off” campaign, with results that are nothing less Mian sensa tional. Cleveland has already been proclaimed a “flyless city.” It is hardly that yet. But thousands of householders have found it possible to dispense entirely with screens at doors and windows and a lone fly cre ates more excitement now than a swarm of flies would have a few' years ago. In a recent inspection of the city markets, where quantities of meat and provisions are exposed, only two flies were found. Two years ago there were myriads. The "Head ’em off” campaign was tried last year with such good effect that this year, with Improved methods and a not able marshalling of forces, the war was a still greater success. The present attitude of the community Is pretty well expressed in this sentence from a letter by Mayor Baker to the city council: “The anti-fly campaign is a movement of more far-reaching Impor tance and more promising of prolonged life and freedom from disease than per haps any other single activity going for ward in the community.” From the be ginning the movement has been under the leadership of Dr. Jean Dawson,\ professor of civic biology at the Normal school. The big emphasis has been on the elim ination of breeding places. To be sure, hundreds of thousands of flies have been “swatted,” but countless millions have been prevented, which is better. Miss Dawson began with the claim that 90 per cent of house files come from unclean stables. Owners throughout the city were forced to clean up their stables and keep them clan. Public opinion focussed sen timent, the board, of health passed rules and the “junior sanitary police” saw that they were enforced. The “Junior sanitary police” are boys recruited from the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of the city schools. In each school district the force Is officered by a, chief, an assistant chief and four inspec tors. The principal of the school appoints the entire force. Needless to say, it is considered no small honor tq be appointed a member of the “Junior sanitary police.” The official badge i^i prized highly. The girls have a part, too, some of them being made “sanitary aids.” The school district is sectioned off and each member of the force made responsi ble for one section. He must make reg ular inspections. When lie finds a dirty stable, a rubbish-filled yard, a heap of fermenting lawn clippings or a leaking garbage receptacle he has, of course, no power to compel the owners to clean up; but in nine cases out of ten he can per suade them to do so. And the children are proving splendid educators. Now and then persuasion f[ails and the abuse is uncorrected. Then the case is referred to a boy inspector and later to the boy chief. Tf the courteous efforts of these high officials also prove unavailing, the report goes to the board of health and a threat of a suit brings the offender sharply to time. He discovers that the alert consciousness of a whole city is back of these badged children. The schools were further utilized as dis tributing stations for fly pamphlets and circulars. Each bit of educative litera ture as it came out was placed in the hands of every child in the schools of Cleveland and thence carried into the homes. The striking fact about all this cam paign was that it was waged not during the fly season, but before it. During a blustering March and a wild, weeping April, while flies were as scarce as straw hats, the battle was at :ts height. It was directed against the “winter flies’’—the few which had survived the cold season and would soon begin laying eggs. The reason for these tactics were set forth in a "fly-catechism’’ issued by Miss Dawson. One question and its answer read: “How many flies may breed from a pair in spring?” “Allowing six batches of eggs of 160 each, supposing all to live and find filth to breed 1n, the number would be 191,010, 000,(100,000,000.000, enough to bury the entire earth 47 feet deep. Why not kill the fly in the winter or early spring?”. An enterprising ice cream company con tributed 200,000 “swatters” and all the school children of the city, whether they were members of the “Junior sanitary po lice" or not. were armed. A bounty of 10 cents a hundred was offered for all flies brought to Miss Dawson s office at the city hail. The campaign was financed by popular subscription. At first there was complaint that no flies could be fou»d —but sharp eyes soon sought them out In attic windows, barn lofts and odd, out of-the-way corners, and they began to Pour In at headquarters at the rate of 10,000 a day. Clergymen were urged to preach “fly sermons’’ and many responded. A picture film, “The Life of the Fly,’’ was used to good effect in many churches and the atres. In addition to ‘‘Head 'em off" and “Swat the fly,” a triple slogan ran, “Clean your yard! Make a garden! Swat tl*e fly!” and in many a back y/ard gardens began to blossom where fly-breeding rub bish heaps had been. When the winter campaign closed. May 15, 490,835 flies had been accepted and paid for—and this before the beginning of the “season" an ft in a city which had suf fered very little annoyance from flies dur ing the preceding summer, thanks to the anti-fly campaign then in progress. "You have brought about a famine In flies," lamented one man who had six chameleons to feed. “My pets are starv ing. There are no flies to he had about my house and my neighbors can't seem to help mo out. I’ll pay and pay well for every live fly yojir children can bring me." And he did. . One ol’ the best fruits of the movement has been a public demand for flv-free stores. Merchants have made quick to sense the demand. Recently 100 Normal school girls inspected 511 grocery stores, confectionaries, meat stores, restaurants and milk depots. They reported that in GO per cent of the stores not a solitary fly could be found, in only 3G per cent were flies at all numerous. The early spring “Head ’em off” cam paign is a remarkable success. Over 100 towns and cities have written for infor mation concerning the methods used in Cleveland. The coming year will doubt less see the plan in operation in many .jrunicipnlfties. The more commonly it is adopted the worse luck to Mr. Fly and all the disease of which he ia the herald. peal, and the chancery division of tho high court of justice. He has i ho ap pointment of all justices of the peace throughout the kingdom, and all tho judges of the superior courts except the loot'd Chief Justice, who is nominated by the prime minister. Incidentally—ow ing to the fact that the Lord Chancellor of days gone by was an ecclesiastic— the present one controls no end of the ecclesiastical "patronage" in the shape of crown livings and he is supposed to he the general protector of all Infants, idiots and ltinatices and has tho super vision of all the charities of tho king dom. Perhaps most important of all the Lord Chancellor’s functions, however, is his custodianship of the great seal of England. This seal, th© specific em blem of sovereignty, is attached only to the most important cfhss of public doc uments, such as writs summoning par liament, treaties, and official acts of state. A new one is made for each sov erlgn, th eold one being solemnly broken, and this seal is delivered to the Lord Chancellor on his appoint ment and relinquished by him on his retirement. (he resigns when the party of which he is a member goes out of office). Never, in fact, is the Lord Chancellor supposed to let th© great seal go out of his possession, and this was Lord Haldane’s chief difficulty in accepting the recent invitation to visit America. It has, however, been solved by reverting to an ancient cus tom. which consisted of putting i.he seal into commission, as the phrase goes, i. e, appointing certain commissioners to administer it during the Lord Chan cellor's absence from the realms. If there is no counterpart in the American cabinet for the Lord Chancel lor, neither is there an exact on© for the First Lord of the Admiralty or the "ruler of the King's navee," as W. S. Gilbert, who was fond of poking fun at high dignataries, called him. As a matter of fact, however, (and here lies the distiction between his office and that of the American secretary of the navy), the First I/ml is not actually the '’ruler" of Britian’s sea forces. Th© rear boss of the navy was the Lord High Admiral, who no longer exists but whose anelent office is "In commis sion", to use the phrase once more—the commissioners in this case consitlng of the first Lord of the Admiralty and four sea lords, in the persons—at pres ent—of one admiral, one vice-admiral and two rear-admirals of the fleet, who each gets £1500 or $7500 a year—all, that is, excepting the Third Sen Lord, Rear-Admiral Briggs, who is also comptroller and receives $7750. The first Lord of the Admiralty, as a political officer, can make suggestions to the sea lords, but he cannot order a change of policy on their part; if he tries to they resign and their is no end of a pother! The First Lord, now, of course, the Right Hon. Winston Spencer Churchill, gets $22,500 a year and has the use, as a residence, of the Admiralty building Itself, which contains, among other hundsome apartments, the finest private ballroom in London. Tills, by the bye, is the only one of the rooms of at the Admiralty which tho present First Lord, who has a house In Eccles ton Square utilizes personally, the others having been turned over to the clerical force of the department. Winston Churchill makes frequent use, however of that other "perquisite" of the First Lord of the Admiralty, tho steam yacht "Enchantress", on which, he and the Prime Minister recently re turned from a cruise in the Mediter ranean. Punch had an amusing cartoon showing them lolling back in deck chairs, imbibing cool drinks, and com miserating their less fortunate col leagues in London with "Votes for Women” fanatics, strikers, and various colored "perils" on their hands. The "Enchantress" which was built at Belfast, in 1894. does not compare, of course, with the "floating: palaces' ---! of some American and other million- * 'Hires, but she Is a mightily comfortable little craft which carries a crew of 1J> offices and men, and costs a little over 345,000 a year to maintain. The "En chantress is at tile First Lord's servrce whenever he wants her, and Churchill has wanted her often, but every effort, and they have been many, that has been made by parliament to convince him of making pleasure cruises at the public expense has rebounded boomerang-like on the head of the sponser. Quite rec ently in fact, Churchill, goaded at last Into making a detailed reply to ills In- > •tulsltors, not only showed that when ever he entertained private guests on the "Enchantress”, he had paid for » them out of his own ppeket. but demon strated that the 'official visits of In spection paid by him to different de partments of the fleet, had exceeded both in number and apparent useful ness, those of any First Lord of recent vems. this vindication of his adminis tration being greeted with cheers from all parties in the house. Women in Surgery From the Rochester Democrat and Chron icle. In a passing reference In a magzlne article there is a suggestion of effective ness In surgical work that 'is not yet generally attained. That surgeons spe cialize in operating only for certain dis eases and on certain parts of the body is-well known, but a feature of the oper ations In the famous hospital of the May - os at Rochester Minn., is novel. It Is said that one of tfie valuable assistants Of tlie brothers is a needlewoman whose Angers have been trained to sew up in cisions with remarkable rapidity and pi e clsion. Surgeons today receive invaluable Hs sistance from nurses, and the particular nurse to which attention has linen called suggests how women may, and prob ably noyv do, complement the yvork of surgeons to the great advantage of the patients. Persons who have been ex plored with the knife have doubtless often studied the hands of tile surgeon and wondered how skilled they- were in re placing organs, bringing together Jn-.-I slons and sewing and tying—especially the last, for organs have a way of tak ing care of themselves when they are "dumped back" Into the vicinity of their proper place. How Important a place women will oc cupy In medicine Is still In doubt. They are not yet a large factor in general prac tice, and we have not heard of famous women surgeons, although there may be hucIi. It may be predicted that women will not take the place of men In medi cine, hut they will occupy an important complementary place; anil It is gulte ap parent that a woman trained in surgery, yvlth slender, strong, sure hands, vvouid give a man assistance that few members of hts own sex could render. Coughs Up Bullet New York, August 23.—(Special.)— While engaged in household duties in her home, Mrs. Patrick Vaughn, wife of a chauf feur, was seized with a violent lit of sneezing and coughing. Vaughn was starting for a doctor when a violent paroxysm brought from his wife's throat the remnants of a bullet which was acci dentally shot Into her head .ID years ago. No blood discharge followed the elec tion of the bullet, and In half an hour Mrs. Vaughn was ready to start on a vacation she had planned to liegln today. When she yvas 7 years old a revolver bullet pierced her forehead between the eyes. The yound healed. Ever after that she suffered from violent headaches. A month ago the surgeons In Fordham hor- ■ pltal removed a growth in her throat a which they took to he cancerous. They ,* now believe the growth was caused by the bullet.