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Daily union and American. (Nashville, Tenn.) 1865-1866, March 30, 1866, Image 1

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A RRINTN A: JAKKAK, Ileal Estate
il na General Agents, No. C8 Pablie Square.
Peelr. Arent. Ho. 3L Colleen fctreefc
A A 1 KKti, JHSH A SMITH, Ileal
instate .A gents, ovtr Jierry's uooKsiore, uoi
lege street.
A ,JWXTH,AA'IKl Ganeral Southern
XV Agent of Wboelers A Wilson'a Sewing Ma-
ciunci, no. t7 -College street.
JJ chant, corner of College ftntl Church street;,
BAILEY, OBBH'AY A- CO.. Wholesale
Grocers nud Commission Merchants, No. 7
Broad street.
13KI.TOX, WHEELER A CO., Dealers in
U Tinners , numbers iiaj-niurr una wpper-
iiersmilhs' Suck and
Market street.
W., Ileal Kstatc Agents,
3SH union street.
RUWNE, JOHN, Merchant Tailor, corner
or Ueadenek street ana ruDlicfeqnare.
(1), WM.. Steamboat Aucnt, corner of
llroad ana l-ront strccu.
AXK, riKNT NATIONAL, A. U. S.tnfsrd,
President. Jos. U. Ogdon, Cashier.
.13 near Union, Jno. Lumsdcu, President, W. J,
"Thomas. Cashier.
rrcsiaent, tvicar Jones, uaeiiier.
II AX It OF THE UNION. A. J. Duncan,
XJ President, J. C. Warner, Cashier. Exchange
Bought and Suldand Copctions made.
I1KOWX, HrrilEKL.tXD A CO., ilan-
Ij ufacturtri of Doors, Sashes, JJlinds, ice, cor,
01 nines ana bwmg streets.
rKOSS A MONO. Variety Goods. Notions.
j Shoes and Hats. 71 Publie Square; np-sUirs.
nORBETT A: BOYI). Steamboat Agents,
j Storage, Forwarding; and Commission iter
chants. No. 21 Front sUupper wharf.
ORNELICN. W. K., V CO- Funeral Un
dertaker. Ko. 49 Church street.
f"10LYAR,A. K.. Lawyer, Colenade Building,
J Ctfcrry street, Itoom Ko. a).
CU'vI'l,lfl J. ck. v.".. iijiuiraiuo
(Irocers and Dealers in lino Brandies, VVinej,
Domestic Liquors, Tobacco, Cigars. Ac, comer of
Col I era and Unurcn street.
1ALLE.MKK & UARKKTr, Ileal Kstato
Agent. No. 41 Cherry street.
lOLEHAN, I I.., Physician and Surgeon,
No. 61 ISorth Cherry street.
1ENTKAL HOTEL, Jones ABriggs, propri
etors. Ko.71 Broadway.
"IUNXKRi JOHN, Ileal Estate Agent,
J Knowlen street. West Jiaanrme.
Office, No. North.
Cherry street.
ONELNON, NAMl'Ll Attorney at Law,
Ho. ouj unerry street, up stairs.
Law, No. 62 North Cherry street.
ll South Side of the Public Square, at the old
t'iclm! stand.
17'VAXH, 1'ITi: A CO., Wholesale Dealers in
111 Foreign ami American Dry Goods, arietios,
iloots. Shoos, Hats an! Iletuly-mado Clothing,
No. 4 Inn Pluck.
1 JlWIXU t CO., Wholesale Grocers. Commis
ll sion. ForwardingandStoraeeilcrchauts, cor
ner of Market and Chureh streoU.
I XVI.I, U. VT. t ItllO., Impgrtcrs and Dcal
Jl crs in 11 anl ware, Cutlery, Guns, Pistols, etc..
No. 01 Publie Square.
JMtI.i:.nA.N. W. A." CO., Dealers In wall paper,
No, Si publieJSjuwecon.crj)pj;adcrickjit.
( T. IlKtVAIt A AI-HlfltTNUN, Plumbers, Gas
VJI mid Steura Pipe Fitters, and Dealers in Gas
frixturet. No. 35 Church strce
( 1 1ti:i:X, J. It., t CO., Wholesalo Oroceriind
LjCommission Merchant, No.13 South MarkctsL
UTCIIISOX, UEO.. Dealer in Wall Paper,
raints. Colors, .vc. cnurcn street.
in llanlware. Leather Uelting, Bolting
Clolhi, Ac . No. J North College street.
I ri.WITT.fcMAUNIIAI.1., Dealers in Carp
IX eu, Oil Cloths, .Mattings. Ac, No. 57 College
street. .
nAMIl.TO.V, It. S.. Wholesalo and llctail
Grocer and Coiuinission ilerehant. No. 25
Church street
HOI.MXN, AVltKHIT A CO., AVholesalo
Dealer). in BooU. Shoes andllaU. No.72 oast
side l'ublio Square
HA IIUINOX v riOXN, Steamboat Agents on
the Levee.
TONKH, ll,
U. .V CO., Ladies' Dress
i Go
J Linens. Hobes and Fancy Articles. ChrfCcl
:h su
Jj;NKIXS, It. I. A CO., Druggists and
Chemists. 32 Market street. opposite Union.
ToiTNKOxvii.i.t: I'Aciiirr comi'AXY,
J Office corner of Church and Summer streets.,
opposite bLUlouoiloiei.
Cotton and Tobacco Factors and General
Commission Merchants. No. gtSouth College st.
a hi: kixusto.v ici: cosiiMarY, of-
j flee No. 5 North College stroeu
JUCIN, W. II. v '0., Aurtiouecrs and uom
J mission Merchants, Nos. 25 and 25 Collcgo
nsreet. opposite Sewanee Hotel. .
YOXN. J. T., Commission Merchant, and
J Dealer in Groceries. No. 4 North Cherry st.
YI.IIM .V IIl'XT. Carriage Manufacturers,
72 North Market street.
Wholesalo Dealers In Dry uous. ruouo
Square, old stand of Jrby Morgan .t CO.
MIUtHIVl' A IIII. I., Dealers in Wall Pa
per. No.47Chnreh street.
MACI.Y, IHtlViat & UltOWN, DealerK
in Hani ware, Publie Square, South orCed.ir
MAltit. TIIOS. N.,iianker and Dealer in
Gold, Silver, I'neurrent Money. Bonds.
Stocks, etc., eornerof I njun aniColU'gostreets.
MrCIti:.. IlUfill, tti'O., Cotton and To
bacco .Factors. Storage, Forwarding and
Couimisiinn Merchants. Market street.
M-T'i.Ilfti:'N M VHIV NTOItK, No. 33 Union
street. Organs. Pianos and Sheet Music
MAIXI J.IM'KS Attorney at Law,
corner of Collcgo and Dcadcrick strcots, west
side Public Square, up stairs.
XflrrCHI.I'l- IllKIS. .fc CO., General Oil
.lYL Dealers and Agents for tho salo of Cotton
Yarns anjphrtinrs. No."3 .i!radMrect.
MAIU'll, J- I. SOS, .Manufacturers of
Saddles and Hanioss and Dealers in Coach
and Saddlery Waro. No. 11 Union street.
anhvii.m: iu.ooi hoilsi: asso.
XIATIOX.W. H. Johnson. President; A.
'i.vsn. Secretary.
IN irr COSII'AXY, A. A. Spencer .t Co.,
Special Agents, einioof Church and College sis.
"M t:VNOJI. jidOKlf" CO.. Ileal Katate
i ani( Advertising Agents, No. 40 WostSidc of
Public riqusro.
Ni:i.SOX V- .11 L'lt l it i:i Ileal Estate Agents.
Cherry street, second door from Union, West
Side .
JN KAWCi: COMPANY. Office in tho build
ing of tho Bank oftha Union.
.IILY. JOII.V, Practical Tailor, No. 12
North Cherry street.
1)1". Alter- X. II., Wholesalo Grocer. Commis
sion Merchant and Cotton and Tobacco i ac
tor. Northwest corner ColUgo and Church sts.
l)I4il?i: A MAXILIt, Wholesale and llctail
Dealers in Foreign r.nd Domcstie Dry Goods.
No.M Market street.
pi:cu. i. v
I lege street.
Insurance. Agent. No. 31 Col-
-IJICi: it THOMl'DOX, Attorneys, 30)4
AV.Union street.
K" Kill, CIIAISltOLIlX t CO., Cotton Fac
tors alnd General Commission Merchants.
Clark strtt:
MITII, W. J. C M.t Druggtsts and
I hcaiists, corner oi unurcn anu inn trem.
pllir.I.OS, :i:o. U CO., Auctioneers, No.
t 27 College street.
rjTI'.VI'.XN. N. II., Dealer In Wagons,Carts,Ac.
flFranklin Pike, near crossing of Nashville Jc
Chattanooga llailroad. .
(TKATTOX, IOIXTi:it V H., Storage
OMcrchant and Cotton Factors. Nos. 9 and 11
Broad street.
SAI.T7..HAX. T. 1.. Art Gallery, corner of
College and Union streets.
riVAVs:i. IIKOS., Book Binders and Blank
I Book Manufacturers. Union and American
mUKI.I.VILLlf A lUI.ClIiat, Carpenters
J. and Joiners, lower end of Naihvill and Chat-
tanooga llailroad lAX?omotlve Shops.
I C051IMXY. Newsom.MoorcACo- Agents,
No. 40 W est Side Public Square.
mr.XM-vsKi: ami cr.tinr.iiuixn oil
2.1 Union street.
riinxxussr.i: .maiiixi: axi run: ix-
L RlltAXCi: COMPANY. Jo. Allen l'rcti
dent, AWButlerSecrctaryNo. 31 College ! sU
TANLKI".lt."NA5I., A" CO., Hardware Mcr-
chants. No. 4i College street.
VM XSTi:i. J. -M., WholcssJ and Ketail
V Dealer in BooU. Shoes and Hats. Gcnfs Fur
ntthlnr Goods. Ac No. 10 North College street
l r inTI..1LtX IIUOTHIUIK. Paper Ware
V house, and Dealers in Paper Stock. No.!
Nrtheost corcrPh!!0 quare.
AT AI.KI'.tt, W. Agent for Wheeler A
Wilson's Celebrated Sewing Machines. No.
X. NortliCherry street
rixS, TOHHYACO.. Bankers and Bro-
kern, corner of Cherry and Union streets, fr-
rncrlv Tmder's BsnV.
" incinnatrgivcftovji.
Bl'nXirr HOVMR. Silas F. Miller, Proprie
tor, corner Third and Vine streets.
't LKXX, WM. A MIXN," Wholesale Grocers.
T 70 aiid 72 Vine, between Second, and Pearl
H'i:mixokay, iikotiii:r.s a ro..
Manufacturers of 0"ass, Coal Oil Lamp
Fruit Jars. Chimneys and Lanterns, No. 20 Kast,
Second street ,
ITLU J- 1 Wholesale and "Krtail Dealer
An Hats. Cas and Straw Goods, SS West Fourth,
between Main and Walnut strce's.
OOKi; KOKT. A CO., Cotton Factors and
Commission Merrhanis. lor the sale or rig
roll, Itiooms. anu i-rouuee genwauy.
SCHWrUMAXN, K.. Dealer in Cigars. Li
quors and Tobacco, No. 21 Pablie .Landing.
comer oi pyramorg fiitcu
iPXCi:K IIL'SR,L. A. Pairr. Proprietor,
Q Johnson, Clerk, cor, of Front and Broadway.
OIIII.LITO, JOHN A CO.. The Emporium
O of Fashion and trade in Silks. Dress Goods,
Goods. Carpets, and Notions, 101, 103 and 105,
West Fourth streeL
rplNULU. J. 1 A CO., Wholesale and lte
L tall Dealers in Saddles, Harness. Trunks, Va
lise, llailroad Bags. Ladles' Satchels, etc. Np.
110 West Fourth street. -
f pKOUNNTINs"., A. A J. A CO., Wholesale
i rMnit.(" fintK, THtnininf-Land Gents inr-
nlAln GopJs, No. 87 and SSThinl and cornerof
fllHOM.W A CO., Commission ana r orwara-
I Ing Merehanta. Purchasers oi supplies, eic.
, 49 Viae street.
WYNN1C, JHN A Wholesale weaiers
la Foreign and Domestic Dry Goods. No. 89
Pewl,- between Vine tad Race.
gaily Linton ami Jnwicim.
I'KIIKVY, 3f AKCH 30, 1S60.
Jteadhifl Matter on Bach J'agc
Before tlio ISccoiiKti'iiC'
lion Coin in itico.
lliglily Inter eitiug Kxamiualion.
WAsnixarox, March 27. The joint Com-
roitteo of Cfleen reported, to-day, to . both
Houses of (impress, tho evidence of General Ro
Lcrt E. T,ee of his views on the Southern situa
tion. The fallowing is a full extract of all impor
tant points: .On February 17, ne was sworn and
examined, by Senator Howard, as follows: Q.
Whero is yoiu present residence? A. Lexington,
Virrinln. O. How lone have yon been in Lexinir-
ton? A. Since tho lstof October last, nearly five
monms. v- Are yoa acquainieu wiiu iae siate oi
leeilngamonrwnatwe can seeessionuu at pre
sent. In Virginia, toward the Federal Govern,
ment? A. I do not know that I am. I have beet
living very ritired, and have had .but little com
munication with politicians. I know nothing
more than L-om my own observation and from
such facts at have coino to my knowledge. U.
hat is your opinion, rrom observations among
tho secession DeoDle of that State, of tho feelimr
toward the Givernment at this time? A. So far
as has come to my knowledge, I do not know of
u Bincia ifnaa sua cimcr iccia ur cuiiiciuumics
any rcsistano to me uorernmcnt oi tne unueu
Stales, nr. indeed, anv ODOosition. Nc word has
reached me ttr either purpose. Q. From what
you have obsixsjed. is it your opinion that they
will co-operate to sustain and uphold it in the fu
ture? A. Ibtlicvethcy entirely acquiesce in tho
Uo7ernmcnt,.ind so far as I have heard any ono
express an opiaion, they are for co-operating with
are irienaiv uivum luouorcmmGiiL snu inaiiney
rresident Johnson tn nis policy, y. in impolicy
in reca.nl to the restoration of tho whole country?
A, llavo heard persons with whom I have
conversed express great confidence in tho
wisdom of his policy of restoration, and tbeyseem
to look forward to it as a hope of restoration." Q.
"How do the) foel in regard to that portion of tho
people of the united States who have been zealous
in the prosecution of the war against tho rebel
lion?" A. " Well, I don't know; I havo hoard
nobody cxnreii an opinion in regard to it. As l
said before, I havo not had much conversation
with politicians in the country, if thero are any.
Every one apppears to be engaged in his own af
fairs, and in endeavoring to restore the civil Gov
ernment of th State. I havo heard no expres
sion of scntitn mt towards any particular portion
of the country, Q. How do the secessionists feel
In recmrd to the Tiavment of tho Federal debt?
A. I have ncvir heard any ono speak on tho sub
ject. 1 suppose they must expect to pay the taxes
levied by tho Government. I nave ncaru mem
sneak in reference to the payment of taxes, and
thoir efforts to raise money therefor, which I sup
pose is for theb share of the debt. I have never
beard any one :ipcak in opposition to tho payment
of taxes, or of resistance to their payment. The
wholo effort hai been to try to raise money to pny
tho taxes. Q. From your opinion and knowledge
of tho people of Virginia, would they, if thequcs
tion was left to them, repudiate that debt. A. I
never heard any ono say or speak on that subject,
but from my krowledge of the peoplo. I believe
that they would bo in favor of payment of alL
just debts. Q. Do they, in your opinion, regard
that ns a iust dnbt? A. I don't knon'what their
opinion is on that subject. I havo never heard
anv oninion expressed contrary to it. In
deed, us I raid in tbo beginning, I havo had
very little dUmssion or intercourse with the
people. I believe tho people would pay tho
debts they aro called on to pay. X say that
from my knowledge of tho people generally. Q.
Would they paj that debt, or their portion of it,
with at much flaerity as people ordinarily pay
their taxes to tbo Government? A. Iio not know
that they would inakeany distinction between the
two tjixei lntil hv the Government. So far as I
know they aro prepwed to pay to tho best of their
8011117. l uevei uearu iuvui uin&o iixiy uisuuu
tion. Q. What is the feeling of the people of Vir
ginia towards the payment of tho so-callcd Con
federate debt? A. 1 believe, so far as my opinion
f oes, and I have no facts to go upon, they would
e willing to pa' the Confoderato debt, too. (.
You think they would? A. I think they would if
they had the poucr and ability to do to. I havo
novcr heard an' one In the State with whom I
havo conversed, speak of repudiating any debt.
Q. lsupnoso tho Confederate debt is valueless
even in tue market of Virginia? A. Entirely, so
far as 1 know. 1! bclievo tho people look upon it
in lost entirely. I novcr heard any question on
the subject. Q. Do you recollect when tho Con
fedcrato bonds were made payable? A. I havo a
gcncrnLrceollectioii that they were made payablo
six inollths alter a declaration of peaco. Q. Six
months after tho ratitication of pcaco between tho
United States and tho Confederate Government?
A. I think they ran that way. Q. So that tho
bonds aro not duo vet bv their terms? A. 1 sup
pose unlessitis considered thatthorcispcoconnw.
they are not due. (J. How do the iiooplo of Vir
ginla.the secessionists particularly, faol toward
tho froodmen? A. Every puo with whom I havo
associated exprets kind lcclings toward tho frccd
mcn. Thoy wish to seo them get on in the world,
and particularly totako up some occupation for a
iving ami to tutu their nanus to some worK. i
now llmt efforts have been inodo among
the farmers, near where I live, to induce them
engago lor tho year, at regular wages,
lln von think that thero is a willing
ness on tho part of their former masters to givo
them fair wagei for thctr labor? A. I bclievo it
is so. Tho farm generally, prefer those scr-1
vants who have been living with them before. I
havo heard them express their preference for tho
men whom tbey knew, who had lived with them
beforo, and their wish to get them to return to
work. 1 am not awareof any combination among
the whites to kei p down the wages of tho blacks.
1 havo'heard that in several counties land owners
havo met in order to establish a uniform rale of
wages, but 1 novjr heard of any combination to
keen down w.ieis or establish a rato which they
did not think fal'. Tho means of paying wages
in Virginia aro very limited now, and thoro is a
difference of opinion as to how much each person
isnblotopay, Cj. How do they feel in regard la
tho education 01 tho blacgaT jg tuero a general
wiUingncxs or unwillingness to havo them educa
ted? A. Whcro I havo been the people havo ex
hibited a willingness that tho blacks should bo
educated, and they express an opinion that it
would bo better lor tho blacks and better for tho
whiles. O. General, you aro very competent to
judgo of the capacity of block men to acquire
KUOHieugc. X WJlll ur upiuiuil Ull lliai vuiuw-
as compared mm tho capacity oi wnite men.
I do not know that 1 am uartieularly Qualified
u sneak on this subject, as you seem to intimate.
but I do not think ho is as capablo of acquiring
knowledge as tho white man. There are somo
more apt than others. I havo known somo to
gain knowledge and skill in their trade or pro
fession. I havo had servants of my own who
learned to read aod writo very well. Q. Do they
how a cacacily to obtain a knnwlodgo ot mathe
matics and tins exact sciences? A. I havo
no knowledge 03 that subject. I am merely ac
quainted with three who have learned tho common
rudiments of education. Q. General, are you
aware of any ccmbinatlon existing among tho
blacki of Virginia, any where in the State, hav
ing in view the cisturbancc of the pcaco or any
improper orunlasrful acts? A. I nui not. I havo
teen no ovidenco of it and have, h curd ofriose.
Whcrotcr 1 havi been tbey have been quiet and
orderly, not disposed to work, or rather not dis
posed to any continuous engagement to woric, Dut
ust verr short Jobs, to provide them with tho im
mediate means of subsistence. Q. Has the colored
race generally as much love for money and pro
perty as the whito race? A. I don't think it has.
Tho blacks whom 1 know look more to the present
than to the future. U, Docs that absence of a lust
of money arise tu ire irom tho nature of the ne
gro than from hitt former scrvila condition? A.
Well, it may bo in some measure attributed 10
his former condition. Tbey aro an amiable race.
They like their iiasu and comfort, and I think
look more .to tltoir present than .their futuro
condition. Q. I:i tho event of a war between
tho United btatcti and any foreign power, such
as England or Fmnce, if there should be held out
to tbo secession portion of the people of Virginia,
or to tho other recently rebel States, a prospect
of gaining their independence, and striking at the
Government of tho United States, is it ocis it not
your opinion that they would avail themselves of
that opportunity t A. I cannot speak with any
certainty on that point. I do not know how far
they might be actuated by their feelings; I havo
nothing whatever to baso an opinion upon. So
far as 1 know tlmy contemplate nothing of the
kind now; what nay happen in the future I can
not say. Q. Do you not frequently hear, in your
intercourse with secessionists in Virginia, exu
pressions of a hope thai such a war may broalir
out? A. Icah not say thatl havo heard It. Un
the contrary 1 havo heard persons, I do not know
whether you could call them secessionists or not,
1 mean those pcoile in Virginia with whom 1 as
sociate, express a hope that the country may not
be led Into a war. Q. In such an event, do you
not think that that class of people whom I call
secessionists woulci favor the common enemy ? A.
It is possible. It depends upon the feeling of the
individual. Q. If it is a fair question you may
answer it or not. at you choose What, in such an
event, might be ycur own choice? A. I have no
disposition now to, do It, and I never havo had.
tj. Vou can not foresee that such would be your
inclination in such an event? A. No: I can only
judge from the past. I do not know whatcircum
staucos may produce. I can not pretend to fore
seo events, ho far as I know, the wish of tho
people of Virginia is for peaca. Q. During the
war. was it notcottemplatcd by the government
of the ConfcdcraU States to form an alliance with
somo foreign nation, if possible? A. I believo it
was their wish to have the Confederate Govern
ment recognised at an Independent government.
1 have no doubt, it' it could have made favorable
treaties, it would Lave done so; but I know noth
ing of that policy. 1 had no hand or part in it.
1 merely express nor own opinion. Q. The ques
tion I am about to put to you, you may answer or
not, as you choose Did you take an oath of fidel
ity or allegiance to tho Confederate Government ?
A. I do not recollect having done so, but It is pos
sible. When I wal commissioned. I do not re
collect whether it was required. If it was re
quired, I took it; or if it hal been required. I
would have taken It; but I do not recollect
whether it was or noL . .
By Mr. BIow-MJ,' In referenco to' the effect of
President Johnson's policy, if it wore adopted,
would there be aijr thing like a return of old
feeling? I ask Unit because you used theexpres
sion "acquiescing in result." A. I believe it
would be the time for the feelings of the peoplo
to be of that cordial nature to the Government
that they were formerly. Q. Da you think that
thoir preference for that policy arises from a de
sire to have rood leelinrs and peace in the coun
try, or from the portability of their acquiring po
litical power? A. So far as I know the desire of
tho people of the South, it is for the restoration of
the civil governu cat, and they look upon the
policy of President Johnson as the one which
would most clcarl and most surely re-establish
IL Q. Do you see any change in reference to the
people of Virginii. as regard 1 Industry aro they
as much or mere interested in developing the
material Interests than they were? A. I nave not
observed any chan te. Every one now has to at
tend to his own builness for his support. Q. The
fioorer classes are generally hard at work, are
bey? A. So far as 1 know, they are: I know
nothing to the ivntrary. I have noticed no
change In their relation to tho colored people, as
1 knofrthe fctlimts of all of the people of Vir
ginia are kind to colored people. I hare never
beard any blame attached to them as to the pres
ent condition of things, or any responsibility. Q.
Can capitalists and working mcu irom the North
go into Virginia aid go to work among the people?
A, 1 do sot kooif anything to prevent them.
Their pmce and pleaJ-uro thero would depend
very inucti on their own conduct. 'If they con
fined themselved to their own business, asd did
not interfere to provoke controversy with
their neighlftrs, I don't believe they would be
moicsipij there is no dcireto keep out labor
and capital. On tho contrary, they are very
anxious to get labor and capital into the State;
The manner in which they would bo received, as
1 said before, would depend entirely upon the
individual. Tbey might mako themselves ob
noxious, as vou can understands
By Mr. Howard Is there not a general dislike
of Northern men among secessionists? A. leap,
rc they would prefer not to associate with them,
do not know that tbey would select than as as
sociates. Q. Do they avoid them and ostraciso
their society? A. They might avoid them. They
would not select them as associates unless thero
was some reason. 1 don't know that they would
associate until they became acquainted. X thintt
it probable that they would not admit them into
their rocial circles. .
By Mr. Blow Do yoa think colored- persons
would rather work for a Northern than a South
ern man? A. I think it Tery probable that they,
would prefer the Northern man, although I havo
no facts. I know of numbersof tho blacks engag
ing with their masters, and I know of a good many
who prefer to go off and look for new homes.
Whether it is from any dislike to their former
masters, or from a desire to change, or that they
feel more free and independent, I do not know. 4.
What Is your opinion in regard to the material
Interiwt.nf Virginia. Do vou think they will be
cqusl to what thoy were before the rebellion, un
der tne Changed aspecioi auairei j, jli nui ui&u
along time for them to reach their former stand
r.l T think after some Tears they will rench it.
I hope they will exceed it; but it can not bo hoped;
tor immediately, xn my opinion ii win unto a
number ofhrcars. Q. On the whole, the condition
for immediately. In my opinion it will take a
number oftycars. if. on tno wnoie, me condition
nrthin-i in Vinrinla is honcful. both in recurd to
its material interests, and tho future peace of tho
country? A. 1 bavo beard great nopos expressed,
mid great cheerfulness and willingness to labor.
Q. Suppose that the policy of President Johnson
should bo all that you anticipate, and that you
should rcaliro all that you expect in the improve
ment of your material interests, do you think that
the result of that will be tha gradual restoration
of tho old feeling? A. That would bo tho natu
r it rexnlL I think, and I seeno other way in which
that result can be brought about. Q. Ihero is a
f..r in tho publie mind that tho lriends or tho
policy in the South adopt it because they seo in it
tho means of regaining the political position
which they lost in tho recent contest. Do yoa
tl.inV that istbn mnln idea with them, or do they
merely look to it. -as you say. as the best means Of
restoring ineircivii suvuuujgi iu
and prosperity of their respective States? A. As
to the first point you mako, I do not think that I
ever heard any person speak upon it. I never
hennl thn nnints senaratcd. I havo heard them
. . t nnJ'lh. r. n. .
speak generally as to the effect of tho policy of
President Johnson, iuo iccung is. go inr as i
irnn tl,nt thero ii not that cauality extended to
the Southern States as is enjoyed by the North.
Q. You do not feci, down there, that while you
accept the result, wo aro as generous as we
ought to be, under tho circumstances? A.
They .think that tho North can afford to bo gene-,
rous. Q. That is tbo feeling down thero? A
fcs. and they thiuk it is the nest policy inoso
who reflect on the subject and are able to judge.
Q. I understand it to bo your opinion thatgtne-'
rosityand liberalitytoward tho entire South would
be the surest means of regaining their good opin
ion? A. Yes. and tho speediest. Q. I understand
you to say, generally, that you had no apprehen
sions of any combination among tho leading se
cessionists to renew tho war, or any thing of tho
kind? A. I have no reason in tho world to think,
so. tj. Have you heard mat suojcci taiscu over
mniimr tlif
linvn xAf ht innttnr p 11 crested
politicians! J. iuo, ir, x uuioiiui, J.
toe pat another political cac: Suppose tho J
utivochairof tho United States should bo filled
by a President Hko Buchanan, who rejected tho
right of coercion, so called; and suppose a Con
gress should exist hero entertaining tno same po-
litif.nl nnininnc thllfl nrcSCntiniT tO the OnCO rebel
States tho opportunity to again secede from the
Union, would tncy, or not, in juur "I'luiuu
avail themselves of that opportunity, or somo
of them? A. I suppose it would .depend
upon the circumstances existing at tno time. 11
tlioir fiwiinr hnuM remain embittered and their
affections alienated irom tho rest of tho States, I
think it very probablo they mightuoso, proviuca
they thought it was to their interest. 1 do not
know there is adoep feeling of dislike towards the
Government. I think itprobablesomo animosity
may exist among somo of tho people. I think that
they were disappointed as to tho result of the war.
I know of no condition of discontent against tho
Government among tho secessionists. I bclievo
that the peoplo will perform towards the Govern
ment all of tho duties thoy are required to pcr
rrm TttiinV that is the ircneral feeling. O. Do VOU
think thatZit would bo practicable tfconvicta
man in Virginia of treason for having taken part
in this rebellion against tho Government, by a Vir
giniajury? A. On that point I havo no knowl
edge, and I do not know what you would consider
treason against tbo Government. If you mean
ast acts Mr. tiowaru x or. sir. ueucroi ucu
havo no knowledge as to what their views on
that subject in the post aro. Q. You understand
my question: supposo a jury was em
paneled in your own neighborhood, taken by lot,
would if bo practicable to convict, for instance.
Jefferson Davis, for having levied war on the
United States, and thus having committed the
crimoof treason A. I think it would bo vory pro
bablo that they would not consider ho bad com
mitted treason. I do not know whothcr a jury
would heed theinstructions of tho court to convict
the offender. Q. They do not generally suppose
that it was treason against tbo Government, do
they? A. I do not think that tney ao so con
sider it. so for as I know. They look upon tho
action of a State in withdrawing from tno Gov
ernment, as carrying the individuals in it along
with it, and that tho Stato was responsible for
tho act, and not tho individual. 1 am now reier
ring to tho past. i. State, if you plcaso and if
vnu are disinclinix! you need not answer tbo
question what your own personal views on that
question woro? A. That was my view that tho
act 01 Virginia, in wunurawing ucrscu irom
tho Union, carried me along, a s a citizen of Vir
ginia, and that her laws and her acts were bind
iniron mo. U. And that you felt it to bo your
Justification in taking the course you did? A.
Yes, sir. Q. I havo been told. General that you
havo remarked to somo 01 your menus, in conver
sation, that yoU wcro rather wheedled orlehcatcd
in that courso by politicians. A. I do not recollect
ever making that remark. I do not think I ever
mailoit. Q. If there bo any other matter about
which you wish to speak, do so freely. A. Only
in referenco to that last question put to me. I
may have said, and 1 may havo believed, that
tho positions of tho two sections which they
held to each other was brought about by tbo
linliticiiins of tho country: that tho greet mass of
if tlm nnutilfl- if thev understood tho real Ques
tion, would havo avoided it; but not that I had.
been individually wheedled' by tbo politicians.
But 1 did bclievo at tho time that it was an un
necessary condition of affairs, and might havo
been avoided if forbearance and wisdom had been
practised on both sides.
General Leo then clod his evidence in stnting
in reply to questions, that tho people of tho South
would not liko tho proposed Constitutional
Amendment: that ho was not awaroof any cruel
ties practised on our soldiers at Belle Isle, though
he was aware they suffered many privations. Ho
declares distinctly that he had no command over
tho prisoners' depots, and did not oven know, un
til he saw in tbo papers this summer, who com
manded at Andersonvillo.
Stewart, the merchant prince of If ew York,
is building him a palace, to cost, -when com
pleted, $1,500,000! The New York Post
gives the following outlines of it:
The walla of Mr. Stewart'3 new residence
on the cornet of Fifth avenue and Thirty-fourth-stret,
begun more than a year ago,
are nearly completed, and the beauty of the
design is now to pome extent apparent. It
is of tho Corinthian order, the most orna
mental of tho styles of architecture. The
building is of marble, lined with brick, and
its general dimensions are as follows:
Height of tho walls-... 80 fbct.
Height of the roof. 19 "
Width of the Fifth avenue front.."-,... C2 "
Depth" on Thirty-fourth street....;.'-4..'. 120
The building has three stories, besides the
ba.Tcraentand roof. The heightof the stories
is given lelow,- and con vcya'n good idea, with
the general dimensions, of the extent of this
edifice :
First story
Second story..
Third story
10 feet.
VS "
.-UU "
IS "
.......19 "
. .Total.i.... if feet. '
Thero arc two entrances one on Fifth
avenue, and the other on Thirty-fourth
street. "Ve can givo at this time only a
very brief description of those aiuLllie other
parts of the building. The entrance on
Fifth avenue, which is by a flight of marble
steps, is flanked by two columns of twenty
flvc feet in height. This entrance is in the
place of one of four windows, which appear
on tho upper stories, where they are, like
the door, ornamented with column!', but
smaller, according to the heightof the story,
and less marked. The windows on (ha first
ttory are about eighteen feet high, by six or
seven feet in width, and arc capped with
circular a relies. Tho center of each holds
a head in relief, encircled with elegant carv
ing and tracery. The carving and orna
mentation of the upper stories become by
degrees less elaborate. The side, or rather
front-, on Thirty-fourth street, having an ex
panse of eighty feet by one hundred and
twenty feet, aiTords an opportunity for a
more imposing architectural display. There
arc five windows on the first floor, the en
trance occupying the place of a 'sixth ; and
the columns, the windows and- the orna
mentations iu their various grades, corres
pond with (hose of the Fifth avenue front.
The interior of the building, "which isof
course sot finished, will be in harmony with
tho general architecture of the exterior, land
will be admirably arranged. The following
are tho dimensions of the rooms on tho first
Tarlor on Fifth Avenue front.. 46 by2t feet
Beccption room on Thirty-fourth st.19 by 32 feet
Dining room on Thirty-fourth st 19 by 32 feet
Breakfast room 12 by 21 feet
Butler's pantry- .Jby.2lHeet
Library ' . 19 by 32 feet
Picture callcry ...23 by 72 feet
The main hall is about .fourteen feet in
width. The second and third stories are di
vided into rooms, of which (lie largest aro
about the size of the dining and rcccntion
rooms of the first floor. They arc specially
fitted for the tccommodation cf guesta. The
great staircase will--terminate in a dome
twelve feet high.
Of the interior ornamentation, besides tho
magniScentcolumns, the beautiful carvings,
the mosaics, mirrors, Ac-, it is too early to
rk, even if Ufis were .proper matter for
ripiicn jtut now. The building, it M
said, will cost 1,500,000.
Nashville, teioessee, eriday,
!tThe..Eresident's Vet?"
WASilrXGTON, March 27.
To IheSmale of the United Stales :
I regret that the. bill which has passed
botli houses of Congress entitled An act to
protect all persons in the United States in
their civil rights and furnish the means
of their vindication," contains provisions
which I cannot approve consistently with,
my sense of duty1 to the whole people and
my obligation to the Constitution of the
United btates. I am therefore constrained
to return it to the Senate, tho house in which
it originated, with my objection to its be
coming a law. By the first section of the
bill, all persons bom in the United States
and not subject lo any foreign power, ex
cluding Indians not taxed, arc declared jo be
citizens of the United States: This provi
sion comprehends the Chinese of the Pacific
States, Indians subject to taxation, the peo
ple called gypsies, as well as the entire race
designated as blacks, pen pie of color, negroes,
mulatto es, and persons ot Atncan blood.
Every individual of these races born in the
United States by this hill is made a citizen
of the United States. It docs not purport to
declare or confer any other right of citizen-,
ship than Federal citizenship; it does not
propose to give these classes of persons any
status as citizens of States, except that
which may result from their status as citi
zens of the United State?. The power to con-
lcr the right of btate citizenship is just as
exclusively with the several States as the
power to confer the right of Federal citizen
ship is with Congress.
Ihe right of J?ederal citizenship thus to be
conferred in the several States on the sev
eral excepted races before mentioned is now
for the first time proposed to be given by
law. If, as is claimed by many, all persons
who are native born already are, by virtue
of the Constitution, citizens of the United
States, the passage of the pending bill cannot
necessarily make them such. If, on the
other hand, such persons 'are not citizens, as
may be assumed from the proposed legisla
tion to. make them such, the grave question
presents itself, whether, while eleven of the
thirty-six States are unrepresented in Con
gress, as at this time, it is sound policy to
make.the entire colored population, and all
other excepted classes, citizens of theUnited
States. Four millions of these have just
emerged from slavery into freedom. Can it
be reasonably supposed that they possess
the requisite qualifications to entitle them to
all the privileges and immunities of citizen
ship of the United States ? Have the people
of the several States expressed such a con
viction? It-may also be asked whether it is
necessary that they should b& declared citi
zens in order that they may be secured in
the enjoyment of the civil rights proposed
to be conferred by the bill. Those rights
are by Federal as well as by State laws se
cured to all domiciled aliens and foreigners,
even before the completion of the process of
naturalization, and it may be safely assumed
that the same enactments are sufficient to
give like protection and benefits to those for
whom, tlus bill provides special legislation.
Besides, the policy of the Government,
from' its origin to the present time, seems
to have been that persqps who arc
strangers to, and unfamiliar with our insti
tutions and our laws, should pass through a
certain probation, at the end of which, be
fore allowing the coveted prize, they must
give evidence of. their fitness to receive and
exercise the rights of citizens as contempla
ted bv the' Constitution of the United States.
The bill in effect proposes a discrimination
against large numbers of intelligent, worthy,
and patriotic foreigners, and in favor of the
negro, to whom, after long years of bond
age, the avenues to freedom and intelligence
have just now been suddenly opened. lie
must, of necessity, from his previous unfor
tunate condition of servitude, be less inform
ed as" to the nature and character of our in
stitutions, than he who, coming from abroad,
has to some extent at least familiarized him
self with the principles of a government to
which he voluntarily intrusts life, liberty,
and the pursuit of happiness, yet it is now
proposed by a single legislative enactment
to confer the rights of citizens upon all per
sons of African descent, born within the ex
tended limits of the United States, while
persons of foreign birth who make our land
their home must undergo a probation of five
years, and can only, then occome citizens
upon proof that they are of good moral cha
racter, attached to the principles of the Con-
clitufinn C fl.o TTn?tA.l Sfiffw ntiil Ttrrtll itio.
posed to the good order and happincssof then
ml i .1 111
same, xne iirsi section 01 me mil aiso con
tains an enumeration of the rights to be en
joyed by those classes so made citizens in
every State and Territory in the United
States. These rights are: to make and en
force contract, to sue, be parties, to give evi
dence, to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold,
and convey real and personal property,
and to have full and equal bencGt of
all law3 and proceedings for the se
curity of persons and property as is enjoyed
by white citizens. So, too, they are made
subject to the same punishment, pains, and
penalties common with white citizens, and to
none others. Thus a perfect equality of the
white and colored races is attempted to be
fixed by Federal law in evefy State of the
Unjon 'over the vast field of State jurisdic
tion, covered by these enumerated rights.
In no one of them can any State exercise
any power of discrimination between the
different races. In ' the exeTciao of a State
policy over matters exclusively affecting the
people of each State, it has frequently oecn
thought expedient to discriminate between
the two races by the statutes of some of the
States North as well as South. It is enacted,
for instance, that no white person shall inter-1
marry with a negro or mulatto. Chancel
lor Kent says, speaking of the blacks, that
marriages between them and tho whites arc
forbidden in some of the States where slavery
.docs not exist, and they are prohibited in
I f 1 1 ' l.ti Oi.i 1 1 . 1 1 .
an siavciiuiuing cunia uy iuw, ;uiu wiicu iiui.
absolutely contrary fo law they are revolt
ing and regarded as an ofiensc against pub
lic decorum. I do cot say that this bill rc-
Ecals State laws on the subject of marriage,
etween the two races'; for, as the whites are
forbidden to intermarry with the blacks, the
blacks can only make such contracts with
the whites thcmsclvts as they are allowed to
moke, and therefore they cannot, under this
bill, enter into the marriage contract with
the whites. I cite this discrimination how
ever, as an instance of the State policy as to
discrimination, and to "inquire whether if.
Congress can abrogate all State laws of dLsJ
crimination between the two races in the
matter of real estate, of suits, and of con
tracts generally, Congress may not also re
peal the State laws as to the contract of mar
riage between the races. Hitherto every
subject embraced in the enumeration of
rights contained in the bill has been consid
ered as exclusively belonging to the States.
They all relate to the internal policy and
economy of the respective States. Tliey are
matters which in each State concern the do
mestic condition of its' people, varying in
each accbrding to its own peculiar circum
stances, and the safety and well being of its
own citizens. I do not mean to say that
upon all these subjscta there are not Federal
restraints, as for instance in the Stato power
of the Legislature over contracts, there is a
Federal limitation that no State shall pas3 a
law impairing the obligation of contracts;
and as to crimes, that no state shall pass an
ex pott facto law; and as to money, that no
State shall make anything but gold and sil
ver a legal tender. But where can we find a
Federal prohibition against the power of
anr State to discriminate, as do most of
'them, between aliens and citizens, between
artificial persons called corporations and
natural persons in the right to noid real es
tate? If it lie granted that Congress can repeal
all State laws discriminating between whites
andblacka. on 'tho subjects covered oy this
bill, why, it may be asked, may not Con
gress repeal, in the same way. all State laws
. dijicrini matin g bet ween the two races on the
subject of suffrage and omceT 11 Ungrcs3
can declare by law who shall hold lands,
who shall testify, and who shall liave capac
ity to make contracts in a State, then Con
gress can also by law declare who, without
regard to race or color, shall have the right
to sit as a juror, or as a judge, to hold any
office; and finally to vote in every State ana
Territory of the United States. As rcspectg
the Territcirics, they come within the power
of Congrcio, for as to them the law-making
power is the Federal power; but as to the
States, no similar provisions exist vesting in
Congress the power to make rules. and regu
lations for them. '
The object of the second section of the
bill is to afford discrimination and protection
to colored persons in the full enjoyment of
all Hie rigrus secured to tnem by the prece
ceding section. It declares that any person
who, under- color 01 any law, statute, ordi
nance, regulation, or custom, sliall subiect
or cause to be subjected any inhabitant of
any State or territory to the deprivation of
any right seenred or protected by tins act, or
10 uiiicrcnt iiuuiaiimiiiL, iuius, ur penalties,
on account ot sucii person haying at any
time been held in a condition of slavery or
involuntary servitude, except as a punish-
menL 01 crime wuercui, iuo juriy snail nave
been duly convicted, or by reason of color Or
raci than is prescribed for the punishment
of a white person, shall be deemed guilty of
a misdemeanor and on conviction, shall be
punuhed bv fine, not exceeding one thousand
dollars, 'or Imprisonment not exceeding one
year, or both, in the discretion of the court.
This section seems to be designed to apply
to some existing or future law of a State or
territory which may coninct with the provi
sions 6f the bill now under consideration.
It provides for counteracting such forbidden
legislation by imposing fine and imprison-
. , .1 t ,
ment upon inc legislator wno may pass sucn
conflicting laws, or upon the officer or agents
who shall put or attempt to put them into
execution. It means an official ofiensc, not
a common crime committed against law upon
tho person ov property of tho black race.
Such an nqt may deprive the black man of
his property, but not of his right' to hold
property. It- means a deprivation of the
right itself, either by the btate judiciary or
the Stito Legislature. It is therefore as
sumed that under this section members of a
State Legislature who should vote for laws
conflictingwithjthe provisions of the bill,, that
the J udges of the btate Courts who should
render judgments' in antagonism with its
terms and that the marshals afid.aberiffs who
should ai ministerial officers execute, the
processes sanctioned by the State laws is
sued by State judges in the execution of
their judgments, could be brought before
tnbunalSj.and there subjected to hne and im
prisonment for the performance of the du
ties which such btate Jaw3may impose.
The legislation thus proposed invades the
judicial power of the States. It says to
every btate court or judge, if you decide
that this act is not unconstitutional if you
refuse, under the prohibition of a State law.
to allow a negro to testify if you hold that
upon such a-subject matter the btate law is
pauinount, and under color of the same re
fuse the exercise of the right to the negro
vour error ol judgment, however conscien
... .
tious, shall subject you .to hne and imprison
ment. I do not apprehend that the conflicting
legislation, which the bill seems to contem
plate, is likely to occur, so as to render it
necessary, at this time, to adopt a measure of
such doubtful constitutionality.
In the next place, this provision of the
bill seems to be unnecessary, as adequate ju
dicial remedies could be adopted to secure
the desired end, without invading the im
munities of legislators, always to be preserv
ed in the interest of public liberty. With
out assailing the independence of the judi
ciary, always essential to the preservation of
individual right', and without impairing the
efficiency of ministerial office, always neces
sary for the maintenance of public neaceand
order. The remedy proposed by this section
seems to be, in this resnect, not only anom
alous, but unconstitutional, for the Consti
tution guarantees nothing with certainty if
it docs not insure the several States the right
of making individual laws in regard to all
matters arising within their jurisdiction, sub
ject only to reconstruction in case of conflict
with the Constitution and constitutional laws
of the United States the latter to be held
the supreme law of tho land.
The third section gives the District Courts
of the United States exclusive cognizance of
all crimes and offenses committed against
the provisions of this act, and concurrent
jurisdiction with the Circuit Courts of the
United States, of all civil and criminal cases
affecting persons who arc denied, or can not
enforce in the courts or judicial tribunals of
the State or locality, where they may be, any
of the rights secured to them by the first
section, of the construction which I have
given to the second section, for it makes
clear what kind of denial or deprivation of
the rights secured by the first section was in
It is a denial or privation of such rights in
the Courts or judicial tribunals of the State.
It stands, therefore, clear of doubt that the
offense and the penalties provided in the
second section arc intended for the State
Judge, who in the clear exercise of his func
tions as a Judge, not acting ministerially,
but judicially, shall decide contrary to this
Federal law. In other words, when a State
Judge, acting upon a question involving a
conflict between a SLite law and Federal
law, and bound according to his own judg
ment aud responsibility to give an impartial
decision between the two, comes to the con
clusion that the State law is valid and the
Federal law is invalid, he must not follow
the dictates of his own judgment at the peril
of fine and imprisonment. The legislative
department of the Government of the United
States thus takes from the judicial depart
ment of the Stites the sacred and exclusive
duty of a judicial decision, and converts the
St-ito Judge into a mere ministerial officer,
bound to decide according to the will of Con
gress. It is clear that, in Stites which deny to
persons, whose rights are secured by the first
section of the bill, any one of those rights,
all criminal and civil cases affecting them
will, by the provisions of the third section,
come under the exclusive cognizance of the
Federal - tribunals. It -follows that if any
State which denies to a colored person
any one of these right1!, if that person
should commit a crime against the laws
of the State, murder or any other crime,
all protection and punishment through
the courts of the State are taken away,
and he can only be tried and punished
in the Federal courts. How is the criminal
to be tried if the offense is provided for and
punished by Federal law? That law and not
State law is to govern. It is only when
the offense docs not happen to be within
the purview' of the Federal law that the
Federal courts are to try and punish him un
der any other law. Then resort is to be had to
the common law as modified and changed by
State legislation, bo far as the same is not
inconsistant with the Constitution and laws
of the United States. So that over this vast
domain of criminal jurisprudence provided
by each State for the protection of its own
citizens aud for the punishment of all her sons
who violate her criminal laws, Federal law,
wherever it can be made to apply, displaces
State law. The question here naturally
arises, from what sources Congress derives
the power to transfer to Federal tribunals
certain classes of cases embraced in this sec
tion. The Constitution expressly declares
that the judicial power of the United States
shall extend to all cases in law .and equity
arising under the Constitution, the laws of
the United States, and treaties made, and
wliich shall be made under their authority;
to all cases affecting embassadors or other
public ministers and consuls ; to all cases of
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction : to
cantroversies to wliich the United States
shall be a party ; to controversies between
two or more States, between a State and cit
izens of another State, between citizens of
different States, between citizens of the same
State, claiming land under the grant of the
different States, and between a State or the
citizens thereof, attd foreign States, citizens
or subjects. The judiciary power of the
United Stales is expressly pet forth and
defined, and the act of September 2 1th, 1789.
establishing the judicial courts of the United
StatcSg in conferring upon the Federal courts
jurisdiction, over cases originating in State
tribunals is careful to confine them to the
classes enumerated in the above recited
clause of tho Constitution. '
This section of the bill undoubtedly com
prehends cases, and authorizes the ex
ercise of powers that are not by the Consti
tution within the jurisdiction of tho courts
of the United States. To transfer them to
those courts would be an exercise of athor
ity well calculated to excite distrust and
alarm on the part of all the States, for the
bill applies alike to all of them; as well
to those that have as fxTthoso that have
not been engaged in rebellion. It
may bo assumed that this authority is
incident, to. the power granted to Congress
by the Constitution, as recently amend
ed, to enforce, by appropriate legislation,
the article declaring that neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude, except as punishment
for crime, whereof the party shall have been
dnly convicted, sliall exist xithin the
the United States or any place subject to
their jurisdiction. It cannot, however, bo
justly claimed that, with a view to the en
forcement of this article of tho Constitution,
there is at present any necessity for the ex
maegh 30, 1866.
ercise of all the powers which this bill con
fers. Slavery Iiasf been abolished, and at
present nowhere exuta witliin the jurisdic
tion of the United States, nor has there been.
nor is it likely that there will be, any at
tempts to revive it by Uie people ol the
Whenever any such attempts shall be
made, it will become the duty or the Uen
eral Government to exercise any and all in
cidental Dowers necessarv and nroiier to
maintain inviolate the guaranteed rights of
me ireedmen.
The fourth section of this bill provides
mat oihcers and agents of the ireedmen s
uureau shall be empowered to make arrests,
and that other officers mav be specially com
missioned for that' purpose by the President
vi iue uuueu ouues. it aiso autnorizes uie
Circuit Courts of the United Stales, and the
Superior Courts of Territories, to appoint,
without limitation, Commissioners, who are
to dc charged with the performance of a nasi
judicial duties.
lhe fifth section empowers the Commis
sioners so to be selected by the court, to ap
pftit in writing, one 6r more suitable per
sons irom time to time, to execute warrants,
and other processes desirable bv the bill.
These numerous officials and agents are
made to constitute a sort of police in addi-
l! . .1.- 1 .
uoii 10 me military, anu are aumonzcd to
summon a possse comitatus and even to call
to their aid such portion of tho land and
naval forces of the United States, or of the
muuia, as may oe necessary to tno pcrlonn
ance of the duty with which ther are charsred.
This extraordinary power is to bo conferred
upon agenta irresponsible to the Govern
ment and the people. The general statutes
regulating tho land and naval forces of the'
United btates, the mmtia and the execution
of the laws, are believed to bo adequate for
any emergency-which can occur in time of
peace. If it should prove otherwise, Con4
.w... " j 1 1
i am wu ai- uhj uiuc auieiiu .muss laws in,
such manner 'as, while subserving the pub-(
i: ir. tn . : 1 .1 -Ft
ni nciuin, ivin iiutjuuparu inenguu, inters
ests and liberties of the people.
The seventh section provides that a fee of
ten dollars shall be paid to each Commis
sioner in every case brough before him, and
a fee of five dollars to his deputy or deputies
lor eacn person lie or they may arrest and
take before such Commissioner, with such
other fees as may be deemed reasonable by
sueh Commissioner in cencral for perform
ing such other duties as may be required in
the premises. Alt these lees are to be paid
out of the Treasury of the United States,
whether there is a conviction or not : but in
case of conviction they are to be receivable
from the defendant. It seems to me that
nnderuch temptation bad men might con
vert any law, however beneficent, into an
instrument of persecution and fraud.
Br the 8th section of the bill, the United
States Courts, which sit only in one place
for white citizens, must emigrate with the
Marshal and District Attorney, and necessa
rily with the Clerk, although he is not men
tioned, to any part of the District upon the
order of the President, and there hold a
Court for the purpose of the more speedy
arrest and trial of persons, charged with a
violation of this act, and there the Judge
and officers of the Court must remain upon
the order of the President for the time there
in designated.
The 9th section authorizes the President,
or such person as he. may empower for that
nurnose. to emDlor such land or naval forces
of the United States, or of the militia, as
shall be necessary to prevent the violation,
and enforce the due execution of this act.
This langflage seems to imply a permanent
. , T . 1 1
military lurce, mat 1.1 10 ue always at nanu,
and whose only business' ia to be the en
forcement of this measure over the vast re
gion where it is intended to operate.
I do not propose to consider the policy of
this bill. To me the details of the bill are
fraught with evil. The white race and black
race of tire South havo hitherto lived to
gether under the relation of master and
slave, capital owning labor. Now that ref
lation is changed, and as, to ownership, cap
ital and labor are divorced. They stand
now, each master of itself. In this new ra
tion, one being necessary to the other, there
will be a new adjustment, which both are
deeply interested in making harmonious.
Each has equal power in setting the terms,
and if left to the laws that regulate capital
and labor, it is confidently believed they
will satisfactorily work out thfc problem.
Capital, it is true, has more intelligence, but
labor is never so ignorant as not to under
stand its own interests, as not to know its
own value, as not to see tliat capital must
pay that value. J. his hill frustrates this ad
justment. It intervenes between capital and
labor and attempts to settle the question of
political economy through the agency of
numerous officials whose interest it will be
to foment discord between tho two laces ;
for as the breach widens, their employment
will continue5 and when it is closed, their
occupation will end.
In all our history, in all our experience as
a people living under Federal and State
laws, no such system as that contemplated
by the details of this bill has ever beforo
been proposed or-adopted. They establish
for the security of the colored race safe
guards which go infinitely beyond any those
winch the general liovernment has ever
provided for the white race. In fact, the
distinction of race and color in by tho bill
made to operate in favor of the colored
against the white race. They interfere with
the municipal legislation of the States, with
relations existing exclusively between a State
and its citizens, and between inhabitants of
the same State, and the absorption and as
sumption of yower by the general Govern
ment, which if acquiesced in, must sap and
destroy our federative system of limited
powers, and break down ihe barriera which
preserve the rights of the States It is an
other step, or rather stride, toward centrali
zation of all legislative powers in the -National
Government. The tendency of the
bill must be to resuscitate the spint of re
bellion, and to arrest the progress of those
influences which are more closely drawing
around the States, the bonds of Union and
peace. My lamented predecessor, in his
proclamation of the 1st of January, 1803,
ordered and declared that all persons held
as slaves within certain States and part3 of
States, therein designated, were and thence
forward should be free ; and further, that
the Executive Government of the United
States, including the military and naval au
thorities thereof, would recognize and main
tain the freedom of such persons. This guai
anty has been rendered especially obligatory
anu sacred by the amendment of the Constitu
tion abolishingslavery throughout the United
States I, therefore, fully recognize the ob
ligation to protect and defend that class of
our people, whenever and wherever it shall
become necessary, and to the full exterlt
compatible with the Constitution of theUni
ted States. Entertaining these sentiments
it only remains for me to say I will cheer
fully co-operate with Congress in any mea
sure that may be necessary for the preserva
tion of the civil rights of the frecdmen as
well as those of all other classes of persons
liirougtiout uie unitcu states, oyjuuiuai
process, under equal and impartial lawBjStsd
conformable with the provisions of the Fed
eral Constitution. I now return the bill to
the Senate, and regret that, in considering
the bill, and joint- resolutions, forty-two in
number, which have been xhns far submitted
for my approval, I am compelled to with
hold my assent from a second measure, that
has received the sanction of both Houses of
ISigned.j ANDiiKW jonifsoj..
Successors ef
Druggists & CJiemists,
Who are the
For all Seed Grown by
So. 32 Market HU, opposite tJBlon.
mtr tf
16 North Colle rtjeei.
8 r"i,-i.'o
a larf e and complete itock of English, tier
man, and American HARDWARE.
Which we are eellinr at reasonable nrice. Tne
stc-ck consists in part of
200 D0Z. KNOB LOCKS, assorted.
23 do FOOT ADZE,
2000 lbs. HOOKS AND HINGES, assorted. 12 to
43 inches.
1000 lbs. D0IL CHAIN.
1000 " BLACKSMITH'S HAMMERS, all kinds:
100 CROSS-CUT SAWS.4K to7Kfet.
60 MILL SAW3. 6I1H0 8 feet a
CANDLESTICKS of all kinds
A very large stock of PLANES of every variety
Thoso'wishing to purclioo ic our lino will do
well to giro us a call beforo buyinir.
SA3I. VANI.I'.I'.It, & CO.
j anl 3m.
(Formerly HUailES BROS.,)
Corner College ami Ui(ion Sit.,
THIS GALLERY, ?o long; and favorably known
throughout the South; is still under tho full
tide of operation, one of the partners, Mr. 11uk1ic,
hnvinfj recently returned from Louden, Parts,
and other cities in Europe, with all the recent im
provements known tc tho Photogrsr-k Art., We'
are in constant correspondences with parties in
London, that we riiall endeavor to be tne first to .
introduce every new feature hero as they present'
PHOTOGRAPHS, Life Site, in Oil 1
PHOTOGRAPHS. Cabinet Size. Plain, India'
Ink or Oil.
PHOTOGRAPHS. Cartes do Visile
The Double Photograph.
Or two positions of the amo person on ono Card.
Frames of all siics and descriptions, Albums,
etc.. kept constantly on hand, which We will'sell
as low as can be purchased elicwbcre.
Wo respectfully solicits liberal share of patron
ace. All work warranted to be first-class. nd on
r-asonablc terms, (lire us a call.
Serviceable Army Wsirnns at..
, $10 0O
... 16 Oil
... 40 00
BO rnscrvlceable Army Waconyat
1W Lumber Wntfonsat
(0 Two linrse Wagons, from
CO Wood Wasonaat
U) Water Waffons at
. SCOtolOO
50 m
5 1.0 ft Wnironjat..
03 Ol
Fifteen newlixhttwo horse Wagonn manufactured
especially to suit the wants of Planters, war
ranted io pive satisfaction nt-. $160(11
50 One Horse Carts at . 25 CO
1200 Doubletrees withrincietrecsattach-
ed (complete) " - 3 10
TOO Singletrees at- 1 CO
3100 Stretcher Chains, Fith Chains. Los Cbalna
Shovels, Spades, Axes. Picks, Saws. Wlonchen,
ic. See. S. H. STEVENS.
Franklin Pike, near erosjlnz Nashvilleand Chat
tanoosra Railroad, Nashvills, Tennessee,
mar3 30t
W. J. Turbeville & Job. W. Palcher,
have formed a Copartnership in the business
of CAltl'KXTEKX ASJi JOIXERS, (a all
its Departments'. They solicit the pttronaga of
their friends, and t&e publie gcnersily. Their
Shop and Office is In the Building known as tha
Government Pattern Shop, at tho lower end of
the Nashville as(fsbsUasooxa Rail rood Looomo
U re Shops,
msrS dim.
Late of Lexington.
LaUofDuko iBijstair.
13. W. Sc ,T. I. DUIOE,
So. 89 Vest Hecoad Htrriit, " .
Between Vme aail Race; 'CTntttBtl,' OMa
Prompt attention gin to the Purehano aod
Saloot Flour, Grain, Pork, Bacon. Lard, Hemp,
GraM Seeds, and all kinds 01 Produce.
Orders and Consignments iolieUl.' '
LL r 1-
-t '
0sf v..
9 T
,f 'i.'ff -f)Ti .
ISO. 9S.
D. H. BUtST.
T. B. SJlXfLE.
J. u. exssxr.
mm mm & co.,
(Wear the JtfVir,)
N-ASHVX10.E, : 1 t
MX the Trade that they are now receiving and,
will have in store one of the lartret and most com
plute lots or Urocenes otlerca in ttm market lor
aomo yuars past Tho Goods-wet 1 bought !yon
of ourCroi in person in Baltimore and Kew 1 nrlrj
and wcro selected specially fur this- market. Tho
tolIuw,uis:comprio a. part ot we siocc:
S00 sacks Baltimorc IHo Coffee;
40 hogsheads Brown Sugar;
100 barrels A Coflec Sugar;
50 barrels 11 Coflbo Sugar;
60 barrel O Coftc$ Sugar? : '
50 balTels Crushed Sugar;
'SO'lhrrelaPowdercdiSugar; vii -50.43ranulatctlSugar
500-,lrrel3FIour, of all. grades;
1000 sacks Uran;
2000 barrels Salt; j
20 barrels lTolasses;
1Q barrels Vinegar; 1
25 barrelr. Kobertson County "Whisky;
25 barrels Jbourbon Nbiafcy;
5 barrels Holland Qin;
4 casks of Brandy; 1
100 barrels and half barrels Mackerel;
100 kits Mackerel;
100 boxes Cheese; 1
50 boxps, ami boxes Raisins'
15 barrels Almonds;
15 barreLiFilbcrtsr J
260 drains Figs; j
50 cases assorted Tickles, quart and pint;
100 cases Uystcrs; j
25 cases Sardines;
200 boxes, and boxes Candles; I
100 bxsYariotisbrandiSoap, plain andfancv:
bU boxes assorted Candles; j
10 boxcii Brandy "Cherries; t
200 kegs Nails, assorted;
50 dozen Fainted Bucket;
20 dozen Tubs in Nests;
15 casks Soda; '
100 boxes Chewing Tobacco, nil grades;
20 cases bmokmg lobacco;
50 dozen Brooms; 1
25 dozen "Washboards;
500,000 G.D. Caps; i
100 bags Shot; f
. 30 kegs I'owuer;
25 bags Pepper; .'
25 bags bpicc; .
75 boxes Indigo; (
11 casks Madder;
100 boxe Mustard, !
n- lA p. 't. '
o uoxch ouirtnj
This stock h offered to the Trado only, at small
profits. Wo aro determined to sell as cheap as the;
same articles can bo had for in Louisville or Cin-i
cinnati, for
Having amnio storage room, we Invite conshrn-t
menu of Cotton and all kinds of Produce. t ei
will take in cr.chnngo ;
And will allowtho highest market priocs. '
dcoSO 3m
K. a. nOLMN.I, T. C. WKI0I1T
Late of R. S. Hollios Jc Co. Lata of Kvans & Co.
. It. DB1VKB. A. K. BROWX.
niul HATS,
72 E. ictb Public Squar,.
. (Between' City HotePA Suspension Bridge,)
;r ;;uj ' . v x . .
jrj . 1 m
NAN 1 1 VI EI.E, . ... ,rf TENNESSEE.
. ..a 1 .."Myunti"' ii .'.t vf
. -rrf -' mi:l .nJ!i-i V..."--w.
'.! J i turn a fl ra-Lv-is ,c.
'J .j -iMmmt '-mis V. ab
geinoriorme purpose 01 iioinga wooietaie
Busine?, would say to their friendi and the trado
generally, Uiey arajiow receiving and will keep
constantly on hand, one of the' Urgent and hot I
selected Stocks at the .above goods, ever offered j
for salo In this market. '
Possessing as they do. every advantago for
making these pnrchasM.und with a Jong expri-
er.ee with the trad of Nashville, feel assured
ther can mnke it to the interest of the buyer to
make thoir purchases here.
febll-till aptst
No. 137 Second Street.
in aro 3 in
r, TttUHi. r. . 0. ,...
w. g. xtraov.
Tritolli'rtOTinn "-fT? -- -
We are the regular embodied Agents for the
Jollowlng Southern papers I
New Orleans True Helta. New Orleans.
Vickibunr Herald, Vicksburg, Mis..
HunUville Advocate, Usntsvill. Ala,
Maury Cocnty Herald, Columbia. Tenn,
Chattanooga Oasette, ChatUaoofS, Tenn,
Cbroalde and Sentinel, Augusta. U.v,
OalUUn Examiner, Gallatin. Tenn. , .
Persons wishing to subscribe for or to Advertise
in ihi above papers, win oe waticu on wua
pleasure at our ovstv
C a. Bir.
n.c. tocimrr.
Henry, Xockhart & Henry,
Attorneys at Law,
Waverleyy Tenn.
..Yr, Courts of Stewart. Dickson and Humphrey
eoiiatrts. Particular1 attention given to colleo.
ties. t - tlefcWW
R. P. JENKfflS & CO.,
22 Market sU opposite Unio
t' rons ofDr. WELLS and tho publie generally,
that hu sncccssorr will do all in their power, by
dilliscnt attention to business, tn merit a con t in u
aneo of the Doctor's former tared and extensive
They will keep constantly on hand
Powers and Weightaan's CelebraUit Chemicals,
Blue Mass, Sulphate Quinine, Sulphate MorphU.
Iodine. Iodide Potash, Chloride, of Sold, Ether,
etc etc
Our Pharmacenial preparations are juch as
Tinctures, Extract. Syni pa. Cerates. Ointments.
Plasters, eto.. are made in strict accordance with
tta rdvised Pharmaeopia.
Family Medicines,
Such as Pills. Ointments. Dlarrheea. Cordials.
: igue -ionic. Alteratives, invizoratli
! Co urh Medicines, and In kctallthe
Ague. Tonic. Alteratives. Larlgoratlnit Cordials!
L T"k-i a r-
jtuiviu ducwiutnes
Of the day. Finest articles of Perfumery, Fancy
and Toiict article of every descriptive, dnry
perfumed Soaps, Hair Qils, Hair KetVimtives.
Tooth Washes, Tooth Brashes, and all articles tn
this lino pertaining to the Toilet.
Ketniilc fc Eclectic afcdfcliici.
Such as Fresh Itools and ITtrbs. of all kinds;
Tildcn'nlndB. Keith's Alkaloid and P.esaoiil. and
their concentrated Extracts.
Trusses ! Trnsscfci ! . Triuwcs J! I
-Forthom.iUion.uC every s'ue and vaiicty.
'Accurately filled, at all boots if the day ini stent.
Spleen, J)y SiHifk, PaiRts,
Allspice, Pepper, Cinnamon. Cloves; Nutmegs,
Mace, Mustard, Ammatib Seeds, Madder, Span
ish Indisro, Logwood. Copperas. Blue Stone, Mo
riateof Tin, Cudbear, etc' Window Glass. Sell)
to 40it30 superior quality. White Lead, Mixed
Paints, ready for use; Linseed Oil. Turpentine.
Coal Oil i Lamps of every variety, and large mp
3ly, at Ibw rates.
1 Eandreth's Garden Seed,
Just received, a Tery large supply. Also, a largo
lot of GraM Seed.
KOItEKT r. JENKINSPreicripttonlst and
and Pharmccist, at the Old Stand of II. S. Thatch
er, now of the firm or R. P. J. Cc. would in
form the Physicians or Nuhvillc, and surround
ing country, that'Uia our aim to supply every
want of tho Practitioner, in the line of his pro
fession, and will spare no paint to accomplish that
end satisfactorily. He mil be much pleased to see
any of the Faculty who will honor our establish
ment with a visit.
Ho hopes by constant attention to buslnessU
merit a share of patronage, assuring them that
their favors will be prepared with fidelity, of thl
purest materials, and by himself personally, or an
accomplish!! Prescriptioaist,
Our Stock embraces the groirfot variety ana
everything coming within the Drag Business.
Giro us a call and tie will guarantee satisfac
tion. All orders entrusted to our earn Ailed with
promptness and accuracy.
It. P. JEanKEVS, A CO.,
33 Market st, opposite "Union.
Jan3 3m
J. T. DDXtar.
fl. w. cniLDiXS.
Of Winchester, Ten ii.,
on Cherry street. Colonnade IlMllifii,
ttoom 26, whcro hewill constantly bn found, nn
Ices absent at some Court. He has associated with
him Colonel A. S. .Marks at Winchester, Mr. Jas.
W. Newman nt Knyetteville. Sir. James Fitrpat
rick at MeMinnville, and Mr. Stoat at Manchester.
hr. Colyar expects to attend tho Courts at these
places, and will at his office, receive and transmit
Claims for collection, giving assurance that ther
will be promptly attended to, and he will faith
fully attend to such business aa may be intrutut
to him in Nashville Janiam'
J.tovnoy nt Xj it -yv,
Prompt Attention Given to CblUetims.
.Caruthers Jfc Copper. Nashville. Tennessee.
flallJ, Smith Jc Cuild, ffailivlltn, Tennessee.
Hon. Ilalio Peyton, NashvlHeTiwnetiee.
Hon. J. it. White. Nashville, To? nessee.
Hillmnn, Brother .It Sons, Nashville. Tennessee
Hon. M. K. Uallaway, Memphis; Tennessee
Office ZT 'Test side Pnblio Squar, cornpr of
College and Deaderlek steti-UPSTAiR3.
Post. Office Box 183.
Capital; "
CharlerctUby the Legislature ; with
the 2rtvtle(ctto increase to
-H(ME office:
every County In Trtnee,and very shortly
tlireuglitKit every t?uth(-rn Htnta. TblsGatnpanr
insure against TliliFT or HAMAOB to tttMk
whHe stolen, if not rteovtrnd within
The Lou will be paid la Caeh. A standing reward
of one-fourth of Ihe value of every animal In
sured by this Company U offered for. Use- recovery
thereof. One ilunred Dollars for the arrest, and
conviction of the Thief. . , . ,
Persons having Animal not Insured by this
Company, can, by remitting Firrix Douax.
giving fall description of Aama!and amount of
rewerd, have One Thousand HandilU struck,
and furnished to all our Detective Iforee in the
Annual Kiitcs-oR Horses putl
Valued at Premium.
coo .
lo-jo .: :
HaicH oh C(tle.
Valoclst FreHtkias.
loo 3ZH- tin
200 . ii
Intermediate values at prompt-rate.
C. Jf. PAUKEB. Prwtfcnt.
J. M. BOBB. VSj President;
J. II. CO .V KLIN, Bcmtorr.
Ji W. BEAD. General Agtnf "
JAMES ULOVBB, General TraveHnjrAjnt fcr
. As the AgraUof tho above Company In. theaty
of NathvDle. woara navr'spreparedMal-receive
applications, focilasurance atjii Stookv&d.
9 irestildePtbtSo Square.
Biar3-dim. '

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