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The Union flag. [volume] (Jonesborough, Tenn.) 1865-187?, December 15, 1865, Image 1

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- VOLUME
VJ. 11, LESSEN DEN , & CO.
'"Old Jung Corner", Opposite Lamar.
" :"' ' ' House,
KNOXVILLE, TENN.
OYVEH, AT WIIOLSSALKANDRKTAIL
JHtV GOODS, embracing U Hie
latest ami most fashionable styles; also a full
line of Gentlemen's wear. HATS, SIIOKS
-AM HOOTS, of nil kvirh and priet; HARD
WAIIB, TINWARE, iJUEENSWARE, DYES
PAINTS, Ac.
In Hie Grocery line we have several hnn
dre.l Sacks of COFFEE, and 20 or 30 fa lids,
r.f 8tfi AU
In !iort our f-'tock if large, and bought
with purl i cnlar reference, lo t tie want of the
j.eople of Eust Tennessee, ns wo are satisfied
with . .; , .
SMALL rHOFITS. J
W ir:i n czanuimiion of Goods and
T'rii ss ts-o'ii all wli'i visit Knoxville
tS i EATING HOUSE AND STORE.
.PVTJKTLLfilllSHAM & Co..
' G A 1 T li 1: t. t .
Knox vi lie, Tennessee.
DR. C. WHEELER,
Physician and Snrscon,
AND EXAMINING SUBQEON
' FOR PEN8IONERS.
' . Appointor October 2h, ISM..
OFFICE In John H. MrMnft Itw Office,
MAIN STREET,
JONESBORO', TENN.
OCt618C tf .
J. TATE EARNEST, M. D.
Ilnv1lt Iafr(I In Jonenboro', onra bin
"Professional Sot vices,
To (lit filizmii nJ (bow of tlio SnrrninJiDi; Cointrj
OFFICE,
On.. Mnn titrcct, inula Kern's Pho
graph Gallery, hvhrecn te Stores if ,
S' Oufifjfuheim and Lynn & Fain
octlSG5 if
' WM. M. GRISHAM,
Jnncaboro', Tenn.
TIT! -I. ATTHV 0 TO THE COLLECTION
VV '',MMS i,:r Cm,;. 119 mill S'lllli'Tk,
:f '"liMMS I.;' C
: r'ln'.ivi' nil lri-n.'i
OJK" V. in CtiiI
jent'J!iyl
A.
r 'it )
i- . ri 1'i f
"llK i II N i MvS
rtrtti i 1 ' .;.
mill HniliVitn;
Feilenil Courts nt
jnne2-ly.
.lONKsnoin i an.
i'l.. WTI.h !V
!! ' I'--
C,
iiio, in till' 1
Knoivillc.
: 141 J
FELIX A. REEVE,
GREENE VILLE; TENN.,
WILL I'ltACTICK IN THE STATU COl'RTS
in the ('(unities or Omeno, Wnablnpton, and
Cocke, and In the Federal and Supreme
ConrM nt Kni'Tv:.!" ju30-ly..
Dl. -M.
MATTOXKY,
iivsiciiui iin;! :iri.f,n.
Oliorry O-
iiiXINSt.fi
rovo,
JACOB M. ELUS, M. D.
Otrvm ir i s i n(ir::.si"N it scuvi-'KiTO thk
i'tn.,.1.. ,.f Hi" h' t- A. t . i; 1 .'.!: . M'.l mirmiiiiUiiig
orunliv. 01 1 1 r
Hum, fiiti(.
nt Hmnni'l U
aiiRlir
DR. WILLIAM HALE.
OFI'lfli M !lililcii.' of II. D. IInl", Iiq,
Buffalo Ridge, Washington Co.
rtXVA'.S Sk'K. Bop2y 1
Wm. Boond,
(iKOCER. TRO VISION DEALER,
And Crnnini::i''n Morchanl .
Guy St.,' Knoxville, Tonn.
in.r 20---Cm
A vr invii. ! in ri-iia.
HOWARD k WLm, '
Attorneys niul Ciouuacllor
AT LAV 1
TILL pi Kili'C In the Circuit and Chan-
rnrv 'Ourts of (Irecnp, Wnslilngton,
fliilllTnii, llnwl"1"', Jrlferon, Hcvlf r and
Cuck Cii.inUi RMl SupiTWB Court at Kiiox-
Hlio iirar M'lw.xcll. "H nn(t ho y to .
uia MiiihI. ViiIk Mii'i'l.
lil:i'.KM'. ll.Lh, Tf.tN.
ort. 27 I v.
JOHN , (r'SILLIV
Lite Capnim 17th C.
8. C.I.
,i. k r. hall
Uie Q. 1. lib
Trn. fat,
O'NEILL AND HALL,
office i! i iit nr iiui'mr i'p sriins.
'-lAROSKCUTE CLAIMS A(l A1NST TIIK
1 OoTernment fur prnporty taken by am
ior Hie uie of the Army.
Bounty for Two Years' Service;
Kniintr for Wounds, and foldiors Il
elunped under (leiiernl Orileri) llai'k-l'ay
ml ilnunlv tiriirured for Holdirr. and for
tilt Frlemls and Ketatlves of deceased Sol
diers i also I'l-nslons for Father, Mothers
Widows, and Minor Children j Comnmtiil ion
' fur surh at hare been Prisoners of War;
I'ris Money
1 HOR8E3 LOST
while In tha service, etc.
8neclal Attention nabl to making; out OF
riCEKJI' MKNTIILY A NO OI'AKTF.RLY
1' AC Kltf, AM) TO TIIK COLLECTIHN Of
VOl't'HER.i. 8t.lBtf.
WM. NARRta. i. o- "oas
WM, IIARRIS & Co.,
Wholesale and Itutiiil Denlers In
DrvdooikClolhut!!, Shoes, Uiiotn,
UAT.S, VKVH, IIOSIKltV,
NOTIONS, ETC
flav St. 2 Aaatu Xorth
a PnmtiAvlnfiil
knftivill. TrnnrnKrp.
PLEASE otvj! ('3 A CALL. fjnJ-if.
THliUNION FLAG.
Joncs'joroiigh, December 15, 1865'
G. E. GRISHAM,
EDITOR AM riiOFlllElVR.
, Terms. -jQjTlie
Umos Fias will be
ercry Fridny Moruing, on tbe
termi :
One copy, rer year,
Six months,
ptil ialied
I'ullowing
?3 00
2 00
Sinplc eopy, 10 cent.
' Nd attention will be paid to orders for the
pnper, unless accompanied by the Cash.
(jyArvRTiBSMENTS will be charged $ 50
per square, (ten lines or less,) for the first
Insertion, and 75 cents for each continuance.
A liberal deduction will be made to yearly
advertisers.
BSX-Announcinq Canmoates For County
offices, $5 00; State, $10 00. .' '
Job-Pbinting, of all descriptions, neatly
executed.
BfJIuAH communications tending 'to per
aail agriindiMineit or emolument will be
charged tho same us advertisements. - : '
mm .MiimMimii mm kuihi.iow
" MESSAGE
Of the President of the United States
to the Two IIousos of Congress
at the Commencement of the First
Session of tho Tmrty-Hintn uou
gross. ,
Fellow-Citizons of tho Sonato and
Houso of lleprcscntatives: To cx
pross grathudo to God, in tho nnmo of
tho People, for the preservation of tho
United States, is my first duty in ad
dressing you. Our thoughts next re
vert to the death of tho lato Presi
dent by an act of parricidal treason.
The grief of tho nation is still fresh ;
it finds eomo Eolaco in tho considera
tion that ho lived to enjoy tho highest
proof of its confidpneo by ontoring on
tho renewed term of tho Chief Magis
tracy, to which he had been cloctcd j
that ho brought tho civil war substan
tially to a clone; that his loss was de
plored iri all parts of tho Union; and
thai foreign nations havo rondeicd
jiisiicu to his memory. His removal
fast upon mo a heavier weight of cares
t him ever devolved upon any one of
Uin pi-edoeeswors. (To fulfill my trust
1 mod the support and confidence of
wIi.j are associated wilh inn in the
i , . . i i
ikiiin ucpurimunia ui uuh-huih-ih,
the ttupport and confidence of the
l lioi'O is out one way in wnn. ii
I tan h' )f tf gain their necessary aiu;
il in. u state wtin iranKnesBine niu-
eiploB which guido my conduct, and
their application to tno prosoni siaio
of affairs, well awaro that tho efficien
cy of my labors will, in a great meas
ure, denonu on your anu men- unui-
vided flirobtttioji. ...
Tho Union of tho United ' States of
America was intendod by its authors
to last as long as tho btatcs thom
bcIvos shall ltiKt. "The Union shall be
PKiirKTUAL," aro tho words of tho Con
todoration. "To foum a mows i-eii-
kect Union," by an ordinanco oi tho
people of tho United .States, is the de
clared purpose of the Coimtitution.
Tho hand of Divine Providence was
never moro plainly visible in tho af
fair of men than in tho framing and
the adopting of that instrument. It
is, beyond comparison, tho groatost
vent in American history; and m
jed is it not. of all events in modern
timos, tho most pregnant with conse
quences for every people of tho Earth?
Tho members of tho Convention which
proparcd it, brought to their work tho
experience of tho Confederation of
thrir several mates, nnu m uuiur jm.
pnl,lir .m Governments, old nnd now;
biRth") needed and they obtained a
wisdom superior to experience. And
whon for its vnlidity it required tho
njrproval of a pcoplo that oconpieil a
largo part of a continont and acted
separately in many distinct conven
tions, what is more wonderful than
that, after earnent contention and long
discushion, nil feelings and all opin
ions wero ultimately drawn in ono
way.to its support?
Tho Constitution to which mo wnR
thus Smnarted contains within itsoll
amplo resources for Us own preserva
tion. It lias power 10 cmorcu mu
laws, pnnish treason, and ensuro do-
mcBtio tranquility, in caso oi ino
uitirpation ot tho uovornmont oi a
State by ono man, or an oligarchy, it
beeomfsauutv oi tno unitcu rsintcs
to nw!:o irood tho guarantee to that
Slato of ft republican form of govern
ment, anu BO 10 mnininin mo noniu-
' M.I .11.- .-
ffnnnoilHIlOSS 01 Kit. i'oos tno lapse
of time rcvcai ueioeiar a mmpio
mode of amendment Is provided in tho
. . !.. A . ? I .
Constitution Itself, so that Its comli
tiorm can ulwnys bo mndn to conform
to tho romiiromonts of advancing civ-
ili.nlion. No room Is allowed oven for
n thought of a possibility ot its coin
ii lo an end. And theso powers of
sell-preservation havo always boon as
airtud in their comiiloto Integrity by
every patriotic Chief Magistrate by
JefTuraon and Jackaon. not les? than
by Washington nnd Madison. Tho
putting advico of tho Father of his
Country, whllo yet Prcsider.t, to tho
pooplo of lh United .Stales, us, that
tho freo Constitution, which wan tho
work of their hnnds, might ho fmcrod
Iv maintnined," and the InniiLtirnl
words of President Jefferson held up
the preservation of tho (loneral uov
crnmont, la its constitutional vigor,
jflstbo eheot anchor of our peace at
JONESBOIOUOTi TENN..
homo and safety abroad." The Con
stitution is tho work of "tho People
of .the United States," and it should
bo "as i ndestructible na the people.
It is not strange that the framors of
the Constitution, which had no model
in tho nast, should not have fully com
prehended tho excellence of their own-
work, rrcsn irom t siruggio ngumsn
arbitrary power, many patriots suffer
ed from harassing fears of an absorp
tion of tho State Governments by the
General Government, and many from
a dread that tho States would break r
away from their orbits. But tho very
greatness of our country should allay
tho nppjbhcnsion of encroachments
by tho 'Gonoral Governments. The
subjects that como ' unquestionably
within its jurisdiction aro so numer
ous, that it must ever naturally refuse
to bo. embarrassed . by questions that
lie beyond it. Wero it othorwisc, tho
Executive -would sink beneath the
burden ; tho channels of justice. would'
be choked; legislation would bo ob
structed by excess; so thatthoro is a
greater tomptation to excrciso some
of tho functions of th6 General Gov
crnmcnt through the States than to
trespass on thoir rightful sphere
" Tho absolute acquioscenco in tho de
cisions of tho majority" was, at tho
beginning of tho century, enforced
by Jefferson "as tho vital principle of
republics," and tho cvonts of the last
four years havo established, wo will
hope forever, that thero lies no appoal
to foreo.
Tho maintonanco of -the Union
brings with it "tho support of tho
State Governments in all their rights;"
but it is net one of tho rights of any
Stato Government to renounce its own
placo in tho Union, or to nullify tho
laws of tho Union. Tho largost lib
erty is to bo maintained in tho discus
sion of the nets of Federal Govern
ment; but thero is no appeal from its
laws except to tho various branchos
of that Government itself, or to the
pooplo, who grant to tho members of
tho Legislative and of tho Executive
Departments no tennrobutn limited
one, and in that manner always retain
tho powers of redress
"The (sovereignty of tho Stato" is
th- l;i'M,'n-i'j;e df "tho Confederacy, and
not the langiiiigo of the Constitution.
Tho latter contains tho emphatic
wonts: "Tim Constitution,- and the
lawsol the United States which shall
bo made in pursuance thereof, and all
treaties made or which shall be made
undor the authority of- tho United
States, shall bo tho supremo law ot
tho land; and tho judges in every
Stato shall bo bound thereby, any
thing III the COIIBlrtUni"n'-Trfnrw --l
any HtalO lO ino contrary nunviui-
Btanding-
Certainly. tho Government ol the
Unitod States is a limited government;
and so is every Stato government a
limited government. ith ns, this
idea of limitation spreads through
ovcry form of administration, gonoral,
State, and municipal, and rests on tho
great distinguishing principle of tho
recognition of tho rights of man.
Tho anciont republics absorbed tho
individual in tho Stato, prescribed his
religion, and controlled his activity.
Tho American svstom rosts on the as
sertion of tho equal right of every man
to life,. liberty, and tho pursuit oi Hap
piness; to frcodon of conscience, to tho
culturo and excrciso of all his facul
ties. As n consoquonco, tho Stato
Government is limited, as to tho Gen-
aimiI rinvnrnmont in tho inlorcBt of
Union, as to tho individual citizen, in
the interest of freedom.
Sainton, with nronor limitations ol
power, nro essential to the cxistenco
of . tho Constitution ot tho united
States. At tho very commencement,
when wo assumed a placo among tho
Powers of tho earth, tho Declara
tion of Independence was adopted by
States; so also wero tho Articles of
Confederation ; and whon " tho Pco
plo of tho United States" ordained
and established tho Constitution, it
was tho assent of tho States, ono hy
one, which gavo n yihuhj. ah m
event, too, of any amendment to mo
Constitution tho proposition of Con
gross needs tho confirmation of the
States. Without Stntcn, ono great
branch "of the legislative government
would bo wanting And, if wo look
beyond ho letter of tho Constitution
to tho character of our country, its
capacity for comprehending within its
jurisdiction avast continental empire
istluototho system oi ntntes. ino
bent security for tho perpetunl cxis
tjneo of tho States is tho " supremo
authority of tho Constitution of tho
United States. Tho perpetuity of tho
Constitution brings with it tho per
petuity of tho States; thoir mutual
relation makes tts what wo are, nnd
In our political system their conncc
tiun Is indissoluble. Tho. whole con
not exist without tho parts, nor tho
parts without tho whole. So long ns
tho Constitution of tho Unitod States
endures, tho States will cndnroi the
.Instruction of ono Is tho destruction of
tho other; the preservation of the
one Is tho preservation of the othor.
I have thus explained my views of
tli mutual Million of tho onslitu
tlon nfid tho States, because they on
fold tho principles on which I havo
1 sought to sol vo the momentous, ques
FRIDAY; DECEMBER
tions and oviVeoino the appalling dif
ficulties that jnfv me at tho very com
nvmcemcyfc"oymy administration.
It has JfftvirrJI Btaadtast pbjcct.to . es
cape from the sway of moraentarj pas
sions, and to derived healing policy
fromhe fundamctitalsund unchang
ing principles of tho Constitution.
1 found; the States, sufforing from
the olfects'of d Civil war. ' Resistance
to tho General G.ovornmcnt appeared
to have - exhausted itself. The Uni
ted States had -recovered pqssiou
of i heir forts find arsonals ; and their
armies wero iif tho'occupancy of every
State, which had attempted to secede.
Whether tbo territory within tho lim
its of those States should bo held as
conquered' territory, under military
authority Emanating from tho Prosi
dent as th& head. of tho army, was the
first question that presented itself for
decision.. 'j V"' ' ? ': . S
Now, military- governments, estab
Habod of fcndofinite. poriod, would
have offered no security Tor .the- ear
ly suppression of discontent ; would
have diviiod tho pcoplo into tho van
quishers and tho vanquished ; and
would Lap envonomcd hatred, rather
than havi rostored affection. Once
established, no prociso limit to their
continuajco was concoivnblo. They
would have occasioned an incalcula
ble and exhausting expense Peace
ful emigration to and from that por
tion of the country is ono of tho best
means that can bo thought of for the
restoration of harmony ; and that em
igration jtvould havo been provented ;
for what emigrant from abroad, what
industrious citizen at homo, would
placo himself willingly under mil
itary rule? Tho chief persons who.
would havo followed in tho train
of the army wonld havo boon depen
dents .upon tho General Govern
ment, or men who expict, profit from
tho miseries of their orririg fellow-citizens.
Tho powers of patronago and
and rnlo. which would havo been ex
orcised under tho President, over a
vast, and populous, and naturally
wealthy region, aro greater than, un
less under cxtromo necessity, I should
bo willing to entrust to any ono man;
they aro 'such as, for myself, I could
never, unless on occasions of great
emergency, consent to exerciser .Tho
wilful u o of such powers, if continued
through a period of years, would have
endangered tho purity of tho gonoral
administration and the liberties of -the
Statos which remained loyal.
Besides, tho policy of military rulo
over a conquered territory would have
implied that tho States whoso inhabi
tants may havo taken part in tho ro
Wlluh liH.I, bv thonet of those inhabi
tants; Yfa'sod "to existr "'IS ni Tho Irtft
theory is, that all pretended acts of
secession wero, from tho begining, null
and void. Tho States cannot commit
treason, nor screen the individual citi
zens who may havo committed troa
soii, any moro than they can make
valid treaties or cngago in lawful com
merce with any foreign Power. Tho
States attempting to sccedo placed
thamsclvos in a condition where thoir
vitality was impaired, but not extin
guishd their functions suspended,
but not destroyed.
But if any Stato neglect or refuses
to perform its ollices, thero is tho moro
need that tho Gonoral Government
should maintain all its authority, and,
as booh as practicable, resumo tho ex
orciso of all its functions. On this
principlo I havo acted, and havo grad
ually and quietly, nnd by almost im
perceptible Bteps, Bought to rostoro
the rightful energy of tho General
Government and of tho Stales, To
that end, Provisional Govornors havo
been appointed for tho States, Con
ventions called, Governors elected,
Legislatures, assembled, tho Senators
and Representatives chosen to tho
Congress of tho United Slates. At
tho samo timo, tho Courts of tho Uni
ted Stales, ns fur ns could bo dono,
havo been ro-oponod, bo that tho laws
of tho United States may be" enforced
through their agency. Tho blockade
has been romoved and custom-houses
ro-ostablished in ports of entry, bo
that tho rcvcniio of tho United Statos
mnv bo collected. Sho Post OIUco
Denartmcnt renews its ceasoloss ac
tivity, and tho General Government is
thereby enabled to communicato
promptly with its olliccrs and agonU.
Tho courts bring security to persons
nnd nronortv: tho openinir of the
ports invites tho rostcration of indus
try nnd commerce ; tho post offlco re
news the fnciliticsof social intercourse
and of business. And is it not hnppy
for us all. that tho restoration of each
ono of theso functions of tho General
Government brings with it a blessing
to tho States over which thoy aro ox
tended? Is it not a sttro proiuiso of
harmony and renewed attachment of
tho Union that, after all that has hap
nonet!, the roturn of tho General Gov
ernment is known only us a benifl-
ennoo?
I know very well Ihnt this policy is
attended with some risk, that for Its
success it requires at least the acquici
cence of tho States which it concerns ;
that it Implies an invitation to thoso
States, by miewing their nllegintice
to tho United Stales, to resume their
functions ns States of tho Union. Bat
it In a risk that inu.it bo taken ; in tho
15, 1865
choice of difficulties, it is tho smallest
risk; and to diminish, nnd, if possible,
to remove alldifoger, I havo felt its
incumbent pn lno to assert ono other
power of tM Genornl Government
tho power of pardon. As no Statos
can throw a defence over tho crime
of tretson, tho powor of pardon is ex
clusively vestod in tho Executive Gov
ernment of the United States. In ex
orcising that power, I have taken ev
ery precaution to connect it with the
cloarcst recognition of tho binding
forco of tho laws of the United
States, and an unqualified acknowl
edgement of tho great social chango
of condition in regard to slavery
which has grown out of tho , war.
Tho next step which I have taken
to restore tho constitutional relations
of tho States, has beon an invitation
to thorn to participate in tho high of
fice of amending tho Constitution.
Every patriot must wish for a general
amnesty nt tho earliest epoch corpis-tent-with
public safety.,- For this great
end thero is nood of a concurrence of
all opinions, and the spirit of mutual
conciliation. All parties in tho lato
terriblo conflict must work together
in harmony. It is not too much to
ask, in tho name of tho wholo pooplo,
that, on tho ono side, tho plan of res
toration shall prococd in conformity
with a willingnoss to cast tho disorders
of tho past into oblivion ; and that,
on the other, thoovidonco of sincerity
in the future maintonanco of tho Union
shall bo put boyond any doubt by tho
ratification of tho proposed amend
ment to tho Constitution, which pro
vides for the abolition of slavery for
ever within tho limits of our country.
So long as tho adoption of this amend
ment is dolayod, so long will doubt,
and joalousy.nnd uncertainty prevail.
This is tho moasuro which will efface
tho Bad memory of tho past; this is
the moasuro which will most certain
ly call population, and capital, nnd se
curity to ;thoso parts of tho Union.-,
that need them most. Indocdj it is
not too much to ask of tho States
which aro now rosnming thoir placos
tho familv of tho Union to give
this pledge of pcrpotual loyalty and
Vr . I . I -1 - il.n r.natV
icaco. until mis is uunu, i
lowcvor much wo may dosiro it, will
not bo forgotten, ino nuopuon oi
tho amendment reunites us boyond all
power of'disrnption. It heals tho
wound that is still imperfectly closed;
it removes slavery, the elomcnt which
ias so long perplexed ana divided tno
country; it makes ol us onco moro a
united people, renewed aim strengiu
enod, bound moro than ever to mutual
affection and support.
Tho amendment to tho constitution
botng-aiioptud, it -would romn.ii lor
th States, whoso powers havo boon
so long in abeynnco, to resume thoir
ilaccs in tho JSationnl Jjegisiaturo,
and thereby completo tho work ot
restoration, lienco it is for you fol
low citizons of tho Sonale, and tor you
fellow-citizens of tho House ot Rep.
rescntatives, to judgo, each of you
for yourselves, ot the elections, re
turns, and qualifications of your own
mombers.
Tho full assortion of tho powers of
tho General. Government requires tho
oldinirof circuit Courts of tho Unitod
States within the districts where thoir
authority has boon interrupted. In
tho proscnt posture of our public af
fairs, strong objections havo been urg
ed to holding those courts in any of
tho States whoro tho reuullion has ex
isted ; and it was ascertained, by in-
quiry, that tno unciiii ouri vi mo
United States would not Do held wnn-
in tho DUtriet of Virginia during tho
autumn or early winter, nor unm
UongroBS should havo an " opportuni
ty to consider and act on tho whole
subject." . To your deliberations this
J ..- .i ...... . p .i...
branch ot tno civil nuiuority ui mu
United Statos is therefore necessari
ly referred, with tho hope that early
provision will bo made lor thorcsuinp-
tlOII OI Ull US lUIlCUUim. iuio iiuuii-
fest that treason, most migrant in
character, has boon committed. Per
sons who'oro charged with its com
mission b hould havo lair and impar
tial trials in tho highest civil tribunals
of tho country, in order that the Con
stitution and tho laws may bo fully
vindicated ; tho truth clearly estab
lished and afllrinod thnt treason is n
crime, that trai torn should bo punish
ed and tho oll'onso mado infamous j
and, at tho samo time, that tho ques-
t on may bo judicially settled, unauy
and forever, thnt no Stato of its own
will has tho right to rcnounco us
placo in tho Union.
Tho relations of tho Gonoral Gov
ernmcr.t towards tho four millions of
inhabitants whom tho war bus called
into freedom, has oiiga":l my most
serious consideration. On tho propri
ctv of atlomntinL' to mako tho freed-
men electors by tho proclamation of
the Executive, 1 took ior my counsel
tho Constitution Itself, tho Interpret
tation of that Instrument by its au
thors and thoir cototnpornries, and re
cent legislation by Congress. Whon,
nt tho first movement toward indo
nondeneo. tho Congress of tho United
Stales Instructed tho sovcrol States to
instituto Governments of thci)' own,
they loft each Stnte to dtoido for it
self tho conditions for tho enjoyment
of tho clctivo franch'xo. During tho
I i. II im I i f" '
period of tho Confederacy there" eon
tinuod to exist a yery great "dlscWity
in tho qualifications of electors in tho',
several States; and even within a.
State a distinction of qualifications
prevailed with regard to the officers
to bo chosen.. Tbo Constitution of tho
United States recognizes these diver-' '
sities when it eDjoins that, in the'
choico of members of the II&uso of ' ,
Representatives of tho United States "
" the electors in each Stato shall have -the
qualifications requisite for doctors '
of the most numerous branch of the '
Stato Legislature. " After tho forma- ;
tionoftho Constitution, it remained, .'
as boforo, the uniform usage for each
Stato to enlargo tho body of its elec'V
tors, according to its own judgment
and, undor tho system, ono Stato af- 't
tor another has proceeded to increase ; .
tho number of its doctors, until now .
universal suffrage or something very
near it, is the general rulo. . So fixed
was this reservation of power m tho '
habits of thepeoplo, and so unquos- ,
illW I'UIIOULUUUII, liUUV VlUlIllg VIIU 1V.IA.-I
war tho lato President never harbor
od tho purposo certainly novor avow
ed tho purpose of disregarding it;
and in tho acts of Congross, during
tli t period, nothing can bo found, -which
during tho continuanco of hos
tilities, much less after thoir close, '
would havo sanctioned any departure
byjtho Executive from a policy v hiclt
has so uniformly obtained. Moreover,
a concession of tho electivo fraiichiso
to tho frocdmcn, by tho net of tho
President of tho Uni,cd States, must
havo boon extended to all colorod men,
whorovcr found, am' so must havo es
tablished a chanso of suffrogo in tbo
Northorn, Middlo, and Woslern Stales,
not loss than in the Southern and
Southwestern. Such an act would
havo created a new class of voter, :
and would havo been an assumption
of power by tho President which noth '
4ng in tho constitution and laws of tho
Unitod States would nave warranted.
On tho other band, ovcry danger of
conflict is- avoided whon the settle
ment of tho quostion is referred to tho
aovoral Statos. Thoy can, each for it
solf, decidoori the monsuro,nnd wheth- "
or it is to bo adopted at onco anil
absolutely, or introduced gradually
and with conditions. In my judg
ment, tho Iroedmon, if'thoj' show
pationco and manly virtues, will
sooner obtain n participation in tho
electivo franchiso through tho States
than through the Gonoral Covern
mont, even if it had powor to intor
veno. When tho tumult of omotions
that havo boon raised by tho suddon
nossof tho social chango shall have
subsided, it may prove that they will
recoivotlio kindliest nsago from sonio"'
of thoso on whom thoy havo hereto- .
fore most dosoly deponded.
But while I havo no douht that now, nfler
the close of the war, it is not competent for
the General Government to extend the elec- "
live Imnchtse In the several State, it is equal
ly cieiir that (rood faith requires the security
of tho freedmen lu their liberty nnd their
property, their right to labor, and their right
to claim the Just return of their labor. I
cannot too strongly urge a dl.ipassionato
treatment of this subject, which should bo
carefully kept, nloof from all party strife.
We must equally avoid himty assumptions of
natural Impossibility for the two races to
J i vo side by sldo, In a stnte of mutual benefit
and good will. Tho experiment involves ufl
in no IncoiislHtenry ; let us then, go on and
inuke that experiment In good fuith, and not
bo too easily dishoartened. The' country in
la n fix 1 of labor, and the frocdmcn are in
need of employment, culture, and protection.
Whllo their right of volunfciry' migration nnd
explanation is not to bo questioned, I would
not advise their forced removal and coloniza
tion. Let us rather encourage them to hon
orable and useful Industry, where it may ho
, .. ... .1... ... .L I ... . U . .
iiDnpiirnti in ii.i'iiiHci.ci uuu iu tuu vvuntrj ,
and, instead oi umij .-.l.ipilnnn of tho
certainty of failure, let there be nothing want-
lug to tho hiir trial or the experiment. Tho
chimin hi their condition Is the substitution
of labor by contract for the status of slavery.
Tho freeilinan cannot fairly bo iicciiHed of
unwillingness to work, so long ns a doubt re
mains about his freedom of choice In his pur
suit, and tho certainty of his recovering hn
stipulated wages. In this the liitetmls of
the employer and tlx riniiloyed coincide.
Tho employer desires In his workmen spirit
and alacrity, nud those fan he permiinerlly
secured in no other way. And If thn nnn
ought to bo ablo to enforce the eoutrnct, i'
ought thn other. Thn pnhllo Interest will
holiest promotoil ir t lie several mules win
provide adequate protection and remedies for
the freedinen. I'util this is in some way ac
complished, there Is so chance for tbe ad
vantageous use of their labor; and Iho blamn
of Ill-success will not rest on them.
I know that slncure philanthropy Is entnrt
fur the Immediate realixatloit of Its remote-1
arms ; hut tlmo Is always an element In n
lorin. It is one or the greatest arts on n
cord to havo brought four millions of peo
ple Into freedom. Thf career of frr Indus
try milt b fairly opened to them and then
their future prosperity and condition inuM,
nfter all, rest mainly on themselves. If the
full, nnd so perish away, let us he careful thai,
the failure shall not be attributable to any
denial of Justice, In nil that relates to thu
deMiny of tho freedinen, w need not be Ion
nnxloiis to trad the future ; many Incldetiiii
which, from speculative point of view,
might raisu alarm, Will quietly settle them
selves. Now that slavery ts at an end or near l'
end, tha greatness of Its Ml. In tha point of
public, economy, heroine in' ra and more ap
parent. Bhivery was Msi-mbdly a monopoly
of labor, and as such lo k '1 the Htnte wher't
It prevailed against th liirntniiig of free In
dustry. Where labor was t!so property of
tho Cupltnllst, the white tnsn was excluded
from employment, or had but Ilia second best
chance of finding It; and th foreign end
grant turned nwny from the region wbert his
condition would be so prer.ariouj, With llm
dc!rn:tion of the monopoly, fiee lsl,orill
V'.'
4.;
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