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The Birmingham age-herald. [volume] (Birmingham, Ala.) 1902-1950, August 02, 1914, Image 1

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Germany declares war on Russia and sends ultimatum to France, demanding to know what the latter country will do when hostilities actually begin. King George of England makes a final effort to avert war, without
result. France orders general mobilization of troops. Germany and France request United States embassies to care for their interest “in the event it becomes necessary.’’ Japan will not intervene unless British interests in
the far east are endangered. Whereabouts of the German and Russian fleets are a mystery to all except the governments concerned. Strict censorship has been plac ed over all war news in European capitals and much of
the news is delayed. Panama canal act will be amended to save transatlantic shipping from paralysis during expected war of powers. Money markets preparing to meet the situation.
German Ambassador A °St.
Petersburg Announces
War and Departs
Statesmen For Generations Have
Feared Such a Situation Would
Arise—France Mobilizing.
Italy Neutral
• -—
London, August 1.—Events in the European crisis devel
oped today with startling rapidity. The German ultimatum to
Russia, demanding that Russia cease the mobilization of her
army, expired at noon* and at 5:15 o’clock this afternoon the
German Emperor signed a mobilization order.
At 7:30 o’clock the German ambassador at St. Petersburg,
Count von Pourtales, delivered a declaration of war in the name
of his government to the Russian government, and the entire
staff of the embassy immediately left St. Petersburg. Although
after the warlike speeches delivered by the German Emperor
and the Imperial Chancellor at Berlin on Friday, no other re
sult could be expected, hopes that the dread event might be
averted had been raised by the intervention of King George in
'St. Petersburg, a^d the fact that the German Reichstag was not
to be convened until Tuesday. Hence, the actual declaration of
war had not been expected for another day or twq.
Europe to be Plunged Into War
Now the die is cast and Europe is to be plunged into a gen
eral war, which has been the apprehension of European states
men for generations. It now is only a question of how soon a
state of actual war will exist between Germany and France.
Late tonight placards were postet
in Paris calling for general mobiliza
tion and the German ambassador, al
though he had not been handed hii
passports, was preparing to leave th<
French capital. It is not known ai
exactly what hour Germany’s ulti
1 matum to France, asking that country
to define what attitude she would as
sume in case of war by Germany anc
Austria against Russia was to ex
pire, but it is believed it will not bt
long before diplomatic relations wil
be ruptured or war declared.
The German Emperor and his ad
visers hare maintained to the last that
they made supreme efforts for peac*
and that the last of the series of ap
peals from Emperor William to Em
peior Nicholas was a telegram repu
diating responsibility for the calamity
mreaiemng rne wunu on me b*uuiiu
that while Gerftiany was mediating
with Austria-Hungary at Russia’s re
quest, Russia by her general moblliza-^
t>on was threatening Germany’s safety.
The first shots in the Russo-Ger
man war were exchanged between pa
trols today near Prostken, 120 miles
southeast of Konigsberg.
The only redeeming feature of the
darkest prospect with which Europe
has h^en faced for half a century is
that Italy has declared her neutrality.
How long that neutrality can be main
tained is an exceedingly debatable
Great Britain's position has already '
been defined by Premier Asquith in
:he British Parliament. He declared she
is under no formal obligation to go
to the assistance of France in the event
of an European war. The British gov
e/mment has made full preparations
(Continued on Page Ten)
St. Petersburg. August 1.—Germany’s
declaration of war against Russia has
provoked in the Russian capital a wonder
ful demontsration of patriotic enthusi
The German ambassador, Count yon
IPourtales, at 7:30 tonight in the name of
his government sent to the Russian min
ister of foreign affairs official notifica
tion of the declaration of war and two
hours later an announcement to this ef
fect was made to the people.
Tonight the capital presents a spectacle
of extraordinary animation.
The Nevsky prospect and all the lead
ing thoroughfares are filled with war
frenzied people, marching In processions
carrying portraits of the Emperor, with
flags waving and torches blazing. From
time to time there is an outburst of cheer
ing and singing.
In front of the Kazan cathedral each
procession halts and a sudden hush falls
over the marchers, then the strains of
the national anthem, sung in harmony
by a section of the procession rises, the
crowds listening silently with bared
Iliads. Then the procession moves for
ward and the demonstrations are resumed
with renewed ardor.
Washington, August 1.—To save transatlantic shipping
from paralysis during the European;crisis and avert threatened
blockade of America’s bumper grain crops, President Wilson
; and Congress leaders agreed today upon an amendment to the
Panama act vrhi<jh will permit foreign ships to come under
American register. It will be pressed for passage Monday.
I me Dill wouin eliminate tne requirement
that a ship must be five years old to get
the American registry, would advise the
President to suspend tile requirement
that all watch officers must be American
and suspend the requirement of survey,
.Inspection and measurements of foreign
built vessels admitted to American regis
The bill will take effect Immediately
upon enactment, as an emergency meas
Tile bill Is not expected to he opposed
when unanimous consent for its passage
la asked la the House Monday.
none or me aemocrauc leaders iavors :
letting down the bars so as to permit i
foreign ownership of American registered
vessels and the sentiment developed to- :
day was unless all conversions of foreign J
built and owned vessels into American' J
ojfned and registered ships must be '
rigidly bona fide.
Tt Was pointed out that unless this posi- i
tion was maintained there might be grave '
neutrality complications through' ships of .'
belligerent nations temporarily taking out
American registration.
Under international law’, all ships of
American registry must be owned by
American corporations or American citi
President Wilson and Secre
tary Bryan Busy Reading
Dispatches From the
Legations Abroad
# Washington. August k. From an au
thoritative sourca it wn. learned late
tonight that President Wilson was
strongly disinclined to take any steps
toward mediation in Europe, and in
line with the traditional policy of
the Fnited States, would pursue a
course of absolute noninterference.
As American diplomats abroad have
been active on their own initiative,
sounding out the various governments
about peace measures, cautionary
messages weye sent all legations and
embassies requesting that no steps of
importance in tills direction be taken
without previous consultation with
For the present tlie Fnited States’
attitude will be that ot a neutral ob
server and unless it appears that the
contending powers would accept .1 ten
der of good offices and mediation no
formal effort will be made by the
Fnited States towards a pacific settle
WnNlifngton, liigiiMt I.—War devel
opments In Europe overshadowed all
i l»e today and tonlaht in official W umIi
i a prion steps ft prevent a financial
Mrin^eqe} In thin country art a result
of Europe'* sodden need of gold wer**
followed by a series «i preen IK ion n >
mens n r cm designed fw protect \m«»r~
I* uum and their Interests abroad anti
:tt home.
President Wilson and Secretary Bryan
studied a mass of dispatches from Atneri- I
can embassies, legations and consulates 1
in Europe. While no formal tender of i
good offices had been made* to any power !
American diplomats abroad are keeping I
Hie state department closely advised so j
that if opportunity presents, the Fnited I
States' influence for a settlement of the I
war problems by pacific means will be
ictively exerted.
Ambassadors Active
Ambassadors Page at London, Penfield
at Vienna. Herrick at Paris and Gerard
at Berlin were particularly active dm- i
ng the day conferring with officials of |
the various foreign offices. They arc '
it work in the interests of peace, thus i
ar acting on their own initiative. In !
llspatches to the state department they
nade various suggestions, but until the
lituation develops further, no decisive
step in diplomacy will be taken by Wasti
ng! on.
The Washington government instructed
ill its diplomatic representatives abroad
0 do everything in their power with pro
priety to avert the conflict.
Germany. France. Great Britain and
>ractlcally the other governments of
Europe, which may become involved in
he struggle, have asked the United
States to care for their diplomatic in
erests in those countries with which they
nay be compelled to sever relations. The
’nited States has accepted every request.
The Fnited States government, by act
ng as the sole channel of communication
>etween the powers, may find an oppor- j
unity to assist in the settlement of the!
•onflict by diplomacy.
President Still Hopeful
President Wilson has not lost hope that
1 general conflict can be avoided. Some
(Coulinueil on Page Ten)
1— Germany declares war on Russia and
sends ultimatum to France.
Interstate commerce commission
grants part of increase requested by
Events in European crisis develop with
Panama canal act will ho amended.
2— Anniston campaign doses; primary to
be held Monday.
3— Crumpton reviews encampment work
at Pelham Heights.
4— Vera Cruz is now getting ice from
Mexican capital.
5— Prominent men express views as to
war’s effect on business.
Scores of Birmingham people caught
in Europe by war.
Local men phased at rate increases
granted in cast.
Restored to duty after hearing of
bribery charges.
6t-Shapiro outlines reasons for new con
r— Fnde Sam will be called upon for
European supplies.
Senator Bankhead calls upon Alabama
to get ready for waterways.
-First National’s monthly review.
-Bomb wrecks front of Carrigan home.
1—Report made on accounts of Sheriff
7— Growing roasting chickens in winter
pays profits.
1—Birmingham hanks will get $600,000
from government.
t— Heart to heart talks.
3-Who is the richest man in England?
6— Society.
7— Furnishing Birmingham with sweet
milk and cream.
8— 29— Ned Brace and editorial comment.
0— The hook shelf.
3-Dolly Dalrymple.
2”Churches play big part in European
3—Automobile gossip.
1— Late mining king outdid Carnegie.
5—News and >;uss|p of I.ondon stage.
S—A corner in ancestors.
9— Alsace-Lorraine Is feeling effect of
change In viceroys,
n—Titled aviators on the increase.
ll-«—Magazine section.
a-SS—Colored conic supplement, {
Rulers of Powers In Europe
Who May Have General War
KIiik Goorg-p V of KnKlnnd
I >■—■—' ' ' ■-'■■■■ I
Kn liner Wlllielm of Ge**mnny
l— ---,
ir n- ■ i
4>.nr \ folio In* of Rurmln F.mprror I'rnnrh .loncph of Auntrln
SI. Petersburg, August 1.—The German ambassador, in
the name of his government, sent to the Russian minister of
foreign affairs at 7:30 o’clock a declaration of war.
Count, von Pourtaies and the entire staff of the German em
bassy left St. Petersburg tonight after the declaration of war
had been delivered.
Berlin, August 1.—Emperor William signed an order
mobilizing theiGerman army at 5:15 o’clock tliis evening.
London, August 2.—After a conference between Premier
Asquith and Chancellor of the Exchequer Lloyd George and
leading London financiers, it was decided to introduce a bilj in
Pnrliinent on Monday to “deal with the financial situation.’’
This doubtless means that the hanking act will he suspended.
Berlin, August 1.—A semi-official statement issued tonight
says that the threatening danger of war necessitates that mili
tary measures be taken for protection of the German frontier
and railway lines. Restrictions, therefore, on the postal, tele
graph and railway sendees are inevitable, owing to the require
ments of’the military authorities.
Rome, August 1.— The Italian government is prepared to
meet any eventuality. About 500,000 soldiers are under arms,
including those who can he withdrawn from Tripoli and other
places. .Just before the Anstro-Servian outbreak 100,000 re
servists had been called to the colors.
All the fortientions along the eastern frontier have been
put into a state of war, while the various squadrons of the fleet
have assembled at their naval stations.
Copenhagen, August 1.—-German torpedo boat destroyers
operating outside the Danish sea territory made an unsuccess
ful attempt today to cut the cable communication to Russia by
way of Roedvig, Denmark.
Washington, August 2.—Germany, Great Britain and
France have formally asked the United States to take charge
of the embassies throughout the theatre of hostilities “in case
of emergency.
The United States will act for the powers involved and
American ambassadors and ministers abroad are being in
instructed. _
Brussels, August 1.—The French minister today informed
the Belgian government that France will respect Belgian neu
tralitv in the event of war breaking out, but if that neutrality
is not respected by the other powers she must consider what
action to take.
Paris, August 1.—An unofficial but credible report is cur
rent in diplomatic quarters that Austria-Hungary lias offered!
to withdraw her troops from Servia and to submit her griev
ances to an international conference. 1
No Advance Permitted East From
Buffalo and Pittsburg to Atlantic
Seaboard—Opinion of Com
mission Is Divided
Washington, August 1.—In a divided opinion today, the in
terstate commerce commission granted some of the 5 per cent
freight rate increases asked by the eastern railroads and de
nied others.
Increases will apply in the territory north of tlic Ohio and
Potomac rivers, and from a vertical line drawn through Buffalo
and Pittsburg, west as far as the Mississippi river. All class
rates and many commodity rates are increased 5 per cent in that
No advances wore permitted east from Buffalo and Pitts
burg to the Atlantic seaboard. That excludes from the area
from which the railroads will receive benefits, the greatest traf
fic producing centers of the country.
Financial Interests of the
Country Making Plans to
Avert Possible Cur
rency Stringency
New York, August. 1. -Extraordinary
action was taken by the leading financial
interests of America today to avert finan
cial uhsettlement in this country as a
lesnlt of the European war. Relief meas
ures are under way which bankers believe
will preserve the public confidence. This
1b the situation:
Emergency currency probably will be
put into circulation next week. Tf oc
casion requires this currency. Issuance of
which Is provided for by the Aldrieh
Vfreeland act passed after the 1907 panic,
may be supplemented here and elsewhere
by clearing house certificates such ns
were used in 1907.
Representatives of New York foreign
exchange houses left tonight for Wash
ington to hold a Sunday conference with
President Wilson. They planned to sug
gest the unprecedented measure of ad
vancing $100,000,000 credit to England.
Active Day for Hanker**
It was a day of strenuous activity not
unmixed with anxiety for New York
bankers. The European crisis demoralized
the financial markets of the world a week
ago and the Intricacies of modern finance
are such that upon America, isolated from
the perils of war, fell a full share of the
burden. Liquidation of American stocks
by European holders not only upset this
stock market so completely that it was
compelled to suspend business, but raised
another serious problem, that of paying
Europe for the stocks sold here.
It is estimated by reports of foreign
stock exchange houses that from $100,
900,000 to $150,000,000 worth of American
stocks were thrown on this market, for
whatever they would bring, by panic
stricken European holders, Canada also
unloaded stocks here heavily.
Next week the hills drawn against these
sales of stock will reach New York. Part
of the $45,000,000 gold shipped abroad on
vessels now on high seas Is in danger of
capture. Even these shipments leave a
huge total of foreign credits to he satis
fied. Today’s statement of the New York
hunks showed the effect of the raid upon
the American supply of gold. There was
n decrease in cash holdings of more than
553,000,000 due principally to the loss of
gold, and In plate of the surplus reserves
of $26,000,000 reported last Saturday there
was today a deficit of $17,000,000.
To Safeguard Situation
To meet these foreign claims without
serious encroachment upon available
financial resources, the New York hank
ers were forced to take decisive action.
Uncertainty as to what developments
might result in the world of finance from
the upheaval in Europe and doubt as to
the effect upon American public sentiment
made It imperative, in the opinion of
hankers, that added precautions be taken
tw safeguard the situation.
Early today there was u conference of
somp of the leading New York hankers.
Eater there was a meeting of the Na
tional Currency Association of the City
of New York, an organization provided
by the Aldrich-Vreeiand law. At this
meeting all arrangements were complet
ed for issuance of emergency currency
next week.
Although the possibility of issuance of
emergency currency has been discussed
quietly In Wall street, the New York as
sociation's action gave the first authori
tative indorsement to these reports. To
give assurance that the steps taken would
amply meet the needs of the situation,
Prank A. Vanderllp, president of the
National City bank, tonight issued a
statement, which said:
"The action of the New York Currency
association in getting all the machinery
ready for the issue, of additional hank
notes, should give assurance that there
will be no lark of an ample circulating
medium. It is nowr possible to create u
considerable amount of additional cur
|C.oatlaac4 •* Pace Tea#
in \ mmu
Commissioners Daniels ami Mc
Chord dissented from the majority
opinion. Mr. Daniels held that a 5
per cent increase should have heen
general- that the railroads were en
titled to it to meet the high cost of
living. Mr. McChnrd held that the
reasons which the majority held to
warrant an increase west of Pittsburg
applied equally to the territory east.
The luajorliy, heudsd i»y Chairman Har
lan, held. t\s to rates weal of PiM/'fcurg,
that thay were the lowest in the court \
and warranted nn Iiu ituhd. While It wag
held that the income of the oastern rail
roads was smaller than demanded tn pub
lic Interest, no showing had been made
warranting a general increase The rear
relief, the commission held, for the New
England roads and those In Central
Freight association territory, was finan
cial reorganisation upon a sound basis.
H was held that rather than raising
freight rates, the railroads should dis
continue costly free services to shippers,
develop efficiency of personnel and
equipment, stop giving free passes and
possibly Increase their passenger fares
to keep pace with the high grade service
the public demands.
The "crisis” which railroad men protested
vuis confronting them, was pronounced to
have uittle foundation. The commission
denounced what it characterised as *
propaganda to influence Its decision, and
added there was no doubt It had serious
ly aggravated the present commercial
Such advances as are allowed are ex
pected to increase the Income of the rail
roads about l1/^ per cent. The principal
cast and west roads, such us the New
Vork Centra I, Pennsylvania, Eric and Bal
timore and Ohio, will benefit by advances
to the extent that they have lines run
ning from the east over Into the territory
Into which the advances apply.
Foul, which comprises more than one
half the total traffic, will have no ad
vance. Neither will coke, brick, tile, clay,
Mtarch, cement, iron ore and planter’.
Tlu re will he no Increase on lake and
rail rates.
A summary of the decision prepared
by the commission follows:
"'riie contention of the railroads that
their ievenues under the present scale of
lutes are inadequate Is sustained, th#
commission saying that the operating ln
mnie of the railroads In official classi
fication territory, taken as a whole, is
smaller than is demanded In the interest
of both the general public and the rail
: .The rail roads' present financial difficul
ties are recognized by the commission as
I a problem not only of the railroads, but
| Hi the public, which It Is the duty of the
< ommission to help solve. Speaking of the
m**d of the carriers for additional reve
nues, the commission says: it is our duty
and purpose to aid, so far as wo legally
may. In the solution of the problem an
to the course carriers may pursue to meet
the situation.’
"The commission points out that the of
ficial classification territory embraces
three rate territories, known as the New
England territory east of the Hudson
river; the trunk line territory between
the New England territory and the Buf
falo-Pittsburg lines, and the Central
Freight association territory between the
Puffalo-Plttsburg line and the .Mississippi
and that the financial and traffic condi
tions of the railroads operating in these
three rate territories differ widely. The
commission finds that the rates In Cen
tral Freight association territory, as a
whole, are lower than the rates In any
other part of the Fnited States. If the
average freight rate had been as high
on the Central Freight association terri
tory lines as on the roads In trunk line
territory the former would have earned in
1913 $56,000,000 more than they did, and
that the 2S representative roads in Cen
tral Freight association territory would
have earned $29,000,000 more.
The three (treat trunk lines have each
n large mileage In Central Freight as
sociation territory, so that the'r revenues
will be augmented by rate .nrreases in
that territory. Thus, of tf e New York
Central system's 12.«W miles of line, S938
are t'entral Freight association territory.
Nearly one half of the mileage of tha
Pennsylvania system Is also In that tas*
ICuHssaS as Fags ■1st—J

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