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ALABAMA’S ARTILLERY IS
I CREDIT TO THE SERVICE Something About the Guns and Equipment on Avenue B. Which Can Be Seen at Any Time by Layman—Only Drawback is Shortage of Men By H ARVIE Among the many lessons learned from the present war none has impressed it self more forcibly upon the average mind than the great value of artillery. , So terrible have been the results of artillery fire that the very men who know most about such things have been astonished. Surely Napoleon knew what he was talking about when he said that "heaven fights on the side that has the heaviest artillery." Whether he really said "artillery” or not, the fact remains that he knew whereof he spoke. Of all the soldiers of the world, none wan better quali fied to testify to the value of big guns than this “little olive complexioned major of artillery." Yet the guns of Napoleon's time were mere toys com pared to those in use in Europe today. If they were of importance 100 years ago, how much more so must they be today, when they ore so many times more accurate and destructive. One of the questions most frequently asked today concerns artillery. Pa triot citizens, fearful of possible in ternational complications, are anxious lest our government be not supplied ■with modern guns. With the German “42-centimeters" and the French “sev enty-fives" filling the papers with the tales of their terrible effectiveness one naturally becomes anxious to know how Uncle Sam Is provided. As to that there are several opin ions. Some claim that we are hopc * lcusly lacking in material and that v. e have not enough ammunition to supply the guns we have for one day. Whether this Is true or not no one can •ry, for the ordnance department at Washington is not talking for publica tion. But we can say that so far as is possible in a free country, where men follow the profession of arms from choice rather than from necessity, the United States army is splendidly equipped with guns and with men who know how to handle them. But ns is natural under the circumstances, we must depend in case of trouble upon volunteer gunners and hastily gath ered guns. As the second line of de fense, the call would come naturally; upon the batteries of the national guard. Alabama's Fine Artillery Branch As to the condition of the artillery service in other states we cannot say, but we can speak with certainty of that in Alabama. Tt requires no stretching of the truth to say that, so far as is possible for any citizen or ganization to be. the artillery of the Alabama National Guard Is a whole lot letter than any one has any right to expect. The federal government has for a long time been making every effort to improve the national guard organiza tions. By detailing officers and "non coms" to the various states, and by constant exercise and instruction the general efficiency has been raised to a comparatively high point in the last few years. In no branch of the serv ice is this more marked than in the artillery, for in no other branch is ef ficiency more necessary. There is noth ing so “sorry" as a poorly trained and disciplined battery, and there is noth ing that requires more training and discipline. By tlie very nature of things an artilleryman must learn about as much as any man ia allowed to know. lie must he a specialist. In ai.> one of a dozen things. He must bo able to take care of himself and v have some ability In handling horses. He must know something of the me — .- ===== :r=r^. • bnnics of the gun, and of its intricate machinery, and he must be something or a carpenter and a blacksmith and an electrician all in one. In short, he needs a lot of teaching before he is of any use whatever. The giving of this training is the aim and ardent desire of the officers of the local batteries. They have every thing in the way of guns and equip ment that could be imagined, but. they i m<- in need of men. Like every other; militia organization, they have enough men to get along with but none to spare. Tn cane of a sudden call, re- j qi iring each battery fo be recruited up to war strength, there would he busy; times for the officers in teaching and , training raw recruits. and months vruld be spent “getting ready to com- j monce." Guns At Birmingham Armory The modern battery of field artil- ! lory is a fearful conglomeration of men and horses and harness and guns. As one recruit expressed it. the main trou ble with this branch of the service is ♦ hat there is too much “stuff” to look i after. A visit to the armory of the lo cal batteries will verify this statement. The- long rows of grim looking guns and caissons, ranged ready for service, th • harness and saddles hanging ready to hand beside each gun, the thousand and one accessories that go to make up the modern battery are most con fusing to the visitor. The first ques tion he asks is. how do you talce eaie of all this? The answer lies in Ser geants R. N. Davidson and R. H. John s on, quartermasters and custodians. Their entire time is occupied in look ing after things, in keeping harness nnrl saddles In repair, in cleaning and polishing and repairing equipments of all kinds. The batteries are housed In a large warehouse on Avenue B between Twen ty-second and Twenty-third streets. Tho doors are always open and vis itors are more than welcome. To those who may he Interested, the custodians nro always ready to answer questions, foolish and otherwise, and to explain everything in and about the armory. The battalion consists of Batteries A and C of Birmingham and B of Mont gomery and is under the command of MaJ. L. C. Dorrance, an artilleryman of years of experience, who has risen f;oin the ranks as a private soldier in rid Battery D through the various grades to the ranking artillery office In the state. His staff consists of Captain and Adjutant Hartley A. Moon and First Lieutenant and Quartermas ter J. A. Luckie. Battery A is under the command of Capt. Frank Flynn, with First Lieuten ant Walter L. Furman and Second Lieutenant Robert L. Pittman. Battery C Is commanded by Capt. John M. Fray, with First Lieutenants William S. Pritchard and Julian P. Smith. Second Lieutenants Morgan and Feld have recently been elected and are now awaiting examination in order to qualify. Battery B is commanded by Capt. Michel Screws. Each battery is entitled to a captain and two first and two second lieuten ants. There are seven sergeants and a stable and quartermaster sergeant to each battery, also 12 corporals. Each of the batteries has a total enlisted strength of about 130 men. It is when we begin to consider the equipment that we begin to l>p aston | ished at the amount of “stuff.” Each gun has its limber and Its two caissons j and each of thpse its harness and sad-1 1 dies and bridles, making an endless amount of horse furniture. In addition ; I to tills, 2." men in each battery must j he mounted. which calls for more i equipment. Each battery has two won dor fully contrived vehicles known ns battery wagon*, though they look less like wagons than anything else. They are equipped with a complete black smith shop, carpenter’s tools and an outfit for making and repairing har ness. They also contain extra parts for the guns and the battery fire con trol system, consisting of telescopes, telephones and signal flags. The battery Is divided into sections, each of which has its special duties to perform. Each section consists of a corporal and 11 men, five men to each gun section and six to each caisson Sfction. The whole Is under the com mand of a sergeant. Something About the (Juris The gun itself is a magnificent weapon. It is known officially as the three-inch field piece, model of 1902. To one unfamiliar with gunnery it seems a fearful and wonderful con trivance. The barrel is 72 inches long and weighs 825 pounds. It is of three inch calibre, that is, it fires a projec tile that many inches in diameter. Its e; treme range is something over four niles. The sights are capable of being adjusted from 100 to 6500 yards. The gun is mounted upon a recoil mech anism by means of which the force of the “kick” instead of causing the en tire gun to run backwards, as was the case with the old muzzle loaders, is expanded in forcing the barrel back, leaving the carriage undisturbed. The recoil forces the breech back about 45 inches, and a powerful spring allows it to return gently to its place. This al lows the gun to be fired any number of times without changing the sights, for tiie barrel always returns to the exact place. I.»ike all modern artillery, the gun is a breechloader firing fixed ammuni tion. That is, the charge Is put up in a cartridge like ordinary rifle ammu nition, and the gun is loaded in about the same manner. The day when the gunner rammed in the load from the nuzzle while bullets whistled about his ears is gone. Today the gunner sits on a little seat arranged at the side of the gun. crouching behind a steel shield which Is raised between the wheels. A gunner sits on each side of the gun. one to manage the sight ing mechanism and the other to see 1 to the elevation. The projectile Is ! brought from the limber, its fuse set at | the proper distance, and the gun loaded I without a man exposing himself alcove j the shield for a second. Use High Explosive Shrapnel The ammunition used in the United States field gun is high explosive | shrapnel which to the layman looks ! like a gigantic rifle cartridge. Tire ! weight of the projectile is 15 pounds 1 and it Is about 20 inches in length. It ' contains 262 round lead balls, each one i a half-inch in diameter. The shell, I by a most Ingenious device, can be made to burst at any distance from the ; gun or it can be set to burst on im i pact. So successful has shrapnel I proved to be that it is now used ex clusively in our army. Against masped trc.ops It is especially destructive. By causing the shells to burst above n column of men, the scores of lead ball.* are forced downward and forward over on area of more than 100 yards. The effect of several guns firing at onc€ can well be imagined. There is a device on the end of each projectile which looks more like the dial on a combination safe than any thing else. It is graduated and num j bered into small spaces, each of which j represents a given number of seconds. This is the time fuse, by mbans ol which the shell can be made to burst at any distance, by turning this dial to the desired number and “setting it" there. Thus the fuse can be set sc that the Bhell will btarst in a given number of seconds. It having been fig ured that it will travel a certain num ber of yards in that time. But as the speed of the projectile constantly de creases with the distance traveled, th* spaces on the fuse dial are of irregular width. Thus at 200 yards the shell is traveling faster than it will at 400. But it is the sights that are most puzzling to the lafrman. To one fa r.ifllar only with snfell arms, the sight , l.. *. iisgr device of a field gun seems ter Hbly complicated. There are three dif ferent kinds of sights. One is the pano ramic sight for indirect fire, a tele Bcopic affair by means of which the ar tilleryman performs that wonder of wonders—shooting at one object by aiming at another. By ineans of it, to t.. ..j» . wuii a nice little problem in mathematics on the part of the officer in command, he Is enabled to shoot over n hill or (so it is said) around a corner. In this indirect fire the gun ners more often than not never see the object they are shooting at. They sight instead at some prominent object, like a church steeple or a big tree, and by means of setting the gun at proper an gle, drop the projectile at the desired place. Old-Fashioned “Sights” There Is also a peep sight somewhat like that on a rifle, by means of which the gunner "draws a bead" on his en enry by direct fire. And on top of the barrel are a pair of regular old-time fruit and rear sights, by means of which our indomitable artilleryman is supposed to annihilate any charging column that has gotten too close for | the other sights. IIow long we would care to remain until those "line sights" are necessary is ’problematical. Per haps like Huck Finn we could say, "I could have stayed if T had wanted to, but I didn’t want to." It will repay anyone to stop by the armory and see for himself what the men of the local batteries are doing and what they are trying to do. They realize more than others that it is the men behind the gun who decides the day. But they know further that there ( an be no man behind the gun, and no gun either, without years of careful preparation and study. The problem ol getting the guns to the firing line and of keeping them there is even greater than that of the actual shooting ol them after they are there. It is this need of keeping the guns supplied with ammunition and of taking care of the thousand and one necessary articles the feeding and clothing and caring foi the men and horses, that makes foi real efficiency. It is the duty of every citizen tc help. The national guard exists en tlicly by the will of the people. It cannot exist without proper backlnp and encouragement. Tf each citizer docs nothing more, he can at least give his moral support. What are you doing to help? Germans Are Strict Berlin, July 10.—(Special. )-The lav against paying debts to persons in th< countries with which Germany is at wb: not only applies to Germans but also t< such foreigners as may be resident ii Germany, according to the most recen court ruling. A Chilean In Berlin, a member of i firm that before the war did a largi European business, recently was ar raigned and fined $2,5 because he had at tempted to arrange, by correspondence to settle a debt of S3000 which his con cern owed to England. He made no at tempt to send the money from here, bu sought to have it dispatched to Englarn from Chile. He argued In his defense that the Ger man law did not apply to foreigner who might owe money in foreign coun tries, and that Germany had no right t< Jurisdiction over countries of which sh was not one. Though the prosecuting at torney asked for a fine of but $5 the cour imposed the larger sum because the Chll ean sought to "swell the possession o the enemy" and because the debt he trlei to settle was so large. To Preserve Treneh Papers Paris, July 10.—(Special.)—The Frencl National Library Is making a collectloi of publications edited and prlntad by sol dlers at the front ,to be preserved In th archives and to serve future historian as documentary evidence of the state o mind of the army. There are at presen 28 of these publications appearing will different degrees of regularity. Thi * "Boyau" (zig-zag: trench) la published by the One Hundred and Fifteenth infantry, the "Echo des Gourbis" (the echo of tne huts) by the regiments from the region of Quercy;* the "Echo dor Guilounos" la the organ of the One Hundred and Four teenth infantry; the "Echo des Mar mites'’ (echo of the big German shells) and the "Echo du Ravin" (echo of the ravine), are published by the chasseurs; the "Canard Poliu" (the hirsute duck), the "Lapin a Plumes" (the feathered ra’ bit, the "Journal de Route," the "Echi dee Tranchees." the "Chi de Guerre," th< "Cri de Vaux," the "Poilu Enchaine,’ "Marmita," the "Cri du Cor," "Rigol boche," the "Diable au Cor" and th> "Rascasse Territorials” are among: th« publication already in the archives o the library, but the collection is not ye complete. Some of these publications an Illustrated by well-known cartoonists a the front, and ail of them bubble ove with piquant French wit and humor. BIDS LITTLE FRIENDS TO BIRTHDAY PARTY H The Hague. Netherlands. July 20.—(Cor respondence of the Associated Press.)— The canny Dutch bookseller strive* to please all tastes and satisfy all demands by attempting to divide his shop space scrupulously into equal parts, in one of which the German propaganda la spread out, while another is devoted to French. English and Belgian polemical literature. A frontier of Dutch work! separates the two. The division, however, is not always easy to make with accuracy. "Germany and England.” by Houston Stewart Chamberlain. in English, appears on the table devoted to the Allies' lit erature. although pro-German. On the other hand, the writings of such British opponents of the war as Norman Angell appear in the Dutch section, translated into the tongue of the Howlands. James M. Beck's "The Belgian Case.” and "Ger man Democracy," by Agnes Repplier and William White, have been similarly pre sented to the Dutch public. In the same section, but from still another angle, is the really remarkable product of this war. "The Diary of Stijn Stieuvels—In Wartime. 1914-15." It is in Flemish, the author whose real name is Frank Da tour. having been a baker's apprentice In his native land. Belgium, though he was also nephew' of the Abbe Guido Oez elle, a well known Belgian poet and translator of Txmgfelow's "Hiawatha.” Among the Dutch bo<?ks produced by the war are a number of serious studies: "The World War and Social Democracy,” by P. J. Troelstra. The Netherlands so cialist leader, is the most pretentious of the three. "At the Front and In Belgium.” by Gen. A. J. Prins. retired, of the Dutch army, is a soldier's unvarnished narra tive of merit: while “War Psychology," by Dr. F. J. Socman of The Hague, and "War Philosophy," by Heo Polak of the University of Amsterdam, are more tech- 1 nical studies of the effect of the w'ar. The other Netherlands universities have contributed to Dutch literature: "The Eu ropean War,” by Dr. G. W. Kernkamp of Utrecht, and "The Economic War/’ l| I by Dr. C. A. Verijn Stuart of Groningen universities. The belligerent sections of the book shops often show the same subject treat ed from opposite sides, Count Julius And rassy of Hungary, for example, in Ger- ■ man, on the one hand, and M. M. Durk heim and Denis In French on the other, write on the origins of the war. The I German sections contain the "Deutsche j Kriggsehriften” by various authors, de voted to critical comment on the politics and character of German’s enemies, while the French sections contain a remarkable series of brochures issued by Armand Colin of Paris, called "Pages of History ™ -1914-15." The numerous grey, red, white, orange and other colored official statements of the causes of the ware are omnipresent in every language. As in Germany, the cities of Holland are almost as closely sown with book shops as the fields of the Howlands are sow'n with .windmills. The long freedom from the restraints of any copyright law —a relic of the days w'hen almost every revolutionary brochure bore the imprint of Amsterdam, and Holland alone stood for the liberty of the press—fostered scores of shops where books in every western European tongue and on every conceivable theme were offered for sale. The works of popular French, German and English authors were frankly pirated or adapted to the Dutch taste and re printed under Dutch titles. This arrange ment made for cheap books and large profits to booksellers; and so for many shops, stalls and barrow's where such hooks can still be bought, notwithstand ing the recent, enactment of a copyright law. Two groups of children at the birthday party of little Fay Harris Baugh, who entertained on her fifth birthday last Tuesday. She is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Berry Baugh • • •••• • SSSSS • S OSS •« • I •• t ••••SSSOSSSS a•*See0eaSSSSee•SS••a•••••»e#••••#•O••S»••••••••••••*•••*S “Being good one day in the week isn’t going to save you. It’s your average goodness every day that will be set down by the Record ing Angel.” —Mister Squeegee IIIIIHHIIIIIillilillllillllllllHIIIIIIIlllllllllHIII Gunners in the U. S. Navy have established a fine record for marksmanship. This record was not made by hitting the bullseye once. Records are made by scoring many hits in succession — by striking the target continuously. The record of Diamond Squeegee Tread Tires was not made by exceptional mileage Secured from one tire out of a hundred or more. It is a record that is based upon mile age economy and superior wearing qualities as shown in the grand average—and that is the only kind of a tire record worthy of consideration. This record shows that more than 99% of all Diamond Tires used produce plus service. Equip with Diamond Squeegee Tread Tires and get the benefit of these “FAIR-LISTED” PRICES: ? _ Diamond Diamond Size Squeegee slla Squeegee 30 x 3 $ 9.45 34 x 4 $20.35 30x334 12.20 36 x 434 28.70 32 x 332 14.00 37x5 33.90 33x4 20.00 38x534 46.00 PAY NO MORE HL_ ihs.iiouterjs xcr UiriroLriiani District I Hardware Store—2021 2023 Second Ave. __ *■ - ■■■ ■■ = Kl . ^ Ex-Premier's Son In Fight , Athens, July 10.—(Special.)—Party feel „ in«? between Venezelist and antl-Venezel- l|f ' 1st factions was punctuated here by an exciting street fight between Lieut. So- j ■ phocles Venezelos, son of the late pre * mier, and Lieutenant Byzantios, son of J ! a prominent anti-Venezellst. After an ex- j! ' change of verbal blows, Bysantios struck j : Venezelos, and there was a prompt re i sponse. Army officers separated the pair, j : who. were both arrested but promptly re • leased. 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