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fe.. >.*,aiF- ‘ • ■' . V-t= '• *£•' • • ".-'t ■ •?• ;.'-v »,.«SKi®Sg¥L'i • > I |jgi % Why This War Will Free the Holy U Sepulchre, the Temple of Solomon fe; and All the Famous Bible Sites if and Open Them to Civiliza || ‘ tion, if the Allies Win (gjL'NPEtlWOOP i'UNPERWOOO The Plain of Assembly Where Moses Delivered the Te Commandments to the Children of IsraeJ ONE of the most desirable re sults of the present world war will be the elimination of Turkey as a Power and the libera tion of the territories under her yoke, Including the Holy Land, with all the sites of Biblical history and the Saviour's life. Prime Minister Asquith and other representatives of the allies have de clared that “thia war means the end of Turkey." Of course, these speakers did not take Into consideration the possibil ity that Germany, the great ally of Turkey, might, win. but at any rate they make It certain that if the Allies win the Turk will be driven from his conquered territories. Then, at last, we shall see an end of the outrageous conditions that allow the barbarous Turks to control "* the holy city of Jerusalem, with the g Sepulchre of the Saviour, the Tem * pie of Solomon and Its other almost Innumerable sacred sites. Christian civilization has gained some rights in Jerusalem, but in other sacred places of the Holy Land Christians are entirely Bhut out by the TurkH or must venture there at the risk of their lives. in Jerusalem the American tourist could, before the war, visit such Sites os the Garden of GethBemane. with the olive tree where the Saviour was betrayed by Judas, and the Garden Tomb of Jesus, near Mount Calvary. Many of the most Interesting parts of Jerusalem have, however, not been open to the visitor or the explorer. Chief among these Is the site of the Temple of Solomon, which cannot be touched by a Christian or a Hebrew because It Is occupied by a Moham medan mosque. Excavations in the temple area may still reveal the Altar of Sacrifice, the Brazen Altar, the Table of Shew bread, the Molten Sen and various other sacred objects mentioned in the Bible. The Palace of Solomon, where he received the Queen of Sheba, is a building concerning which great in terest is naturally felt. It was “built of the cedars of Lebanon.” When the stones of Herod's palace are un earthed 1t Is not Improbable that beneath these may be found the cedars of Solomon’s building, for in those times they had a habit of build ing on the ruins of their predecessors. A notable instance of a Biblical site of extraordinary Interest from which Investigators are entirely ex cluded is tlie Tomb of Abraham and the Hebrew patriarchs at Hebron In Palestine It whs here that Abraham, the forefather of all the Israelites, dwelt with his family, as the Book of Genesis tells us. Before lie died Abraham bought the Cave of Machpelah from Ephron the Hlttite as a burial pluce for him self and his family (Genesis xvl1i.). The silc of tlie Cave of Hebron has been known from time immemorial. It was known In early Christian times, and in the days of the Saviour. No confusion lias ever arisen as to its position, such as has occurred in the case of other Bible sites. The Cave of Machpelah is situated within an inclosure called the Ha ram. formed by a gigantic Ilerodian wail Above the cave stands a chur, h built by the Crusaders in 1187. hut since converted Into a mosque and for many centuries in the posiession of the Turks. In ilie cave were burled Abraham, his wife, ,'arah; his son, Isaac; the latter's wife, Rebekah; Jacob, son of Isaac; Leah wife of Jacob, and Joseph, son o„* Jacob and Rachel. In the mosque ah ve the cave are monu ments in the form of tombs to Sarah, i-r.ac.' neueltah, Jacob. Leah and -••wepii, but they do not inclose the ictual bones. These are presumably 4t ■ ,r 1 Garden of Gethsemane Near Jerusalem This Is the Olive Tree Where Christ Was Betrayed and Where the Angel Qabriel Ap peared to the Saviour, According to Local Tradition ©ISIO. Jifc*UErt CO. The Garden Tomb of Jesus Near Mount Calvary The Window Is Pointed Out to Tourists as the One Where Mary Looked In and Saw the Angels In the cave below. The Mohamme dans venerate the Hebrew patriarch# although they oppress their descend ants. Ordinarily Christians and Hebrews are not even allowed to enter the Haram surrounding the mosque. Oc casionally Christians of great in fluence, such as the King of England's heir, have been permitted to enter the mosque. Recently photographs were taken for the first time of the six ceno taphs or memorial tombs, of the patriarchs within the mosque. These are reproduced In a recent report of the Palestine Exploration Fund, which gives some very interesting Information about the building. "In the church pavement,” st^ys the Rev. A. B. Grimaldi In this article, "are three movable slabs which give access by ladder or rope to the cave. But two are fastened up, and not even Moslems are allowed to enter by the third. It Is used to throw down written petitions to Abrabnm; and, looking down, the floor Is seen to be covered as with snowflakes. “When King George V. (then Prince of Wales), visited the mosque a light was let down, and the rocky sides were seen and a doorway en tering out of this nnte-chamber Into the Tomb Cave Itself.” With the granting of freedom to the Inhabitants of Palestine, the rep resentatives of religion and science will be able to enter this mysterious cave and disclose its contents to the world. Around Hebron centre all the in teresting events of the patriarchal age recorded in the Bible. Here Abraham prepared to sacrifice his own son, Isaac, in obedience to the will of God, Jacob labored seven years for Rachel, and Esau sold his birthright for a mess of pottage. From here Joseph started on his fateful Journey to Egypt. A remarkably interesting relic af fected by the war Is the Monastery of St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, shown in one of the accompanying photographs. This occupies the tra ditional spot where the Lord de livered the Ten Commandments to Moses. In the library of this monastery was recently found the oldest known mnnuscript of the Bible. The monks have occupied this ancient monastery for about 1,800 years, Bince tbe foundation of the Christian religion. This monastery lies along the route by which*the Turks were reported to be advancing to attack tbe British defenders of Egypt. It Is possible that the peace ful inmates of this very nncien' sacred building may be driven out by war. At the foot of the mountain lies "the Plain of Assembly,” where the Israelites waited for Moses to bring down the laws to them. Persons who have read about cer tain modern enterprises in Jerusa lem and other parts of the Holy Land may have gained an Idea that the Turk has become more amiable in recent years. This is a mistake. You can only get anything from the Turk by paying him exorbitantly, and this is not always possible. “Until recently,” writes the Rev. Lewis R. Paton, professor of Old Testament history in Hartford Theo logical Seminary, “no permits foi-' excavation were given by the Govern •nent, and when, under European pressure, firmans* were at last granted, these were hedged around with bo many restrictions that they were of Mttle practical value. Ac cording to the present Turkish law o£ antiquities, the consent of the local authorities must first be secured be fore a permit will be issued In Con stantinople. To obtain this a lavish expenditure of jnoney is necessary In How the High Cost of Living Is Bringing Back Fairies FAIRIES, science now is sure, really did exist. There is truth behind all the stories of them that have delighted and frightened children for ages. Only they weren’t quite the kind of people that the fairy books make out. They were, science believes, prehistoric dwarf races of Europe, usually swarthy and mischievous. They were swarthy, small and prankish because for gene rations their race had not enough to eat. They had, in fact, like Peter Pan, never grown up. And being still children they behaved like children. It was the memory of these “little people," and this name given them by the Irish 1b scientifically literal, that crystallized Into the stories of dwarfs, kobalds, pixies and so on in the fairy stories. The really interesting part of all this, however. Is that American Medicine, the famous medical Journal, says that the fairies are coming back to earth—and through the causes that originally produced them. "English anthropologists and physicians,” says American Medicine, “have noticed for a long time that the prehistoric small, dark types which were sub merged by the Celtic and Teutonic invasions have been reasserting themselves numerically and have also been percolating back to the areas from which they were driven by these bigger, fiercer, blonder immigrants. "Much of this is due to the more perfect adjustment to the climate of the oldest stocks tnrough hundreds of millenniums of survival of the fittest, whereas the last Invasions have brought in types which are just enough unfit for the new climate to lose ground in proportion to the rest. The big blonds are not dying out by any means; indeed, they might be increasing, and their control of national affairs is stronger every decade perhaps, but the smaller, darker types are ap parently getting more numerous in special positions which kill off the more recent Teutons. "The pigmies, on the other hand, are apparently small sizes of all the typeB which make up the population, though no exact observations have been made of their physical characters. No one knows what causes such variations, but we can well imagine a thousand thlngB which may happen to check growth, and, as the un fortunates are largely in the lowest social classes, we are justified in suspecting disease and underfeeding as the most common. “Very small or dwarf specimens are found in every species, and in every litter of pigs there is a 'runt.’ The phenomenon seems to be universal, and there is' no reason to doubt that dwarfed types have appeared in England ever since man was man. If he was too little to hold his own in those fierce days, he perished; if too big, he was likely to become too aggressive ana to be laid low by strategy. "As a fact, prehistoric skeletons of one locality and time are remarkably uniform, as also are the modern savages of one tribe. In modern civilization, on the other hand, size has absolutely no nearing upon the survival, for no matter how little or how big a man Is he can find some way of making a living and some climate which will not hurt him. Industrialism fur nishes innumerable opportunities for little men who have sufficient Intelligence, and they do not have to resort to tailoring, shoemaking or servile attachment to the more efficient big men. Their numbers ought to Increase, and perhaps they are increasing through out northern Europe, which has formerly, been fit for only the big types, but now puts subsistence within the reach of millions of little men, some of whom cannot even shoulder a gun too keep out invaders. “If the dwarfish types are not gifted with enough intelligence fcr skilled labor they are In a pitiable condition, for they cannot do hard laboring work. A big imbecile can shovel dirt, but the little man can not prosper without brains. These stupid dwarfs, clothed In rags and begging an existence, are the most pitiable sights In London. “Will America furnish pigmies when the price of food advances to the high relative level of Europe? We have always prided ourselves on the good phy sique which comes with our more liberal feeding, but there is a suspicion that we have seen our best days. We are beginning the successful importation of meat from Argentina, and It stands to reason that, as In London, there will be some men too feeble mentally and physically to get enough of It for their children/ Most of our little people are foreign bom, but the native born are not sizing up as formerly, and some time ago the manufacturing tailors reported that the demand was for smaller sizes of boys’ clothes tab age than formerly. "The process of dwarfing must have been going on for some time unnoticed. It is not possible to get ex act data on this subject, as no records have been kept of weight and height for each year, but our ’child wel fare’ folks are doubtless collecting such Information for future use. The matter ought to be looked into now, as It Is quite disconcerting to think that the pouring of hordes into the ‘melting pot’ Is to result in under sized people as in Europe, even pigmies as In London. Every Immigrant may help to shovel dirt for railroads, but he brings one more mouth to fill while the meat production Is diminishing. It is all very well to say we will give these poor failures of Europe a seat at our table, but what If our own children go to school hungry?” Copyright, 1914, by the Star Company. Great Britain Rights Reserved. Library of the Monastery of Mount Sinai Here There Are Stored Priceless Manuscripts and Ancient Parchments Which Have Never Been Opened to the Eyes of Western Bible Students ordei to ocercome the fanaticism and prejudice of the provincial authori ties. "The site desired for exploration must be purchased at a price esti mated by the owners. After local permission is secured, endless delay and bakshish are necessary before an edict can be secured from the central government. When at last it is obtained, a Turkish commissioner, whose expenses are paid by the ex cavator, must be constantly in at tendance to decide what may and what may not be done, and all antiquities discovered must be turned over to the Imperial Ottoman Museum. These conditions stand In disagree able contrast to the liberal provisions in Egypt, where nny competent per son is allowed to excavate, and is re quired only to divide his finds with the Cairo Museum. "At the beginning the exploration of Palestine was confined to the study of places and objects that remained above ground. Edward Robinson, the distinguished American arch aeologist and professor In Union Theological Seminary, New York, in a series of journeys carried on during the years following 1838, and the French scholar, Guerin, ascertained the modern names of many localities, and succeeded in identifying them with places mentioned in the Bible. The 'Palestine Exploration Fund, founded in Ipngland in 1865, and largely supported by American con tributors, conducted an elaborate sur vey of Palestine, whose results were embodied in their ‘Great Way of Palestine,’ which Is still the standard. “Othqr explorations were carried on at Jerusalem since 1867, and a little digging was done outside the present city limits to determine the lines of the ancient walls. In the course of the superficial study of the land a number of important monu ments were discovered still standing upon the surface. In 1868 the Ger man missionary Klein discovered an inscription of Mesha, King of Moab. who is mentioned In II. Kings, 3. In 1880 some boys, playing In the con duit which leads to the Pool of Slloam, discovered an inscription In ancient Hebrew characters dating from the time of King Hezekiah. In 1801 Schumacher discovered a monument of Rameses II. (1202 B. C.), who was probably the Pharaoh who oppressed the children of Israel in Egypt, and in 1001 Professor George Adam Smith discovered a beautiful stele of Seti I„ the father of Rameses II.” The Harvard expedition at Samaria in 1900-1010 discovered remains of the palace of the Hebrew Kings Omrl and Ahab, and in one of its cham bers potsherds were found contain ing business accounts written in a character similar to that of the Slloam inscription. These discoveries are only a be ginning of the exploration of Pales tine. The sites excavated, except that of Samaria, are relatively un important towns. The great religious centres of antiquity, such as Hebron, Jerusalem, Bethel and Dan, remain unexplored. Hundreds of large mounds exist all over the country, within which the records of ancient times are deposited one above • the other In chronological order. It Is ( not unreasonable to expect that, if these mounds could be explored thoroughly, many more Babylonian tablets such as those found at Tan ach would be discovered. Perhaps even a whole library might be unearthed in such a place as Kirjath-Sepher, whose name means “Book Town.” Since Hebrew inscrip tions have been found already, there is no reason why more might not he found, or why even manuscripts might not be discovered sealed up in earthen jars, which, as we know from Jeremiah 32:14, was the custom of the Hebrews. Think how the world would be startled, if some of the lost books mentioned in the Old Testa ment were rediscovered, or ancient manuscripts of some of the canon ical books! Not only the sacred places of the Holy Land, but the most famous sites of the ancient and classical world, barring those of Greece and Rome, lie under the clutches of the unspeak able Turk. Among them are Con stantinople, Troy, Babylon, Ifineveh, Damascus, Tyre, Sldon, Arbela and many others. Considerable excavation has, of course, been done at such places as Babylon and Nlneveb, but it could only be done at great expense and at great risk of many kinds. These conditions will be remedied when the terrible Turk is swept away and the world will enter on a new era of en lightenment and progress. Before the war French arch aeologists had just begun some very Interesting researches at Constanti nople. They have now Dartially laid hare the ruins of the palace of Con stantine, which, of course, is of great Interest as the residence of the Em peror who gave his name to the city. This amazing building covered a space of many acres, (deluding quar ters, baths Aid every luxury for the one thousand persons who composed the imperial household and the guards of the palace. It surpasses incomparably both in extent and splendor the palace of tha Caesars at Rome, and yet It is prob ably equalled in interest by many of the other ruins in the city. Few Americans realize the extraor dinary interest of Constantinople and the strange manner in which thq wealth of the ages has been locked up in It. Constantinople has a longer continuous history than any other) great city in the world. Compared with it, Athens was but a city of a: day, and even Rome is new, while London and Paris are mere parvenus.. Everybody hopes that one of thoj first results of the war will be to free) this ancient centre of culture audj Christianity, as well as the Holyj Land, from the horrible barbarous Turks.