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mo AMERICAN. , VOL XXVI. T l r vg nrn i TtflHIilN & CO. . ... . Ai -AIM ' C BHt..i.B Feed A- Produce .Wcrckaat. , BAY, 0118, COSS, SBAN AKJ) ntTO BTUTT, JTO.B S0V7B JUSKCJ STBES7, vinnrtrtf?. - d - TENNESSEE Jan3-tr Sfc.,SHKHKarIan rass Seeds, .'.o i mra vrnnrarian Grass Beolt, fcr tale br 300 TIMTC M'T.ATinm.TM flft Potatoes, Potatoes. TUST received per steamer Nashville, 100 barrels eit a Nr JAHES McLAUailLATt it CO., JtnS2-tf bo. 8 Market street JLui'd, JLnrd, L.ard, JJ8T received per steamer Nitthvilir, a choice lot of Lar In SO Ibi km. For family use, for salt hy JAMES McL VCOHLtN fc CO., Jan23-tf N. 8 Market rtreet. Flour. Flour. Flour. TU8T received per tteamer Kasnvlllt, 200 bap Extra Family juour. lortaie tj JAMES MCLAUGHLIN 00., - JtsO-tf No.BHarketstreet FLO U It. I FLOTJiL QT!kBA08 Double Extra ranIlyriocr,aperlM Whit J J JF i ut received, and for aale by JAMES MCLAUGHLIN CO., rsarl7-tf Ko. 8 Market street. HAITI', UAITIS. LBB Hams. Just received aid for tale by JAMES M'LAUGHLI &C0., Ho. 8 Market street. 5Sto SIDES AND MIODLDEKS. 1 i CCC. MS Bidet and Shoulders, Just received I anJfor saleby , . JAMES MrLAUQLIN & CO:, snarl7-lf Ko. 8 Market street BOLTED ItXEAti. - -".-"I. BAGS Bolted Meal, in tusScltaf, fcr family use, J .....n .ninrTV l. in In. r..tTnf ,nrf fnr f lie xaarl7-lf No-8 Market street BRAN AND SIIIPSTUFFS. T4TiK BAGS Uran and Shlpstnfls, jt received sad for aale by JAMES M'LAUGrLIN & CO.. msrl7-tf Ko. 8 Marketrcet'ti COUN, COKK. ff jfTk BAGS prime yellow and Mixed Corn, Juit rewired and far sale br JAM ES M'LAUQIILIN tc CO., Ko. 8 Market stres Jaarl7-tf JjARD, XjARD. KE03 prime leaf Laid, pot p for family uso in &J J in u iesa, j on reoeiTeu ana lor tale by JAMES H'LATJGULIN & CO. narI7-U Ko. 8 Market ttreet Hams, flams. ffnnft CnOIOE HAMS, Jott recrfvel and for aale by OU U li JAS HcL lUGHLIK UCO. fcbl4-tf Seed Corn. BACKS Eeed Cora In the Ear, for aale by JAMES M'LAUGHLIM & CO., 500 b5-lf FICESIX iUEAti. TTJ8T recelTed and for ta!e 100 aekt Frnh Corn Meal by J AS McLALanLIN & CO. janG-tf Ko. 8 fcutli Market ttreeU 1IA.V, HAY. QArt BALES Timothy and Hadrian Iliy, jut releirtd WVr ana lor tite cy JAMKB M'LATjGBLIK & CO., mar7-tf Ko. H Market urect. OATS. tZ(( BCBHELS prime Red OiU, JnttreceiTed and for JAMES MCLAUGHLIN & CO., Fioi;ir. EDL8 Bnpercne, Extra, Family, and Ext-a Family, f In ttore and to arrire u ilailrotd and lilter, (or aale on commlssUn ty WATTS &. CO , letsu-ir Ko S Ortadw&y T71XTRA fine White aad DlneKrihannck Potatoet.jait reoclr 2J eJ per Oen- Acdensti, for tale by marl4-tf BEH J t SHIELDS Ai CO. DIVIDEND. THE Tenneee Marine an 1 Fire Inrnracee Compan tbliday declared a trmlannal diTidend of tlx del per thare, payable ta tUt stockhollert on demand. A. W. EDTLK K pl3-lw Secret THE STAIC CALLEKY I Daguerreotypes, Aiuorotypcs. MELAINOTYi'ES, piej:eotvpes and photographs. Ko 44, Union Street next doer to tVess' i Thompson!. T. F. SAL.TZMA1V, (LATZ OrilUTOR AT Uronil' GAIXXSt.) HAYING fitted np roomt at above, exclusively for that branch cf bnilnett , It prepared to receive the ladies and rentlemen of Nashville and make fac$lrziU of their faces, In he highest style of the Art. Ko expense hat been spared either n furnishing hit apartments cr procuring the latest and most BproTOd apparatus And materials, and the subscriber confldent lnltvea all who may want pictures ta give him a call, pledging tltfaction In every caae. Tjy ZntrasrenettdoOrWettlto Wessel & Thompson. n-S f. V, BA.I.T5IHA1'- Koticc. nnHE copartnership heretofore existing under the style of J.n I witcs, QiumtoH ec Co. tu this day dlrsolved by mu tual consent. J K Giuxkeor retiring from the lira. JO EDWARDS, J. E. GILKEKS0K, JtHy 14,16(30. K. P. EDWAEDB. JO.XSWAKIM, I. B. IlAKKIt, x. r. xDwiKcs EDWARDS, UAKHIS A: CO., (srccx3oRa to xnwAims, aiixxzton & co.) WILL continue the Wholesale Grocery, Eorwardiag and Csnuniadon business at the cldsUnd,corner College and Church ttreett. jalyl5-tf KISCSTOS Ice Com ipm-S7"- THE undersigned have now on hsnd 4CO0 ton famout EAKE KINGSTON ICE, nd with such a supply they are reedy to CII all orders. The depots used last season are re-opened, and any orders left at them will receive prompt attention. COKRAD, CHANDLER & CO., Ko 49 South College ttreet. K. B. Particular attention given to filling country orders. merSG-dSm AM now receiving a fine assortment of GAITERS, ROOTS AND SHOES, tax THE SPRING AND SCJDIER TRADE They are of excellent quality and from the best manufxetu rert,and will be oUcreU low lor cath. JOHN A. RAMAOE, Ko. 42 College street. apl!7- SECOND IMPORTATION OF SPRM'a AND SUMMER Are nowrecrivlns their Sbcond Importation 0P THE SEASON FlKurct Grenadines, Embroidered Poplins. Embroidered EaiRlish Bareges' Organdie Muslins, Figured Linen Cambric, Rlnck Mantles, new styles; Mourning Goods. L Embroideries. Heavy Plantation Goods, Eiucns, Domestics, &c, Vc. Tnorarsojv a- co "o ? Ko. S3 College ttreet. aplia tf MEAL AND HBANSi 1? f BAGS extra family (bolted) Meal, 9t f 5 barrel. White Brant, very fine. Kecelved tUsday. andnow oJered lo-jb Philadelphia IWndo CIothlBffi iu roa tskii DATt oxlt.) WE are In receipt or an Invoice cf Coats. Fanti and Vests, of superior ttj les.Khlch are decidedly Cniar. ,ap-tf BK5J PSHIEDStCO. Corn, Hay ;inJ Oats. A SCPEBI0B lot of Corn, Bay and Oat, Jutf rec.Tei 1861 1861 GOODS! fv lorsucaiiow afsrcicy COMBS ti MABTI'iJ. P1JBMC SQU1R. lVaslivillc,- Tcnn. Wliite Stone Ware ! ARTICLE MAM. PAINTED STONE WARE, every article made PRINTED AND COMMON STONE WARE, Everr Article ?Iade. trxsT auticu hapi. French China, Gold Band, White and Fancy Glass Ware, rineit cat and chuipleit preM. SILVER PLATED WARE, best goods made. TABLE COTLEUr, finest quality. Japan Tin Ware, GREAT YA IjO OBZEE3ST Gr C3-31.A.SSHS Every Blxe, Coal Oil Lamps. 4 from SO cents t J 15 each. BEST COAL OIL CHILDREN5 S Cabs and Carriages, SOME VERY FINE. UEFRIGIRATORS & ICE CHESTS; Most approved make WATER COOLERS. AND Ice 3E3ifco32Lox"SJ. Dronzc and Parian Figures. SOME YERT FINK Fruit Cnns, Glass and Tin, most approved. limit CARES, od utsortmcnt BRITANIA AND BLOCK TIN WAKE, WOOD & WILLOW WARE? Honse FurnishlnK ooodnOcaoralir. TOTS Alii, PANCY ARTICLES) 07 USE AND 0BSAMEST In great variety. All of which will he sold 25 rier cent, less A than usual, E"or CasiiS erst regi itar prices and usual Umt to JPKOMFT PAYIHU BUYEIMJ Tali tto A U very large and- contplete la Variety and Style, J o examli aUen It lollelted iaa the Wholesale aadBeUimtdt ty If A- UICKS & CO. tsuie Q i-d&w&a N E TV ' C BOP !, !V Garden Seeds ins JUST BEOXIYXSBT STRETCH & J.ORBESi-Druggists, 1 i caxxna coujsz utb'ciios stszitii .. , JCNSlflTINa rail of , bis po polar klndsiaoh at Silver Skin Onion Setts, r Red Wcatlicrflcld, do do, Extra Early Peas, Large Marrowfat do, Valentine Scans! Sugar Parsnip Seed by the pound. CnbbageSccd " ' " Radisksced " " Together with a large variety ta Faneri to which we lnvltt tbl attention of Gardners a?d otkert. WKolesale&Betail CHEAP CASH DRUG HOUSE! iTRETGH & FOSBES, Corner College &. Union Streets, HASHVILLK TEN2TES&EZ. Contitnr Merchant. Rrvsldans. Planters and doee'eath buy- will find it verv mnch to their Interest to call and purchase their goods at the fjucap uasii uriiiruoato oi STRETCH & FOBBES, They have now in ttore and are constantly receiving dlrea from first hand Importers and Manu'actcrert, everything per taming to the Drug rutintxs, encn at Alcohol, United Oil, Turpentine, Tarnishes, Window Glau , Putty, Indigo and Uidder, Ovchlneal, Bird, iieed, Wlnetand Brandiet, Pert Whi'ltiet. Pure White Lead, CasUle Soap, Alum and Glue, Clares and Nutmegs, Garrett'i Rnufft, Tube Paints, Artists Bnuhe), Fine Teat, Sweedish Leeches. Bprings, STRETCH & FORBES; Are also Extensive Dealers In Arubrotj-po, itlclillaotypo, PhotoarapU and Dacucrrcotypc Gooda, AndArtistt' Apparatmand Chemicals cf every description n "'ew York BUIt dapli tated la every instance, at Oott and Car riage. STRETCH & FORBES Also keep on hand the largest and beat stock of TrusccB and Supporters ever offered In this city. Whatever may be the tire of the pa tient, or the kind of hernia, ho can certainly be tulted by galling at the Corxik or Couiez asd Dmou Bnim wtere can be found a good assortment of Surgical and Dental Instruments, Lace Stockings, Knee Capt, Anklets, kc felAJf BEFORE TAKING THE Elixir AJTEE TAKIKG THE Elixir! DOCTOR RIGHT'S CELEBRATED REJUVENATING ELIXIR! Prepared on the ttrlcteat Pharmaceutical principles by one of the ablest Chemists of the age. THIS It altogether a new medicine, the result of modern discoveries In the Testable klagdem, being aa entirely new and abstract method of cure, irreapectiveof all theoid and worn out systems publlabad by arxcmpUshed ijaacss to the Klftr Ing. Dr. Wrlghtw.U knowing the AicepUon praxtued npotr the uninlUated, felt it his duty at once to have this Kllxlr Jested by the whole Medical Facultr. who, wlthnat even one dissentiBg veice, have given In their adherence to its perfect and undivided control over the whole physical man when his frame has been redHced, and when all other medicines known to the Pharmaeo pceiahave beep tried fa vain. Loog-thought years f Ptent Invesagation, and a. nil deeperandum de'"?LDl?l',"n,1?n? crowned the Doctrr'a edbrts, and he now otters the ElWr to suf fering humanity as me only wang eu.uio ,v..v.-B diseases namely: Qeneral Debility, Mental ana ycysiou uepressioa, Deters llnstion ot Blood to the Head, Oonfued Ideas, Hysteria, General Irritability, Restlessness and Sleeplessness at Night, Absence or Muscular imciencj, Loss of Appetite, Dyspepsia, Emaciation, Low Spirit!, Disorganisation of the Orgaat of Generation, Palpitation of the Heart, And. la fact, all the concomitant! of ancrvoutand dtblUUted title ef the system. As a Stimulant, Ills nulte different from alcoholic preparations. It is not sub lectto reactions In any shape; it continues t exert its innueDM . . . - . . 1 . V. n In... nuWIlfra PT1IU I Or graauai ly anu emcientiy, as iodj um kmi ts presence. As a Fenmlo Plediclne, It Is equally powerful and effective, and restores the equilibrium .. -h.n r ti ,ii, rtthr medicines which for years have flooded the market, and which are only Injurious In place of assisting o- renovaang tae consurauon . iur o .erjr r son, too, that trey are only maae irom me " gnorant o: the Medical profetsien altogether. IV o minerals! t ur.t im.iV. it nvit tn stake his nrofessional character cn the fact, that no mtnrals whatever form the least component parts of the ingredient! of hie Rejuvenating Elixir well know log what ruin has been entailed on the community by opium anil D0erally,to the debilitated. Dr. Wrignt would tay. Never devpair. No natter how worn down j ou may be, no matter how weak you are no maer . -i. j .-'r . . . . . at once whatever has led you to depart from Hygienic principle! take his KcjuYcnailiijr Elixir, And you will soon find yourself a new man a pride instead 1 o the reverse, to your friends, and a healthy, seund, and worthy uember of the human family. irj Price S3 per bottle, or three bottles for $j, and forward ed by mall to all parts of the United States. Sold by all respectable d. uggistt throughout the United SUtet and Canadat. The trade supplied at a liberal discount. Pcrtaleby theproprier.. & SI and 151 Ohartres street, New Orleans, La, Bold in Nashville by 0. W. Hendershott, Berry & Demovllle, wing lr Pendleton, and all responsible dinggitts. oaf OLD SACHEni BITTEUS, AND WIGWAM TONIC. TeP&UP PUBITT AND GREAT MEDIOINAL TIETUB. They are pleasant as nectar to the "'V,"r!X0a00nee!" the best Tonic and Stimulant ever offered to th pubUc. Their curaUv. powers in eases of General DebiUty. Ilt lot Appetite, ConstipVUpn, etc , are uuparalltled, and as teVthat trefeel warranted in claiming what we do, we beg leave to state that our assertions are endorsed rj Prof. MMIOAW, ofYale College. I'g" wine Met. ...DmiW jwnOly. i3fJJirjSt.lS iTalttf -MswYwi. S4-Jy. J lit NASHVILLE, TEKN-j SENT BY EXPRESS ijcHHtv Si. !iiBiisi m mm mfMU !feliMM!Wag8TtlBiyil HI Retailed at Wholesale Prices, Hafle tp pleasure at $18 per doz. I Oil SII FOU KI5E DOLLAIIS, J J Wihout Collars on, with Collars on $2 per doz. extra. : r MADE OF NEW-YORK MILLS MUSLIN, Wjth fine Linen Bosoms, and warranted as good a Shirt .as sold in the retail stores at lifiO each. ,( AIO. THE VERY BEST SHIRTS THAT CAN BE 4. MADE AT $2 EACH. ,v 1 7.S. Those who tUnk I cannot mate a pood EMrt for j Hi per doicn are mistaken. Here's the cost of one ; doten $18 fine shirts. ' J 0 yardt of New-Yorlc Mills muslin atl4Xc per yd. J4 S5 7 yards of fine Linen, at Mc. per yard, 8 60 Miking and cutting, ...o W0 Laundry, 1; buttons and cotton, 56c 1 ft) Profit........ .7 ..85 .1 Total , US CO Self Measurement for Shirts. Printed directions sent frea everywhere, and so easy ( to understand, that any one can take their ownmeasura i forehlrts. I warrant a good fit. The cash to be paid to i the Express Company on receipt of goods. ' j The Express charges on on dozen Shirts from New- j York to New Orleans is $1. . P. E. PARTIES WISHING rfHIBTS IN HASTE, cot having time to tend for Bules of Measurement, should tend per malt, prepaid, one of the best fitting shirts they have got, stating any alterations that may be required. S. W. H. WARD, from London, 387 Broadway, up stairs, j j Between White & Walker Streets, NEW-Y0BK' U October IS, lSCO-deodly PORTER, JOHNSON & CO. 'XUo only ExclnslTOly "Wholesale DEALERS IN Hats, Caps, Bonnets & Straw Goods IX TTIS CITY, Ko. 51 Pnbllo Squares NASHVIIiliE, - WEare'nowreceivInEaEdopealng an entirely new stoct: of Sprlnc and Summer CJoods, which we are offering with superior INDUCEMENTS to sou tor uabu or to Prompt Bayers on our usual time, and we assure them WE WILL make it TO THEIR UTXKISI to call au ciarims out before purchasing elesewhere TntTBnM . . UaAfia)VaU PV marl7-tf B B. S. WELLEB, SB., WORZOt IX COPPEB, TIN AND SHEET 1BO.T airs rzALXx in Agrlcwltural Implements, FIELD, GAHBBN, AND jyiAfivssifc .ssao, ALSO BULBOCS BOOTS OF ALL VABIETIE8, 2To. 53 South Broad Street, NatltOU. p.fi. Booflfniand flutterlngln Copper and Tin In the most superior styles, In town aud country. Peck, Smith b. Co. s Tin ners' Machines and Band Tocls for aale. mbSl tf. JfASHVIEEE COJUttEnCIAlj INSURANCE COMPANY, CAPITAL 100,000 1 ALL PAID IN. Omct at io.26,eorrurcf Cedar ttreet and Pvblie Square, KTILL tak risks against Loss or Damage by Fire en Build 's' inn. Gcoda. Wares and Merchandise generally. Also, on Shipments against lost or damage by Seat and rivers to and from all points. v ... ALSO lulls on negroes against me umpn oi mini niBECTOBS. Aixx. Fail, W.T.Bnar, AiiTHOirr W. Vajilhx, JonwH.Ewur, Jobw KiRDtut, HC8H McCaiA, Jakzs Woods, Josrra EdwaIim, B O.McXaiet, IutMoioa. W, H. EvAira: ALEXANDER TALL, President Jaxh Waito. Sec etary. auglT. 40 Pnlillc Sqiinre, Nashville. IMrOSTEKS AVD TirALEES IS FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC DRY GOODS. Are now receiving and opening thsir staak of Bpriag Coo making their assortment full and complete, mart-dim HUHTSVIlLE HOT EE, HUNTSVILLE, ALA. mniS House is new open for the accomodation of the Public m Tne rooms are an urge, wen ,aimw,i .............. the best style with newsnd beantiiul furniture and carpets. TbePubllc Booms and nails are lightedby Oas. The Ladies and Gentleman's Parlort are furnished In a splen did and luxurious style, comfortable and inviting. THE TABLE t..it , .it Tim.. ... .nrnltpd with evervthlns a good home and foreign market cod afford, and having In my employ good and exprienced cooks and table tervants, every thing shall Le pre pared and seriea in ue Desi manner. THE BAB fnrnLW wllh cU and excellent Liaoort and Wines, com prising all the most popular brands, both native aud foreign growui tonnnectea wiui mis ruuk bjjicuuw BILEIABD SALOON I contiinlcg three fine tables, affotdinj a pleasant and healthy Kveiythlng inmypoaer shall bedone to make the guettt ef the House comionawe. febl dim. JOHN P. LEE, Superintendent Envelopes. Envelopes. CONFEDERATE STATES FLAG ENVELOPES. BUTTON &. FBAEIGII, LATS W . M. IITJTTON at CO. CORNER OF SECOND AND ADAJIS STREETS, inE.ni'iiis. Soiuctuinc N yve. Good, Heat, and Keally Handsome. No mere straight lices.like a straljht jacket on an Envelope.but i BEAUTIFUL FLAG Gracefully Flowing- to tlie Brocxe, Wlthroom oi. he upper right hand corner.not only fcr astampbat 528F0R MERCHANTS AND OTHERS.- Every Merchants should order ore or two thousand; Hotel Keepers twice tsmany; Sieamboatrcen a bushel of them; Banks andltaiiroads as many as they please,anu,as EVERYBODY WILL WANT THEM. We shall 11 orders on the principle of FinST COME, FIBST SEBVED." PRICES. Confederate H,g Envelope, without Card, per 1000. tJOO vith Card, ia,WJ ALSO, Tj-tter Heads, ner auire..- --..TS cents Note Heads, --50 In quantities less than 1000, 25 per cent additional. "Aitlr.A r,tlv attended to. These Envelopes are printed only at the Great Southern Pub- lishing and Job rnnung iisiaoiiuuucuk u HUTTON & FRELIGH, Second ttreet.near corner of Adams, adjoining Calvery Ohorcb, Memphis, Tenn., wnere Deiier wwi u u JOB PBINTINC EEVE Than eLewhere!n the South. ALSO, Printed In colors, on white silk. aplS-tf CESTtEMKN! ZEUTZSCHEL FASHIONABLE BOOT AND BEOl MAKER Confined exclusively to GENTLEMEN'S W E AS, NO. 20 UNION STREET Kainvlllc, : : Tennessee He solicits patronage. HE WABBASTS SATISFACTION' apI3-dly FIVE'.SnOOTEKS. A N invoice fer sals cheap, by aplSO-tf BENJ. E. SHIELDS : CO, PBIVATE TUITION. Tt B. D. WEIGHT wUbes to devcte a portion f th 4y 9 to glvinr private Instruction in aun, uira,inw a thtmatlcs, music, c. Booms over the Post Office, fSSMXO-lB tPiIIB 2 m SUNDAY, MAY 19, 8e Sas&iJe Km xnfo wmm Sallrts; TrI-WeeKly S5j Wcpkly 12. Rates ot AdYertlslHflr. TXH tlKEa OB US? CONBTITXTTK A SQTJABX. IX BE DAILY. One Insertion, 1 Weak 2 - 1 Monti), 3 Z B 12 91 GO 300 4 50 GOO 9 60 12 00 IS 00 5 00 Each additional Insertion, Each additional square, SO. 1 SO S 00 00 50, oa. 00 10.00 BSSXWABLE AT PLEASBXI. One Square,' on year. 139 Each additional Square, 9 10. dTertlsem excccalB'trtbe apace ceatractedi lor, will be charged for tbe exceis. IS TBB WEESXT. On Doixajl cer So uare for the first, and Eiitt 0m for each subnquent Insertion. Adrertlsemtnts published In both the Dally and weekly, wu e charged the full dsilr rates with one-half the weekly rate added. IranHentAdvattUmenlMmuttl oald far at tkt time of iattrtUm. SPECIAL NOTICE. ThaUmo akd Axxhcax ie tonSMd ti ttridty upon te Casb tyttem, Mlpapert are diteontbt uedattAe tapiration of the Urn for wMchthtS hMtbem paid. Subtaribtrt xeill ta notified ishtntheir tvltsrlption it about to emire. bv a exosi slisjc on UctV vaDert: and un-' Uti the tubteriptUmit renewed the 'paper will be diiconlin- vea. iiutte a rule from tsAtcA Ifure wui oe no aepanure, WaicA for the cross mark, and renew four tabteripUon. Weekly Uxiox aid Asuxica ft per annum in advance. TH-Heekly Uxiox ajid Aw" S3 per annum in ad' vanee. lit Subscribers desirln z their papers chanted must mention the Pott Office rem, aswellasthe one ti, which Ussy desire the ekange to be made. ' THE SOTJTHEBN CAUSE. Intereitlnff Cerreipeadeace. Iiom the New Orleans Picayune. The corresDondence which follows, has. been placed at our disposal by a merchant of this cityj to whom the opening letter was addressed, by a gentleman in business in the city of New York. The reply was not prepared with a view to publi cation, but by the consent of the writer we hare been permitted to give .it to tho public through our columns. It will thus more certainly reach the correspondent than if it were committed to the keeping of President Lincoln's mails, and, may poa sibly be of some service in other quarters, in stat ing the principle of action, and the purposes of the South on their true basis. Wabbej? Street, New Yoiur, April 30, 1861. Ttuir Sir: I take the liberty whica an early and cer- tnlnlr a verv Tileasant acquaintance would seem to give me, to ask you for information on a few topics which are now oi tue iiiguesti uuvrcat m iuo uuu ing portion of our population. I am quite certain that our Southern brethren have been sadly, even recklessly misinformed in relation to the true feel ing and wishes oi ixorinem peppie vowaru weiu. I see, therefore, the probability tltat we may be actiDg under the influence of exaggerated accounts, and similar misapprehensions. It is better for a man to be uninformed than misinformed, becanse the uninformed man acts, at least, without preju dice, and is a Blave to no error. I would, therefore, like to ask you. or some other candid Southron, the following questions : First Is it tho wish of the majority of tho solid, sober thinking men of the cotton States to leave this Union and form a Confederacy by them selves? , , Second la, or ia not, the present position of tho cotton States the result of misguided passion, or the act of the demagogues, po-operating with the irresponsible portion of your population? Third Ia there really a latent but terrorized Union party in your midst, who secretly regret the present condition of things in the cotton States? Fourth Have tho cotton States, m your judg ment, any grievances which may not be redressed under the constitution of the United States, through the action of Congress and the Federal Courts ?. Fifth Do the people of the cotton States, the in telligent and thinking people, I mean, really be lieve that it is the purpose of the present Adminis tration, or of any rcspectvbla portion of the North ern States to interfere with slavery in any State where it is at present guarded by law ? Sixth In what important particular would the cotton States be benefitted by a separation from the Federal Union? Seventh Do the intelligent people of the South believe that we of the North have courage, constan cy and fidelity, or do they believe that thatiron race who bore the revolutionary flag from Bunker Hill to the Plains of Abraham, and from thenco to the bloody field of Yorktown, kave diminished to three quarters of a century to a horde of poltroons and drivelers? I have not cast a vote since the death! of the incom parable Benry Clay. I have been simply a "Joker on in Venice." 0 wing allegiance to no party organ ization, and absolved from all political obligations, am. and have been, lormany years in a. position to look at things aa they are. I have arrived at these conclusions. Tho people ot tne tsouin nave been madly, criminally misinformed in relation to the true designs ana ieeung oik iu peupiu ui mc North. This has been done by the Southern press and by Southern demagogues, in witholding from the Dublic mind things that are true, and substitu- tingtheretor tne tmngs wnica aru saisc. mtuuu their instrumentalities they have been led to be lieve that the so-called Black iiepublican party is an Abolition party, and that uiey sougmpower oniy that they might invade the rights of the Southern States, and interfere with their State institutions. The Southern people also have been led tt believe that on the questions oi union ana uunsuiuuuu no ii. is, there was a strong party at the North, who would aiu anu encuurajje uicpcupic m " their endeavors to break up the Union. The New York Herald and the New York Evening Express have done much toward disseminating thisfalso theory. All these suppositions, accusations and theories are wnouy unirumiui. There is not in all the Northern, Eastern and Western States five thousand Abolitionists, all told; and this fanatical band, small aa it ia. embraces all the wry-visaged, vinegar natured old maids, wo men's rights men and women, old, rickety, broken down, savage philosophers and politicians.there are in a population 01 nineteen millions, una iuucu, rotten, superannuated mass of fossils never .once. nnt ovpn mice, have votea wuauie uiaos. liepuuu- cans. The Black Kepuoncans come in always ior their maledictions with an emphasis, uy "aoou T!;err " f msnn those who would ,if they could) abolish slavery in iho District of Columbia, and in terfere With thO insuiuuon m uiw oe.ciai it U authorized br law. No Republican, na Democrat, no fair and honest man, at the North, seeks any such thing, or would tolerate it. No man who has any respect for treaties, for promises, or for Written obligations, couiu toieraie . ueau t Tinrth admit that tho Southern States have all the rights they had when they came into the Confed eracyneither less nor more and we all say that the South shall be protected in tho possession of all these rights. In striKtng prooi oi au mis, wiwe an instance in Maryland only a week ago. While v,o r.i, VgBMphnaetta Kesriment were marching through Maryland to Washington, under Gen. But broueht that the slaves m Anne i -!,,qni nnnntv had risen. Gen. Butler at once of- frrcdhis regiment to puttnemaown. nuu him, mm.i rmi. was a Massachusetts regiment, a tjtate where lilacs uepuQimaauiu ia uiai. uiu oi.o.han. nt the North. And all this, too, after the Massachusetts men had been told by South Carolina that no quarter would he given mem. xne emirs n,i ripart of the North are, sound on all Un questions of constitutional right to all tho States, whether North or South, and they are now, so far as I know them.determincd that all those rights shall be maintained! that the umnnmustanusuau uC1ite served, and that not a single letter of the present ,;,, irv ot,ll hf. altered unless bv the act of the UIIBUIU..v. - whole Dcople, as the constitution men pruviue. These are the doctrines of Jefferson, Madison. Aion- - r-io- ,nA .Tar.Vnn. Tho rjeonle of the JNortn VJI-J .' . , . - ..... J . ....I nnH tho. will now see thai uiesc uireuuics prei.u, ou the glorious republio which they formed shall go down to our children perfect and unimpaired. An impression has prevailed at the South, that in case of an appeal to arms, tho sccedcra would have a strong party at tho North, which, if it did not furnish them troops, would at least be strong enough to prevent the trovernment irom putting uu we T thnnirht so. too. until Fort Sumter fe'l. But that affair was the signal for a resurrection of patroitism at the JSortn, as reiresning as n was un expected. It united us as one man. All party ties n fa earomtn sll nartr ohliuations are forgotten we ..anno Th nniversal sentiment ia that the Go 7- ..-mant- 5a iirht. and it phall be sustained. And' it will ho anabiined triumphantly. There can be but ;..n in triUp.anseless.unholv. unrighteous, vin dictive war. Already one hundred thousand men tA Mtifiow fliTnl. Manv of them have gone forth to stain their hand with fraternal blood and all of them feeling that their causo is just, ana wsi js sua u prevail In less than four months the North will place in the field half a million of men and all for The causes which have producsd this unity of feeling here are these : All nortnern men Know that thellepublican3 have no unconstitutional designs on tho rights of the South nor do they believe that the Benjamins, the Yanceys, the Rhetts. of the foollv tViinV thpv have. All Northern men now believe that this rebellion would have broken out if either Breckinridgei Bell, or Douglas had been elected. They believe that this outbreak is the result of conspiracy which has been tho roniihlin ever sinco 1S32. Thev believe that the Southern leaders are ambi- J-- - . l .I..,,!.!. ukAllinn tious, dishonest ana ireacucruua m., um iw" rltchollv causeless. They believe that the " Union " is a real blessing, North and South. They believe that the South have no grievances which cannot be legally redressed nM.1n ilia rVmatitlltlon. They believe that the ostensible cause is alto ,ptw too aliriit to justify the overthrow of the .nniSol nf fTnTprnment ever cirento mankind t t, VipIIpvp thpra is a uowerfulSbut terrorized Union party at the South, who secredy invoketha arm of tne r eaerai aumurnj iu rawio defn nroof of this last idea are these facts: ah ir,;npa tmen 'here are constanstly in re ceipt of letters from every county in every State of the whole South, strongly deprecating this seces ainn movement, and praying for a restoration-or Federal authority. Ihave such letters m my pog 8elnV. ,v ,. ritr now hold over $10,000,000 in gold, which has been sent here by individuals r ,1,.., t-mr, hundred Southern families from the South have taken booses in the little citr of Hobo tea, opposite Jie w x our, witmn two wes. 1861. BronH rn h crrpatlr n!iirced story of this kind to telL The influx of this population has increased the price of rents, in this city. . Our. customers frost the West tell us that their .highwaya-are filled withSouthern-cmigrants These facts jteli. their; owntory,and they greauy stimulate uat the North to develope and protect the Union party at the South. This is au unnatural -war. Do vou not- feel it to be such? The playmates and companisns of your youth are ruibing to the battle-field. is arming and equippin a company at his own ex pense, and will command them. gives his only sou, Oneida countr has sent her battailion of 2,000 strong. Qur Etate,and our city are vast camps of' armed men. Onr streets and the spires of our churches are streaming with, flags. On Sun days the exercise in most of our churches are clos ed by'sinzimrthe-"Star Snanzled Bannar." A few days ago,.I conversed, with a member of Governor Sprague'g Rhode Island Regiment. He said he had a brother in the secession army, and tbat'brother was the first traitor he wanted to meet. Sav. ia not this a most unnatural war? It is a war which has developed all the fine impulses of the American character. Is there no "sober, second thought," to modify and restrain these impulses, North and South? Ninety days ago, the North would have given the South all she asked. To-day, the North cays: "The day of compromise is past." trod help our poor, distracted, unnappy country i I have endeavored to' write you about as things are here. May I hear from you? Most truly and faithfully, your friend. New Orleaxs. May 7. 3St Dtac Sir: I have received your very friendly letter of the 30th ult. The anxiety you express for reliable information on the state of public afiaira here, which are so grossly misconceived "in your part of the country, in which misconceptionsyou j appear to nave larguiy suareu, increases mo claims which an agreeable reColleciionof old acquaintance ship gives yon to an early and courteous reply. My opinions ara entirely at your service, and I shall bo very much gratified if they contribute to remove in anv mind, some of the hallucinations which are im pelling the North toa course, which Tmost consci entiously believe to be unjustifiable and wicked. You nropoae a series of seven questions, which you illustrate by comments of your own. I shall not follow them seriatim, but will state such opin ions as shall cover them all, as well as my time will permit. The nrst wree reiaie io uie aiaic oi jjuuuu uiuu lon here. You ask if a majority of the "solid think ing men" of the cotton .States really desire to break up the Union, andiorm.aseparate confedaracy? and you imply the .belief that there is a considerable ..1.,Ar, kf fo.wM.Wfld" TTnlnn nartv horf. "which ia WWU, Ml. -' J . overpowered by political demagogues, practicing unon the "inflamed passions" of tho ''irresponsible" portions of our populace. "This belief has, I amjpersuaded, been the fruitful source of grievous errors at the North. JYeur public men and yourjOurnaiB;uaveisuapea meir poiicy anu their counsels, on the assumption that there is in the cotton Statesa suppressed Union feeling, which requires some Northern support to manifest itself and recover the ascendency in one or more of these States. It is a great delusion. So far aa it has en couraged the exhibition of Federal force as a means j of bringing cacK any one oi mesa cisics, u nas been a very mischievous one. . Whatever there was of Unionism, of any degree whatsoever, has been extinguished by that exhibition. There is no Union ism of any kind, or degree, however qualified, left in this region. There is none in any of the cotton States. The political separation already decreed is made eternal alienation by a unanimous popular feeling. VTo are more widely divided thereby than if an ocean rolled, between us, and we j spoke different languages. This is the state of pub lic feeling now in all the cotton States. It is, I doubt not, spieading so as to become predominant in the border States. Even before this csniDition ot r eaerai lorce, with tho neeomnanvinff demonstrations which made it hateful, there was no Union party within these States worth counting on as an element of political calculation. You liavo been deceived at tne norm if you have been taught to believe that secession was carried by a minority, or that there was any considerable minority who were unconditionally for the Union. I speakfor this State what is true, as I believe, for all the others that, in the conven tion elections, there was no distinct Union party. Alter the 6th of November last, there wero scarce ly any unconditional Unionists in this State. The distinctioni in the canvass and at the polls, was between separate and immediate secessionists on i one side, and co-operationists, on the other, with whom voted the very few who were for Union on j any terms the larger number who were for the Union, provided certain nameu uaramee cuuiu uc obtained by constitutional amendments, and.a con- I sideraMe number who were .for secession alter bettsr preparation, and by concert with tne other slave States. The immediate secessionists carried the day. They were joined m tne convention oy the co-operation secessionists and the contingent Unionists. The secession ordinance was passed five to one, and every other party disappeared. Under the pressure of the menaced war of subju gation from the North, the Southern sentiment has deepened and widened so that there is not a vestige of Unionism. The most uncompromising and deter mined Union haters are the men who were the last to give up the hope of reconciliation. Louisiana is one and indivisible. Nor is your mistake at the North less delusive hxtthia iathe work of demasogueg. acting upon the temporary excitements of an irresponsible popu lace. The revolution in this State came from the "solid, thinking" population- tho men of social position and wealth, and there nerer was a move ment which owed less to party management or party leaders. The impulse came upwards from the masses to meet the spontaneous direction of the mea of substance and thought. Old party lines disappeared, the old party issues were ignored, and old party chiefs disappeared from the field. It was the workot the people. In this I speak of what I know. I was in the con vention myself; and my connection-with these mat ters will illustrate to you the general course of things in this State. There has been no more devot ed friend of the Union than I have been. I was, like you, a follower of the illustrious Clay, but have never, until these questions arose into promi nence, taken any interest in politics beyond that of my duty as a voter. I had no more sympathy than you have with the Rhetts and the Yanneys.to whom you trace the authorship of these discords. I have - .. - . f i l. . 1. n . : . prided wyseii on an occasiuus iu uciug nuoi termed a conservative. The developments of the election of 1S56 startled me out of my security in Northern .conservatism: those of the last canvass convinced me that a-Union of affection and confi dence was no longer possible, and that it wouIJ be beat for both that a separation iu fact and in form should take.-place. What has transpired since de termines me, that anytnmg, ana every ming, is more endurable than the Union of hate which is what the North offers us at the point of the bayonet The process which has been worked upon me is, I be lieve, universal with all Southern conservatives. I do most conscientiously believe that, in the present state of feeling, nineteen-twentieths of the peopled Louisiana would rather seek protection under the French Emperor, than trust to the fraternity of the Nortlj in any political association. I am not reason ing the. question, but state what I think to be facts for your information. This opinion need not ia oe moameu mu iati. that you may have knowledge of families who are leaving the South, and that business men write you melancholy letters deprecating the sta.te of things here. This thinning out of a few only concen tratpu tn Greater intensity what remains. There re, everywhere and always, timid mon who would make any sacrince ior ease, uowever inglorious ; and eelfish.men who see nothing but unmixed evil in whatever unsettles business and reduces profits. It would be irrational to suppose that there are not some men of this sordid cast among us, who vent their discontents or conciliate indulgence, in com plaining letters to their creditors. What I wish to affirm is, that such men. are very few, have no in fluence, and are despised. You cannot reckon upon them for any aid in the recovery of tho lost Union. The solid thinking men and the men of property m tith trip mpn of muscle and sinew, for the total .emanpipatioa of the cotton States from the political association Wlin me j.uruiei-u oui.-. There is another proof that you utterly misin terpret the Southern people, whea you identify the movement of the day aa the fruit of an old conspi racy against tho Union, commenced thirty years ago in South Carolina I might easily retorr, and hnw with color of truth, that the North is now banded to consummate the designs against the South which originated auite as Ions aao, with the Garri sons and that sort, who are now tho guerrillas of the grand army marching at the same end. nut i choose to confine myself to tho remark, that the affiliation of so many States with the class which lave been so long marked out among ourselves,.fr avoidance because .disunibnists, is a fact of no small moment, in considering the, position of the South. So long as there was a conservative power in uie North sustainine us in the hearty support of the constitutional Union, we could laugh at these few men. and nut them down at ths polls. The spread of their opinions kept pace with the decay of that Northern support. The men have grown into con fidence as the proofs accumulated that they were far-sighted. Even if their motives were as we thnnfht them, we have been made to respect them as prophets. It is not by them, or their doings, but by an irresistible current of events that we have all been brought up abreast with the men whom wo might still be holding to have been rash politicians, if they had not been made leaders of hosts by the J -I r .1. - -v'-.t. rasnnes8 ana ouEuuacj ui uwiwiw. I have, with some prolixity, I fear, endeavored to satisfy your inquiries into my epinions on tho state of feeling in the cotton States. I desired, however, to be explicit. The old Union is not only renounced, but I mijtht say, without exaggeration that it is hated. The desire for independence is intense and universal. The determination to support it is fixed; and the ida that you can suppress it by your armies is rejected as an impracticable chimera, and the at tempt ta do so as revolting wickednesj. This being the condition of the public mind South, the why, that it i so, is but a secondary matter in the momentous question ot war which you threaten us from tho North. Wo hold that what we have decided upon with. so much solemnity and resolve, you: have no. moral right to oppose. We believe with all the great founders and apostles of Ameri can freedom that .all just powers of government flow from the consent of the governed, and that a people has the right to alter its government, &n4 to establish new ones whenever it shall decide that happiness or security demand the change. We claim to ba it people with the right and the capacity to judge for onrselyes. Wa .are now ta; fctatcs, soon to he eleven, perhaps fourteen, with certainly Six millions of free, whites, who have agreed with entire, unanimity that their .happiness and CSV xequird a new form ot government. Eight of them have already formed one, and putit into operation with entire harmony among themselves. Tlie- reft will follow. Is this' deliberate judgiaeat of a na-1 uon or- six millions or five mulioas not to. be? re tpectedt Who that respects the principles whica J!13tmed the Amnnxin Dn1nt!i, . n.t (,1m oo embodied w the fundamental laws of nearly evyj can question tho right to maka-.thaf governseaorl can .hear arms to suppress ft without laying" crime! upon his soul? lTsecessioawere Indeed a heresyJ it,w.Vw.. - and me right or revointloi ought, in this country at least, to be conceded to th. unquesiioueu ui oi a, unanimous peopla. In aucuiyi, iu tiiuiiuau, iu. oiooa, the liberty of circle of populous, homogeneous States, to choose their own form of government, more revolting in America than it would be in th3 oiaer countries wuwro ucsjuura om pree crips tire rights of antiquity, of long usaee. and thi necessities of arbitrary power. Here it is a crimil nal apostacy from the faith whereby there is any4 thing encouraging to humanity in American frec-t dom. j We mightrast our Southern cause here, on thet simple fact that independence is tne declared will of such a. numerous neoDle. and that they alone an judees of tho reasonableness of their decision There would be no value in tne. rigat oi esuousunj new Governments if it were subordinate to tbi ludcment of those from whom we separate. It is HlATlRh riwtTinp f hl thorn n,-p rtn nirhtS entllletl be respected which there is a. hostile power strong enough to overthrow. If you could, by the merd power of brute numbers, overrun, "hold, occupjj and possess" these States, or, a3 your fiercer 'pat triots are threatening at the' head of your mobs.- if you could "wipo" us "out of existence," yoix woul4 only obliterate the title deeds to your own liberties and possessions, and enable tho first demagogue who can summon up the same mob spirit to writs himself your master in-letters of blood. I As between government and government, people and people, we may not permit our right to sciC- government to be questioned. But in the forum of T 1 . i , cuiiacieiicB n can ampijr jusuijr ourselves, ana are content to abide the candid judgment of thf wunu. With this reservation against any -risht of iuris- diction over us, I will proceed to notice the topics included in your fourth, fifth and sixth' inqui ries. They imply, with your comment, that tha Sonth has no grievances for which the Constitution of the United States, through tho Consreas and the Ourts.did not provide a, remedy, and, that it is a delusion to suppose that the present administration of the federal government, or any considerable por tion ot the Northern people unfriendly to the South; and you want to know how we would be better oT out of the Union than in it Not to argue a case, but to state facts and conclu sions, the response to these news may be found in these two propositions: j The Southern people have been brought to tne immovable conviction. (1st,) that their understand ing of their rights within the. Union, under the con stitution of the United States, is widely different from tho understanding of them by the whole pe6 ple of the North ; and (2d,) that there are no mearjs within their reacn as members ot the union oy which their understanding of their rights can be established beyond dispute in the interpretation of the constitution, or be made to prevail in the admin istration of the Government. The inevitable deduction from these propositions 13 that the Government to which they were a party has failed, as to them, to answer the chief rules as for which governments are instituted, and they are compelled by & sense, of duty to themselves and their posterity to seek safeguards for' imperiled lib erty and property in new and better forms. ; It is not within the scope of your inquiries, nor the objects of this letter to open so wide a field as the debate on the strength of the facts and reasons which have brought the people of the fcoutn to these conclusions. We should be arguing in a circle coming always back to the same point of irreconci lable difference, that we have two sorts of civili zation, Qof which ours is distastetul to you, and treated by the best disposed among you, as an evjl, to be tolerated only until some way can be found upon which you are not yet agreed, to getrtd of it. With us it is a necessity and. a vitality. We sustain and defend it; and we cannot tolerate tne assumption of supremacy, accompanied by the power, to make itself felt in every lorm of discour agement, proscription and enmity. The end of; and the only use of, such debates is to manifest the in compatibility of these two civilizations to be bound together by the tie of a common government When you aver that it is possible, you assume much that we will never sum it. And zirinzyou full credit for your sincerity in your belief that the people of the North do not mean to invade any of our rights, as they under stand them, permit me to say, that tho distrustof the people of the South is not to be conquoredTjy the assurances of tho credulously hopeful against the mass of testimony which shows tha North to be embodied against them. Your-construction of the constitution denies us essential right, your theory 1 of its powers leaves us entirely at your mercy,,and your people have been trained up for a whole gen eration to look upon us aa inferior culprits, Wh6m it is a high moral duty to reclaim lrom too damning state of terror in which they live, or punish for contumacy in sin. You give us no reason to believe that you yourselves think that a constitution could tt fiamed; under which, with our convictions, of cur necessities, we could -live with the sense of securi ty. You insist on perpetuating the bond which we complain of as galling. It ia with your people, their own constitution, for themselves. They will have that and no other. The power of amendments is obsolutely in your own hands, and any change that would givo ua even the paper promise of justice, must come from your grace. There was a chanc;, I will not say how good, of retaining the border States, at least, by concessions from power to poll-' cy. The conservative power, residing in tho r)ro vision for amendment when the exigencies of nsw relations should show them necessary to )he safety of the Stats, was suppressed In your hands. You chose to enconter the hostility of tho Border States in addition to the declared separation of tho cotton States, rather than oven consider the point of yield ing anything to the universal sentiment of the South. The war of opinion was thus proclaimed bv yourselves as inevitable. The certainty of separation and the risk of war were preferred to the abatement of any portion of the Northern re pugnance to Southern society. Against powers so selfishly clutched, and relentlessly held, what relief is therein the unmeaning promises of good Inten tions, which amount to nothing more than irrespon sible promises to be merciful to the vanquished. These are not terms which free men can live under. If this ba the service which Northern conservatism offers us, we will have none of it It was not pow erful enough to prevent the election of Mr, Lincoln aaainst the unanimous protest of the South, support ed by his record, that he was offensive to theml for his declared opinions and political affiliation with their bitterest enemies. He hadavowed sentiments which are abhorrent to them, andaignifled purposes which are destructive. He strengthened their re pugnance by taking into his counsels the men who are notorious for unrelenting hostility to Southern slavery, and the most ultra schemers for overthrow ing it His chief Cabinet officer is the Senator from your own State, whose whole career has been de voted to the cultivation of tha most rancorous feel ings against us: who rose to high stations by virtue of" his radical abolitionism, and. who is pledged in every lorm by which tha honor of a public man can ba pledged,, to work for the abolition of slavery everywhere, with no other intermission than that imposed by his declared policy, to bide his time, in order to make his efforts more certainly successful. This arch enemy is presented to us of late as the type of moderate Republicanism, and you yourself are apparently surprised that we do not trust these men, and that we should even suspect them of mean ing harm. Jt is, a portent, to the significance of which the people of the South are fully alive, that there is an abolitionism, of which Sewardism is of ffered as a compromise, and a conservatism of which Ldncolnism is prouered as tne emogaimenu . And when you refer us to Congress and to the federal courts, as sufficient bulwarks for us,, you overlook, unintentionally without donbt, the fact that Congress, under .the influences' which have made the whole North one anti-slavery combination, will in due time shape Congress, as it has shaped the Executive. You. forget that it is your Prosi dant's doctrine that Congress Is not bound to respect Uie judgment of courts, and. that he has declared if he were in Congress ho would not respect them himself in a case involving the equal rights of sla very. Besides, courts themselves ere transitory, and your Congress can remodel them as threatened, and thus get decisions of another sort; or your Presidents can, in due course, make new judges, who will place the same courts against us. Such is on the programme; and all within the forms of the constitution, which you claim to be unchangeably in your interest Against these infinite capacities for aggression possessed by those whoso unfriendly feelinss are so conspicuous, it is almost a mockery to offer us as inducements to an absolute submission, the mere hopfulness of well meaning individuals, that all these things may mean nothing, after alL But the incidents of the last'.three weeks hv dis posed for ever of the fancy that there was vr any thing in Northern conservatism to be relied upon in a day of peril. Your President, with shameful perfidy and incomprehensible folly, instituted vio lent measures for the destruction of Southerri inde pendence. When he was repulsed, the whole ortn sprang up with a howl of vindictive passion, and clamored for a war of vengeance and subjugation. The most conservative became as bloody minded as tho moat veteran Abolitionist. Pickinson ; and poug lasare more savage than Wendell PhP,3?'"-moreand-Everettnot more tolerant tJian Snmner or Cassius 2L Clay. I know not wnat are use. facts in regard to the instances you quote ' of Massa chusetts' consideration for slaveholders d urmg the late conflicts in Maryland, nor how farthe PW dealing tenderly with a dangerous peopla, whomit was policy to UrSaSSK supposed acts. Ba'phWy'the fierce passions timony borne tojy. couatry. in which S has non'a-vdes raised ftr truths mnC:r ntfaickensat tha barbarities denounced Bm .hSth by lips which have been used, aWSVm for some party aid, to protest how when pleadin? for somep SilSwS screamfor tho blood of every raanf uS'tho ?ct of defending hU native lan, anif orttorier, confiscation and the name ess hor-and-iorjm' , fi f Qr fg J0nv S? oi er aTana8of which the people wiU not recog rdzeit as theirs. Your own city furmshes forth, as Sstrumentsfor this wicked war, a regiment of Sradoes; notedbecauio they have committed innumerable crhnes and are supposed to be capable of the greatest villainies-wretches whom ydu fear at home and launch out, with their whetted kni ves. n-.n tha women and children of the South. Your . conservative merchants open their purses freely to equip these miscreants ior inn wore oi uucTiug au slaughter; and your Christian preachers give it their pious benedictions. And this is done in a "conservative" city, in the nineteenth century, m a conflict of which there is now but ona elssaav NUMBER 43 whether people kindred to yon shall be let alone ia the possession pf their own property and the pro tection of themselves. : -iTBigfethea-pjrcofa raprooia of this sort, which. occur now cicr uaj.wnicn nave satisfied the moat 'doubting that it was well done to detach ourselves in time from associatitn with a people which gives iU conserva&nf up at once so utterly, before the clamors of a furious mob. That sss8:coawrvtiarasurrender3 as calmly to the tyranay o the Government as to the blind f ary of the mob. Your President calls out armies ts sub jugate States, institutes blockades, stops commerce, by his sole fiat, and kindles the flames of civil war, without -warrant for these acts, in any part of yoar caastitution. If ha were, not ministering to a popu lar frenzy, too wOd to be controlled, he would ba denounced aa a lawless tuurper, who is trampling ,, , .1 f . r M : j- vn au uivu nguui mux uio uut, ut. uuwjkj. uie- tstor; But this is your affair, not ours. Jf yon at the North are content from your vindictive feel ings towards us to submit to this, nay, to rejoice over it, it is not for us to endeavor to instruct you that there is no safeguard left for your own prop rty and rights. "We "find in them na w justification for our forjsight in separatingoursaIv8s from sueh associations. Your inquiry, in what mav we expect to do better without thelNorth4s already substantially answered. We cannot do worse than live under such a doasLaa tion. At worst, it would be better to die in the open fields, with arms in our hands, than 5e smothered in ths dark in tho houso of treacherous friends But we shall not die, and we cannot be conquered. WehaveallthemateriaU for erecting a strong and stable government We are cured of the ambi Uon of having a splendid government The expe rience oftoBUtaunionhawartuagtolaatusfor generations against the lust for, grandeur. We want to return the sunpta republican virtues of the old time, which have-been-totaUvlostin the infinite corruptions generated at Washington by Northern politics. We shall lave few laws few esubliah mentSf light expenditures, no jobbing and homo geneous and contented people. All this" is "possible, and the only obstacle which we find is in your enmity. The unreaaoning North declares to us that Southern independence cannot .stand, and shall sot stand against the physical power which can be precipitated upon us. Their pride revolts at permitting us to go away from them in peace. They rave as though it u a disinor to their flag if they shall not keep us under tfceir government by force; and you yourself appear to have yielded to the same impulse for domination, when in your last inquiry- yon desire to know whether the people of the Sonth actually think tha people of the North to have dwindled from their ancient renown, to be "poltroons, and drivelers." The only sense in which this ia to be understood, is that, in your opinion, to consent to the -peaceable withdrawal of these States would be ignominious to the North. In other words, it is a matter of pride at the North, to show that they are our masters. This is the same assertion of the right of command over inferiors which we had to resist within th Union, and which drove us out of it We decided that it is better to meet it with free limbs, as an in dependent paopls. than to struggle against it; m&ns cled by forms which were used to weaken us. If you will carry it out, between people and people, we are better off aa we are ior asserting our equal ity. But we reasoned, that if there be any sincerity at all in tha plea so often presented to us, that it is not dominion over us which yon wanted, but the clear ing of your own consciences from the responsibility of slavery, and removing it entirely beyond the Government of which you are part, yon would be constrained, after the first burst of disappointment in the loss of political power is over, to see that it is best, on your own grounds, that we should t art in peace, u you act otherwise, and lnnict war vpon us, because we withdraw slavery entirely froci your jurisdiction, you confirm us in our belief of your insincerity and unfriendliness, and of the wisdom of taking our own protection upon oursslres. But we have reasoned further that our total separation from you removes some of the fuel which has kept up the anti-slavery excitement among you. Slavery-can na longer be pretended to be a domestic question with you. It can no longer have the controlinz place is your domestic politics. While the South was within your government; your demagogues had a theme on which they- could debate, and rouse the populace to a frenzy before Which the timid men of thought gave way in hope lessness, or to which tho ambitious pandered for power. By use of it, they got control of immtcso revenues, fat jobs, and good offices. There was. no hope for this rage of anti-slavery petitions to ctssa whilst there was the South to be- cruelly expiri mented upon, or an intersst of slavery left, widen could be offered up a sacrifice. The rsgo' at our escape from this incessant persecution, shows Low highly we were estimated as the material for party uses. Now that we take ourselves from tho field of your home politics, your demagogues must find some other topics for domestic contentions: The slavery question ia converted into a public one, with another relation one Of war, for subjugation of an independent people, or peace, commerce and friendly intercourse with them. It ought to bo peace. The' Northern conscience ought to be at rest; and Northern partita appeased. If it be otherwise, the fault not ours. It cannot be otherwise without great crime, and the crime is not ours. We .ask to be let alone, and to walk ia the paths of peace, by ourselves. Whatever re sists this by force, or encourage a fratricidal war to suppress our freedom of action, or to punish us with fire, slaughter and devastation for th raakinz of that choice, is a heinous offence against justice, humanity, religion and liberty all that lifts the clvilzation of this continent abova the barbarism of Africa. But of all this we shall be guiltless. Every man in tbe South, if he were marching to his death, may lift "his hands fearlessly towards Heaven, aad say with the calmness of tha great Reformer,. in the presence of a persecuting council, " I cannot do oth erwise, so help me God 1" I had not designed extending my letter to this great length; but my heart is in the subject, and it has grown under my pes insensibly to myself. I have written without preparation, and with entire freedom, conscious of no design to give ofivnee even to your prejudices, but desirous to make, in re sponse to your inquiries, a truthful exposition of tho state of mind at tne South. You may derive from it these conclusions that wa cannot return to the same Government with the .North; wo cannot so live in peace with you we desire to live apart from you, but in peace with you, if you wilt We have no wish, to invade your territory, assail yoar flag, or harm your people. We find no fault with your enthusiasm for the sun and stripes as the emblems of your own Govern ment We are content that you should cherish them and support them with your best blood and breath. But we aro not content, and wo will never allow, that you shall plant them on our territory, as emblems of sovereignty or of conqest over us. We have a country and a flag of our own, to which our affections and our duty are pledged. We shall rally to them unanimously; and, not to speak boast ing ly, but with the calmness of unbounded trust in a righteous cause, not tbe power of Lincoln, upheld by the wild hordes h? CM muster in the North and aided by the lavish contributions of your ingrato merchants, can prevail against us. It is amazing to me that any "solid thinking" man among you should desire to prevail in thia strife. If you could succeed in overruning and subduing the South, your work would only be begun. The hun dreds' of millions which it will hare costypu, in treasure, and the hecatombs of lives, will be but infinitessimal fractions of what It will cost you to "occupy and possess" it. What was won by arms must be maintained by armies. There will be, of course, no more States. You will have obliterated them. You will have inbiect nrovinces under pro consuls, and they must needs be strongly entrench ed to maintain themselves in a hostile country. The quietude of the subjected will be a snare. Unsub dued "rebels" would betike themselves to the swamps, and the passes of the mountains, to wait upon the chances for striking" a blow against the alien oppressor. A generation will grow up taught from ths cradle to hateyouai a robber race, and to dedicate their lives to the duty of avengirg upon you Ue slaughter of their fathers. How long would constitutional forms survive among yourselves under the grinding military rula by which such an undying warfare must.be sustain ed? And how long would it be before the Generals of some Alexander would be fighting for mastery over the fragments of your Republic, and bidding against each other for the help of Southern, swords ? The unerring lessons of history teach that such, would be your fate, if there were not in the inflexi ble purpose and indominatatle courage of the South a power to curb your wicked passions, and save something of constitutions! liberty for the hopes of the world. lTs. SIMS. PRODUCE AND COIMIHISSIOrY tr- MERCHANT, Me. 14 I"Irket Street, XA5HY1XXJS. apU-tf DR. J. J. ABERNATHY, TS neir a rMldrafnf Kaihrlll, and cj'irs his ttrvicea to ths I cUUens of ths city and surronndinsr caantry. jjjEet!denes,No.lO Hisa street OSes en I slsi. sen (7-4613 IU FLAGS'. FLAGS!! Hag eat Tear Banners! T AM now prepared to famish lisp or jivCK apllO tf SPElaastrtot. TINPIsATE ! TINWARE I c4 W of Coal and Wood Cook and ncattnt; 8 jam. Par tor, Ci,oVe?arate,.BP Iren,Zliwi,lrtseJspsrrfsOTn the very best quality. . , Wsars also still maUnj that Jaatly Celebrated. VTreaght ires C'ett Stare, the OTJO HIOKOEt which wtox a; a reduced pries. Call sadswfor yomh Jio. 48 JiertJs Market Street arie-tf p.w. MAxarfcco. HORACE M. XABBI9X; ATTBKJIET AX iAW, Nat 43 dst Strsst, CppotO the Otidia atma,i?A-i, ImntemuJ K-XTJIL practise In lis arrteai Coartt ImM is SMlnKI a W la aVCtoesfj sea ClireH Swrtc X Mi Ml i siWi .