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v. x - ft i :(, - VOLUME VJ. 11, LESSEN DEN , & CO. '"Old Jung Corner", Opposite Lamar. " :"' ' ' House, KNOXVILLE, TENN. OYVEH, AT WIIOLSSALKANDRKTAIL JHtV GOODS, embracing U Hie latest ami most fashionable styles; also a full line of Gentlemen's wear. HATS, SIIOKS -AM HOOTS, of nil kvirh and priet; HARD WAIIB, TINWARE, iJUEENSWARE, DYES PAINTS, Ac. In Hie Grocery line we have several hnn dre.l Sacks of COFFEE, and 20 or 30 fa lids, r.f 8tfi AU In !iort our f-'tock if large, and bought with purl i cnlar reference, lo t tie want of the j.eople of Eust Tennessee, ns wo are satisfied with . .; , . SMALL rHOFITS. J W ir:i n czanuimiion of Goods and T'rii ss ts-o'ii all wli'i visit Knoxville tS i EATING HOUSE AND STORE. .PVTJKTLLfilllSHAM & Co.. ' G A 1 T li 1: t. t . Knox vi lie, Tennessee. DR. C. WHEELER, Physician and Snrscon, AND EXAMINING SUBQEON ' FOR PEN8IONERS. ' . Appointor October 2h, ISM.. OFFICE In John H. MrMnft Itw Office, MAIN STREET, JONESBORO', TENN. OCt618C tf . J. TATE EARNEST, M. D. Ilnv1lt Iafr(I In Jonenboro', onra bin "Professional Sot vices, To (lit filizmii nJ (bow of tlio SnrrninJiDi; Cointrj OFFICE, On.. Mnn titrcct, inula Kern's Pho graph Gallery, hvhrecn te Stores if , S' Oufifjfuheim and Lynn & Fain octlSG5 if ' WM. M. GRISHAM, Jnncaboro', Tenn. TIT! -I. ATTHV 0 TO THE COLLECTION VV '',MMS i,:r Cm,;. 119 mill S'lllli'Tk, :f '"liMMS I.;' C : r'ln'.ivi' nil lri-n.'i OJK" V. in CtiiI jent'J!iyl A. r 'it ) i- . ri 1'i f "llK i II N i MvS rtrtti i 1 ' .;. mill HniliVitn; Feilenil Courts nt jnne2-ly. .lONKsnoin i an. i'l.. WTI.h !V !! ' I'-- C, iiio, in till' 1 Knoivillc. : 141 J FELIX A. REEVE, GREENE VILLE; TENN., WILL I'ltACTICK IN THE STATU COl'RTS in the ('(unities or Omeno, Wnablnpton, and Cocke, and In the Federal and Supreme ConrM nt Kni'Tv:.!" ju30-ly.. Dl. -M. MATTOXKY, iivsiciiui iin;! :iri.f,n. Oliorry O- iiiXINSt.fi rovo, JACOB M. ELUS, M. D. Otrvm ir i s i n(ir::.si"N it scuvi-'KiTO thk i'tn.,.1.. ,.f Hi" h' t- A. t . i; 1 .'.!: . M'.l mirmiiiiUiiig orunliv. 01 1 1 r Hum, fiiti(. nt Hmnni'l U aiiRlir DR. WILLIAM HALE. OFI'lfli M !lililcii.' of II. D. IInl", Iiq, Buffalo Ridge, Washington Co. rtXVA'.S Sk'K. Bop2y 1 Wm. Boond, (iKOCER. TRO VISION DEALER, And Crnnini::i''n Morchanl . Guy St.,' Knoxville, Tonn. in.r 20---Cm A vr invii. ! in ri-iia. HOWARD k WLm, ' Attorneys niul Ciouuacllor AT LAV 1 TILL pi Kili'C In the Circuit and Chan- rnrv 'Ourts of (Irecnp, Wnslilngton, fliilllTnii, llnwl"1"', Jrlferon, Hcvlf r and Cuck Cii.inUi RMl SupiTWB Court at Kiiox- Hlio iirar M'lw.xcll. "H nn(t ho y to . uia MiiihI. ViiIk Mii'i'l. lil:i'.KM'. ll.Lh, Tf.tN. ort. 27 I v. JOHN , (r'SILLIV Lite Capnim 17th C. 8. C.I. ,i. k r. hall Uie Q. 1. lib Trn. fat, O'NEILL AND HALL, office i! i iit nr iiui'mr i'p sriins. '-lAROSKCUTE CLAIMS A(l A1NST TIIK 1 OoTernment fur prnporty taken by am ior Hie uie of the Army. Bounty for Two Years' Service; Kniintr for Wounds, and foldiors Il elunped under (leiiernl Orileri) llai'k-l'ay ml ilnunlv tiriirured for Holdirr. and for tilt Frlemls and Ketatlves of deceased Sol diers i also I'l-nslons for Father, Mothers Widows, and Minor Children j Comnmtiil ion ' fur surh at hare been Prisoners of War; I'ris Money 1 HOR8E3 LOST while In tha service, etc. 8neclal Attention nabl to making; out OF riCEKJI' MKNTIILY A NO OI'AKTF.RLY 1' AC Kltf, AM) TO TIIK COLLECTIHN Of VOl't'HER.i. 8t.lBtf. WM. NARRta. i. o- "oas WM, IIARRIS & Co., Wholesale and Itutiiil Denlers In DrvdooikClolhut!!, Shoes, Uiiotn, UAT.S, VKVH, IIOSIKltV, NOTIONS, ETC flav St. 2 Aaatu Xorth a PnmtiAvlnfiil knftivill. TrnnrnKrp. PLEASE otvj! ('3 A CALL. fjnJ-if. THliUNION FLAG. Joncs'joroiigh, December 15, 1865' G. E. GRISHAM, EDITOR AM riiOFlllElVR. , Terms. -jQjTlie Umos Fias will be ercry Fridny Moruing, on tbe termi : One copy, rer year, Six months, ptil ialied I'ullowing ?3 00 2 00 Sinplc eopy, 10 cent. ' Nd attention will be paid to orders for the pnper, unless accompanied by the Cash. (jyArvRTiBSMENTS will be charged $ 50 per square, (ten lines or less,) for the first Insertion, and 75 cents for each continuance. A liberal deduction will be made to yearly advertisers. BSX-Announcinq Canmoates For County offices, $5 00; State, $10 00. .' ' Job-Pbinting, of all descriptions, neatly executed. BfJIuAH communications tending 'to per aail agriindiMineit or emolument will be charged tho same us advertisements. - : ' mm .MiimMimii mm kuihi.iow " MESSAGE Of the President of the United States to the Two IIousos of Congress at the Commencement of the First Session of tho Tmrty-Hintn uou gross. , Fellow-Citizons of tho Sonato and Houso of lleprcscntatives: To cx pross grathudo to God, in tho nnmo of tho People, for the preservation of tho United States, is my first duty in ad dressing you. Our thoughts next re vert to the death of tho lato Presi dent by an act of parricidal treason. The grief of tho nation is still fresh ; it finds eomo Eolaco in tho considera tion that ho lived to enjoy tho highest proof of its confidpneo by ontoring on tho renewed term of tho Chief Magis tracy, to which he had been cloctcd j that ho brought tho civil war substan tially to a clone; that his loss was de plored iri all parts of tho Union; and thai foreign nations havo rondeicd jiisiicu to his memory. His removal fast upon mo a heavier weight of cares t him ever devolved upon any one of Uin pi-edoeeswors. (To fulfill my trust 1 mod the support and confidence of wIi.j are associated wilh inn in the i , . . i i ikiiin ucpurimunia ui uuh-huih-ih, the ttupport and confidence of the l lioi'O is out one way in wnn. ii I tan h' )f tf gain their necessary aiu; il in. u state wtin iranKnesBine niu- eiploB which guido my conduct, and their application to tno prosoni siaio of affairs, well awaro that tho efficien cy of my labors will, in a great meas ure, denonu on your anu men- unui- vided flirobtttioji. ... Tho Union of tho United ' States of America was intendod by its authors to last as long as tho btatcs thom bcIvos shall ltiKt. "The Union shall be PKiirKTUAL," aro tho words of tho Con todoration. "To foum a mows i-eii- kect Union," by an ordinanco oi tho people of tho United .States, is the de clared purpose of the Coimtitution. Tho hand of Divine Providence was never moro plainly visible in tho af fair of men than in tho framing and the adopting of that instrument. It is, beyond comparison, tho groatost vent in American history; and m jed is it not. of all events in modern timos, tho most pregnant with conse quences for every people of tho Earth? Tho members of tho Convention which proparcd it, brought to their work tho experience of tho Confederation of thrir several mates, nnu m uuiur jm. pnl,lir .m Governments, old nnd now; biRth") needed and they obtained a wisdom superior to experience. And whon for its vnlidity it required tho njrproval of a pcoplo that oconpieil a largo part of a continont and acted separately in many distinct conven tions, what is more wonderful than that, after earnent contention and long discushion, nil feelings and all opin ions wero ultimately drawn in ono way.to its support? Tho Constitution to which mo wnR thus Smnarted contains within itsoll amplo resources for Us own preserva tion. It lias power 10 cmorcu mu laws, pnnish treason, and ensuro do- mcBtio tranquility, in caso oi ino uitirpation ot tho uovornmont oi a State by ono man, or an oligarchy, it beeomfsauutv oi tno unitcu rsintcs to nw!:o irood tho guarantee to that Slato of ft republican form of govern ment, anu BO 10 mnininin mo noniu- ' M.I .11.- .- ffnnnoilHIlOSS 01 Kit. i'oos tno lapse of time rcvcai ueioeiar a mmpio mode of amendment Is provided in tho . . !.. A . ? I . Constitution Itself, so that Its comli tiorm can ulwnys bo mndn to conform to tho romiiromonts of advancing civ- ili.nlion. No room Is allowed oven for n thought of a possibility ot its coin ii lo an end. And theso powers of sell-preservation havo always boon as airtud in their comiiloto Integrity by every patriotic Chief Magistrate by JefTuraon and Jackaon. not les? than by Washington nnd Madison. Tho putting advico of tho Father of his Country, whllo yet Prcsider.t, to tho pooplo of lh United .Stales, us, that tho freo Constitution, which wan tho work of their hnnds, might ho fmcrod Iv maintnined," and the InniiLtirnl words of President Jefferson held up the preservation of tho (loneral uov crnmont, la its constitutional vigor, jflstbo eheot anchor of our peace at JONESBOIOUOTi TENN.. homo and safety abroad." The Con stitution is tho work of "tho People of .the United States," and it should bo "as i ndestructible na the people. It is not strange that the framors of the Constitution, which had no model in tho nast, should not have fully com prehended tho excellence of their own- work, rrcsn irom t siruggio ngumsn arbitrary power, many patriots suffer ed from harassing fears of an absorp tion of tho State Governments by the General Government, and many from a dread that tho States would break r away from their orbits. But tho very greatness of our country should allay tho nppjbhcnsion of encroachments by tho 'Gonoral Governments. The subjects that como ' unquestionably within its jurisdiction aro so numer ous, that it must ever naturally refuse to bo. embarrassed . by questions that lie beyond it. Wero it othorwisc, tho Executive -would sink beneath the burden ; tho channels of justice. would' be choked; legislation would bo ob structed by excess; so thatthoro is a greater tomptation to excrciso some of tho functions of th6 General Gov crnmcnt through the States than to trespass on thoir rightful sphere " Tho absolute acquioscenco in tho de cisions of tho majority" was, at tho beginning of tho century, enforced by Jefferson "as tho vital principle of republics," and tho cvonts of the last four years havo established, wo will hope forever, that thero lies no appoal to foreo. Tho maintonanco of -the Union brings with it "tho support of tho State Governments in all their rights;" but it is net one of tho rights of any Stato Government to renounce its own placo in tho Union, or to nullify tho laws of tho Union. Tho largost lib erty is to bo maintained in tho discus sion of the nets of Federal Govern ment; but thero is no appeal from its laws except to tho various branchos of that Government itself, or to the pooplo, who grant to tho members of tho Legislative and of tho Executive Departments no tennrobutn limited one, and in that manner always retain tho powers of redress "The (sovereignty of tho Stato" is th- l;i'M,'n-i'j;e df "tho Confederacy, and not the langiiiigo of the Constitution. Tho latter contains tho emphatic wonts: "Tim Constitution,- and the lawsol the United States which shall bo made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made or which shall be made undor the authority of- tho United States, shall bo tho supremo law ot tho land; and tho judges in every Stato shall bo bound thereby, any thing III the COIIBlrtUni"n'-Trfnrw --l any HtalO lO ino contrary nunviui- Btanding- Certainly. tho Government ol the Unitod States is a limited government; and so is every Stato government a limited government. ith ns, this idea of limitation spreads through ovcry form of administration, gonoral, State, and municipal, and rests on tho great distinguishing principle of tho recognition of tho rights of man. Tho anciont republics absorbed tho individual in tho Stato, prescribed his religion, and controlled his activity. Tho American svstom rosts on the as sertion of tho equal right of every man to life,. liberty, and tho pursuit oi Hap piness; to frcodon of conscience, to tho culturo and excrciso of all his facul ties. As n consoquonco, tho Stato Government is limited, as to tho Gen- aimiI rinvnrnmont in tho inlorcBt of Union, as to tho individual citizen, in the interest of freedom. Sainton, with nronor limitations ol power, nro essential to the cxistenco of . tho Constitution ot tho united States. At tho very commencement, when wo assumed a placo among tho Powers of tho earth, tho Declara tion of Independence was adopted by States; so also wero tho Articles of Confederation ; and whon " tho Pco plo of tho United States" ordained and established tho Constitution, it was tho assent of tho States, ono hy one, which gavo n yihuhj. ah m event, too, of any amendment to mo Constitution tho proposition of Con gross needs tho confirmation of the States. Without Stntcn, ono great branch "of the legislative government would bo wanting And, if wo look beyond ho letter of tho Constitution to tho character of our country, its capacity for comprehending within its jurisdiction avast continental empire istluototho system oi ntntes. ino bent security for tho perpetunl cxis tjneo of tho States is tho " supremo authority of tho Constitution of tho United States. Tho perpetuity of tho Constitution brings with it tho per petuity of tho States; thoir mutual relation makes tts what wo are, nnd In our political system their conncc tiun Is indissoluble. Tho. whole con not exist without tho parts, nor tho parts without tho whole. So long ns tho Constitution of tho Unitod States endures, tho States will cndnroi the .Instruction of ono Is tho destruction of tho other; the preservation of the one Is tho preservation of the othor. I have thus explained my views of tli mutual Million of tho onslitu tlon nfid tho States, because they on fold tho principles on which I havo 1 sought to sol vo the momentous, ques FRIDAY; DECEMBER tions and oviVeoino the appalling dif ficulties that jnfv me at tho very com nvmcemcyfc"oymy administration. It has JfftvirrJI Btaadtast pbjcct.to . es cape from the sway of moraentarj pas sions, and to derived healing policy fromhe fundamctitalsund unchang ing principles of tho Constitution. 1 found; the States, sufforing from the olfects'of d Civil war. ' Resistance to tho General G.ovornmcnt appeared to have - exhausted itself. The Uni ted States had -recovered pqssiou of i heir forts find arsonals ; and their armies wero iif tho'occupancy of every State, which had attempted to secede. Whether tbo territory within tho lim its of those States should bo held as conquered' territory, under military authority Emanating from tho Prosi dent as th& head. of tho army, was the first question that presented itself for decision.. 'j V"' ' ? ': . S Now, military- governments, estab Habod of fcndofinite. poriod, would have offered no security Tor .the- ear ly suppression of discontent ; would have diviiod tho pcoplo into tho van quishers and tho vanquished ; and would Lap envonomcd hatred, rather than havi rostored affection. Once established, no prociso limit to their continuajco was concoivnblo. They would have occasioned an incalcula ble and exhausting expense Peace ful emigration to and from that por tion of the country is ono of tho best means that can bo thought of for the restoration of harmony ; and that em igration jtvould havo been provented ; for what emigrant from abroad, what industrious citizen at homo, would placo himself willingly under mil itary rule? Tho chief persons who. would havo followed in tho train of the army wonld havo boon depen dents .upon tho General Govern ment, or men who expict, profit from tho miseries of their orririg fellow-citizens. Tho powers of patronago and and rnlo. which would havo been ex orcised under tho President, over a vast, and populous, and naturally wealthy region, aro greater than, un less under cxtromo necessity, I should bo willing to entrust to any ono man; they aro 'such as, for myself, I could never, unless on occasions of great emergency, consent to exerciser .Tho wilful u o of such powers, if continued through a period of years, would have endangered tho purity of tho gonoral administration and the liberties of -the Statos which remained loyal. Besides, tho policy of military rulo over a conquered territory would have implied that tho States whoso inhabi tants may havo taken part in tho ro Wlluh liH.I, bv thonet of those inhabi tants; Yfa'sod "to existr "'IS ni Tho Irtft theory is, that all pretended acts of secession wero, from tho begining, null and void. Tho States cannot commit treason, nor screen the individual citi zens who may havo committed troa soii, any moro than they can make valid treaties or cngago in lawful com merce with any foreign Power. Tho States attempting to sccedo placed thamsclvos in a condition where thoir vitality was impaired, but not extin guishd their functions suspended, but not destroyed. But if any Stato neglect or refuses to perform its ollices, thero is tho moro need that tho Gonoral Government should maintain all its authority, and, as booh as practicable, resumo tho ex orciso of all its functions. On this principlo I havo acted, and havo grad ually and quietly, nnd by almost im perceptible Bteps, Bought to rostoro the rightful energy of tho General Government and of tho Stales, To that end, Provisional Govornors havo been appointed for tho States, Con ventions called, Governors elected, Legislatures, assembled, tho Senators and Representatives chosen to tho Congress of tho United Slates. At tho samo timo, tho Courts of tho Uni ted Stales, ns fur ns could bo dono, havo been ro-oponod, bo that tho laws of tho United States may be" enforced through their agency. Tho blockade has been romoved and custom-houses ro-ostablished in ports of entry, bo that tho rcvcniio of tho United Statos mnv bo collected. Sho Post OIUco Denartmcnt renews its ceasoloss ac tivity, and tho General Government is thereby enabled to communicato promptly with its olliccrs and agonU. Tho courts bring security to persons nnd nronortv: tho openinir of the ports invites tho rostcration of indus try nnd commerce ; tho post offlco re news the fnciliticsof social intercourse and of business. And is it not hnppy for us all. that tho restoration of each ono of theso functions of tho General Government brings with it a blessing to tho States over which thoy aro ox tended? Is it not a sttro proiuiso of harmony and renewed attachment of tho Union that, after all that has hap nonet!, the roturn of tho General Gov ernment is known only us a benifl- ennoo? I know very well Ihnt this policy is attended with some risk, that for Its success it requires at least the acquici cence of tho States which it concerns ; that it Implies an invitation to thoso States, by miewing their nllegintice to tho United Stales, to resume their functions ns States of tho Union. Bat it In a risk that inu.it bo taken ; in tho 15, 1865 choice of difficulties, it is tho smallest risk; and to diminish, nnd, if possible, to remove alldifoger, I havo felt its incumbent pn lno to assert ono other power of tM Genornl Government tho power of pardon. As no Statos can throw a defence over tho crime of tretson, tho powor of pardon is ex clusively vestod in tho Executive Gov ernment of the United States. In ex orcising that power, I have taken ev ery precaution to connect it with the cloarcst recognition of tho binding forco of tho laws of the United States, and an unqualified acknowl edgement of tho great social chango of condition in regard to slavery which has grown out of tho , war. Tho next step which I have taken to restore tho constitutional relations of tho States, has beon an invitation to thorn to participate in tho high of fice of amending tho Constitution. Every patriot must wish for a general amnesty nt tho earliest epoch corpis-tent-with public safety.,- For this great end thero is nood of a concurrence of all opinions, and the spirit of mutual conciliation. All parties in tho lato terriblo conflict must work together in harmony. It is not too much to ask, in tho name of tho wholo pooplo, that, on tho ono side, tho plan of res toration shall prococd in conformity with a willingnoss to cast tho disorders of tho past into oblivion ; and that, on the other, thoovidonco of sincerity in the future maintonanco of tho Union shall bo put boyond any doubt by tho ratification of tho proposed amend ment to tho Constitution, which pro vides for the abolition of slavery for ever within tho limits of our country. So long as tho adoption of this amend ment is dolayod, so long will doubt, and joalousy.nnd uncertainty prevail. This is tho moasuro which will efface tho Bad memory of tho past; this is the moasuro which will most certain ly call population, and capital, nnd se curity to ;thoso parts of tho Union.-, that need them most. Indocdj it is not too much to ask of tho States which aro now rosnming thoir placos tho familv of tho Union to give this pledge of pcrpotual loyalty and Vr . I . I -1 - il.n r.natV icaco. until mis is uunu, i lowcvor much wo may dosiro it, will not bo forgotten, ino nuopuon oi tho amendment reunites us boyond all power of'disrnption. It heals tho wound that is still imperfectly closed; it removes slavery, the elomcnt which ias so long perplexed ana divided tno country; it makes ol us onco moro a united people, renewed aim strengiu enod, bound moro than ever to mutual affection and support. Tho amendment to tho constitution botng-aiioptud, it -would romn.ii lor th States, whoso powers havo boon so long in abeynnco, to resume thoir ilaccs in tho JSationnl Jjegisiaturo, and thereby completo tho work ot restoration, lienco it is for you fol low citizons of tho Sonale, and tor you fellow-citizens of tho House ot Rep. rescntatives, to judgo, each of you for yourselves, ot the elections, re turns, and qualifications of your own mombers. Tho full assortion of tho powers of tho General. Government requires tho oldinirof circuit Courts of tho Unitod States within the districts where thoir authority has boon interrupted. In tho proscnt posture of our public af fairs, strong objections havo been urg ed to holding those courts in any of tho States whoro tho reuullion has ex isted ; and it was ascertained, by in- quiry, that tno unciiii ouri vi mo United States would not Do held wnn- in tho DUtriet of Virginia during tho autumn or early winter, nor unm UongroBS should havo an " opportuni ty to consider and act on tho whole subject." . To your deliberations this J ..- .i ...... . p .i... branch ot tno civil nuiuority ui mu United Statos is therefore necessari ly referred, with tho hope that early provision will bo made lor thorcsuinp- tlOII OI Ull US lUIlCUUim. iuio iiuuii- fest that treason, most migrant in character, has boon committed. Per sons who'oro charged with its com mission b hould havo lair and impar tial trials in tho highest civil tribunals of tho country, in order that the Con stitution and tho laws may bo fully vindicated ; tho truth clearly estab lished and afllrinod thnt treason is n crime, that trai torn should bo punish ed and tho oll'onso mado infamous j and, at tho samo time, that tho ques- t on may bo judicially settled, unauy and forever, thnt no Stato of its own will has tho right to rcnounco us placo in tho Union. Tho relations of tho Gonoral Gov ernmcr.t towards tho four millions of inhabitants whom tho war bus called into freedom, has oiiga":l my most serious consideration. On tho propri ctv of atlomntinL' to mako tho freed- men electors by tho proclamation of the Executive, 1 took ior my counsel tho Constitution Itself, tho Interpret tation of that Instrument by its au thors and thoir cototnpornries, and re cent legislation by Congress. Whon, nt tho first movement toward indo nondeneo. tho Congress of tho United Stales Instructed tho sovcrol States to instituto Governments of thci)' own, they loft each Stnte to dtoido for it self tho conditions for tho enjoyment of tho clctivo franch'xo. During tho I i. II im I i f" ' period of tho Confederacy there" eon tinuod to exist a yery great "dlscWity in tho qualifications of electors in tho', several States; and even within a. State a distinction of qualifications prevailed with regard to the officers to bo chosen.. Tbo Constitution of tho United States recognizes these diver-' ' sities when it eDjoins that, in the' choico of members of the II&uso of ' , Representatives of tho United States " " the electors in each Stato shall have -the qualifications requisite for doctors ' of the most numerous branch of the ' Stato Legislature. " After tho forma- ; tionoftho Constitution, it remained, .' as boforo, the uniform usage for each Stato to enlargo tho body of its elec'V tors, according to its own judgment and, undor tho system, ono Stato af- 't tor another has proceeded to increase ; . tho number of its doctors, until now . universal suffrage or something very near it, is the general rulo. . So fixed was this reservation of power m tho ' habits of thepeoplo, and so unquos- , illW I'UIIOULUUUII, liUUV VlUlIllg VIIU 1V.IA.-I war tho lato President never harbor od tho purposo certainly novor avow ed tho purpose of disregarding it; and in tho acts of Congross, during tli t period, nothing can bo found, -which during tho continuanco of hos tilities, much less after thoir close, ' would havo sanctioned any departure byjtho Executive from a policy v hiclt has so uniformly obtained. Moreover, a concession of tho electivo fraiichiso to tho frocdmcn, by tho net of tho President of tho Uni,cd States, must havo boon extended to all colorod men, whorovcr found, am' so must havo es tablished a chanso of suffrogo in tbo Northorn, Middlo, and Woslern Stales, not loss than in the Southern and Southwestern. Such an act would havo created a new class of voter, : and would havo been an assumption of power by tho President which noth ' 4ng in tho constitution and laws of tho Unitod States would nave warranted. On tho other band, ovcry danger of conflict is- avoided whon the settle ment of tho quostion is referred to tho aovoral Statos. Thoy can, each for it solf, decidoori the monsuro,nnd wheth- " or it is to bo adopted at onco anil absolutely, or introduced gradually and with conditions. In my judg ment, tho Iroedmon, if'thoj' show pationco and manly virtues, will sooner obtain n participation in tho electivo franchiso through tho States than through the Gonoral Covern mont, even if it had powor to intor veno. When tho tumult of omotions that havo boon raised by tho suddon nossof tho social chango shall have subsided, it may prove that they will recoivotlio kindliest nsago from sonio"' of thoso on whom thoy havo hereto- . fore most dosoly deponded. But while I havo no douht that now, nfler the close of the war, it is not competent for the General Government to extend the elec- " live Imnchtse In the several State, it is equal ly cieiir that (rood faith requires the security of tho freedmen lu their liberty nnd their property, their right to labor, and their right to claim the Just return of their labor. I cannot too strongly urge a dl.ipassionato treatment of this subject, which should bo carefully kept, nloof from all party strife. We must equally avoid himty assumptions of natural Impossibility for the two races to J i vo side by sldo, In a stnte of mutual benefit and good will. Tho experiment involves ufl in no IncoiislHtenry ; let us then, go on and inuke that experiment In good fuith, and not bo too easily dishoartened. The' country in la n fix 1 of labor, and the frocdmcn are in need of employment, culture, and protection. Whllo their right of volunfciry' migration nnd explanation is not to bo questioned, I would not advise their forced removal and coloniza tion. Let us rather encourage them to hon orable and useful Industry, where it may ho , .. ... .1... ... .L I ... . U . . iiDnpiirnti in ii.i'iiiHci.ci uuu iu tuu vvuntrj , and, instead oi umij .-.l.ipilnnn of tho certainty of failure, let there be nothing want- lug to tho hiir trial or the experiment. Tho chimin hi their condition Is the substitution of labor by contract for the status of slavery. Tho freeilinan cannot fairly bo iicciiHed of unwillingness to work, so long ns a doubt re mains about his freedom of choice In his pur suit, and tho certainty of his recovering hn stipulated wages. In this the liitetmls of the employer and tlx riniiloyed coincide. Tho employer desires In his workmen spirit and alacrity, nud those fan he permiinerlly secured in no other way. And If thn nnn ought to bo ablo to enforce the eoutrnct, i' ought thn other. Thn pnhllo Interest will holiest promotoil ir t lie several mules win provide adequate protection and remedies for the freedinen. I'util this is in some way ac complished, there Is so chance for tbe ad vantageous use of their labor; and Iho blamn of Ill-success will not rest on them. I know that slncure philanthropy Is entnrt fur the Immediate realixatloit of Its remote-1 arms ; hut tlmo Is always an element In n lorin. It is one or the greatest arts on n cord to havo brought four millions of peo ple Into freedom. Thf career of frr Indus try milt b fairly opened to them and then their future prosperity and condition inuM, nfter all, rest mainly on themselves. If the full, nnd so perish away, let us he careful thai, the failure shall not be attributable to any denial of Justice, In nil that relates to thu deMiny of tho freedinen, w need not be Ion nnxloiis to trad the future ; many Incldetiiii which, from speculative point of view, might raisu alarm, Will quietly settle them selves. Now that slavery ts at an end or near l' end, tha greatness of Its Ml. In tha point of public, economy, heroine in' ra and more ap parent. Bhivery was Msi-mbdly a monopoly of labor, and as such lo k '1 the Htnte wher't It prevailed against th liirntniiig of free In dustry. Where labor was t!so property of tho Cupltnllst, the white tnsn was excluded from employment, or had but Ilia second best chance of finding It; and th foreign end grant turned nwny from the region wbert his condition would be so prer.ariouj, With llm dc!rn:tion of the monopoly, fiee lsl,orill V'.' 4.; ' '' '-.