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JAMES MADISON, THE FATHER OF THE CONSTITUTION.
New and Admirable Blograp pher of the Great Virginian. RELIGIOUS FREED'M FIGHT Midlson Says Mr. Hunt ?egan Iha Fight and Did Moro Than Any , Other Man to Win II?Tho Scholar from Orango* Tlmos-Dlspatch Bureau, No. 1417 O Btroot. N. W? ?, Washington, D. C, May 2. It haa remained tor Mr. Gaillard Hunt, a Loulslanlan, to givo us the "lost word" on James Madison*. Por, Iti mistake not, thero will bo found little necessity for another biography of the Pallici? of tho Constitution since tho completion of Mr. Hunt's-work. I ha'vo Just Inld It down. 1 must accord to It probably tho first pinco |n point of Interest among the biographies I have read since I devoured Henderson's Stonowall Jackson three years ago. Thore aro po graces of diction and stylo to commend Mr. Hunt's boot, uniese straightforward expression and absolute lucidity and simplicity, bo re? garded as graces. Thoy should bo so looked upon In works of a biographical nature. Certainly, Mr.Hunt'? ntylo I? peculiarly suited to tho delineation of tho character of tho modest, prim, scholarly, Madison, who. In Ufo seemed ?? ho forovcr fated to meet stronger men, and to defeat them, a paradox which a portinai of Mr. Hunt'H book will explain. How many Virginians know that any? one beside Thomas Jefferson took a lead? ing part In tho struggle for religious liberty In Virginia, and the disestablish? ment of the Episcopal Church. It Is hard? ly too much to say that In this great struggle oh Mr. Hunt portrays It, James Madison welded a far heavier, ax? than did Mr. Jefferson., and long before the day when ho came to be very strongly under tho Influence of the sago ot Monti cello. In tho memorable " Wllllamsburg con? vention of 1776, which according to the weight of authority adopted tho first written constitution . tho world had known, Mndlnon. then but tyvonty-flve years old, offered the following resolu? tion: "That religion or tho duty we owo to our Creator, nnd tho mannor of dis? charging It, being under tho direction of reason and conviction only, not of'vio? lence or compulsion, all men aro entitled to full and freo exercise of It. according to the dictates of conscience, and, there? fore, that no man or class of men, ought, on account of religion, to bo Invested with peculiar emolument? or privileges, nor RUbJoctod to any penalties or disabilities unless, under colour of religion the. pre? servation of equal liberty, and the exis? tence of the Stato be endangered," But he was too far ahead of .his timo In seeking to disestablish the Episcopal Church in Virginia. The section of the Bill of Rights, as f.nally adopted, and as It Is In tho new Constitution of Virginia, simply declares 1 hat man should be allowed to follow the dlctatc.i of conscience In the matter of religion, and that nil men should "prac? tice Christian forbearance and charity towards each other." Eight years later, Madison* as a mem ber ot tho Commlltoo on Religion, ot the virginia Assembly, led a prolonged and successful fight, for the disestablishment. The Assembly adopted a resolution to ?llltig "that ants ought to pass for the Incorporation of all societies for the Christian religion which niny apply for tho samo." Later, Patrick Henry offered tt resolution "that tho people ot tho Com? monwealth according to their rospeotlve abilities, ought to pay a moderate tax, or contribution for the support of the Chris? tian rollglop, or of some Christian church or denomination, of communion of Chris? tians, or of somo form of Christian wor? ship." This was adopted by a voto of 47 to 32. Henry wns appointed to draft the bill for the establishment of a church, poli? tl?n? favorable to the measure poured In upon the Asso'inbly, Richard Henry Lee wrote to Madison from Trenton, whoro he was attending a session <>t the Continental Congress that ho "con? sidered the bill a measure necessary to morality, that avarice was accomplishing tho destruction of religion for want of a legal obligation to contribute something to Its support." Ono petition came from the United Presbyterian Church In favor of the establishment and only ono was presented against It. Mr. Hunt says tho ministers of the Presbyterian Church fa? vored the establishment and quotes Mr. Madison that they were "ns ready to sot up an establishment which took thorn In as thoy wero to pull down that which shut them out." Tho Presbyterian laity generally? opposed establishment. Baptist ministers ' and laymen unanimously op? posed any union of .church and State. According to Mr. Hunt, Mr. Madison, of all the leaders of thought In the Slato saw the fundamental error Involved In ?the proposed, legislation. His argument against tho bill was one of the mast ela? borate he ever delivered and tho skole-, ton, which has been preserved shows that thero has been.II?tie written or spoken, which so ably advocates the absolute freedom of religion and Its separation from tho State. ? It would rc?iulro too much space to go through all the stages of the long light. It ended In tho enactment, Decomber 2(1, 1785, "of ono of tho greatest . measures Thomas Jefferson ever wrote." as Mr. Hunt says, tho Bill for Establishing Re? ligious Freedom^ In Virginia. But It was James Madson, ' who began tho great struggle and ? am free to say that since reading after Mr. Hunt, who cites high? est autnorlty for every material state? ment, I have had to modify my former belief that Mr. Jefferson was tho Father ot Religious Liberty In Virginia. It would take up far too ? much space to go into anything like a! full recital of tho part Mr. Madison played In the con? vention which formulated the Constitu? tion of tho United States at Philadelphia In 1787, "The Great Convention," aa Mr. Hunt has atyly termed It and to which he devotes sixty pages of his book. He came out of It with a greatly enhanced reputation. It bore the Impress of Madi? son far moro than that of any Other man. Tho draft of "the Virginia Plan." present? ed to the conventon In the outset by Ed? mund Randolph, as Governor of the State and head ' of the delegation from Vir? ginia, was roally Madison's. It contain? ed his Ideas of government as previous? ly outlined in letters to Randolph and Washington. Tho draft bore a remark? able resemblance to the Constitution as finally adopted. It wa? Madison who led the great Hght In the Virginia Assembly for the ratifi? cation of the Constitution. -His old an? tagonist, Patrick Henry, was his most bitter opponent again, and with him were many men whose names are historic In Virginia annuls, Including Georgo Ma? son, JameH Monroe, William Grayson, Benjamin Harrison and John Tyler, As? sociated with Mr. Madison were MMmund ?Pendl.eton, Georgo Nicholas, John Mar? shall, Inncs, Henry bee and Francis Cor-' bin. "It was a battle of tho giants," says Mr. Hunt, '"the llko of which was never seen before, but the strongest man among the delegates was the delegate from Orange county, and this because no other man was so completely armed and so familiar With the methods of attack and defense as he." ? Of-Madison'? first great speech for the Constitution, made In "New Academy" on Shockoe Hill." on the northslde of Broad Street, between Twelfth and Thirteenth, John Marshall said In after years, "If convincing is eloquence, he was tho most eloquent man I ever heard." Mr. Hunt, says that during tho whole of the con? vention Madison was 111 and feeble. Ho was only live foet and a half high, his voice was so feeble the reporters found difficulty in hearing It./ When ho rose to speak he usually held his hat In his hand ns though he had not intended to make a sot speech. He generally carried notes of ills speech.'His language was plain and direct, without ornamentation or verbal flights. But Patrick Henry, the greatest orator ot his time, a man who could sway Vir? ginia audiences as no other man -could, was defeated by the feeble InslgnJIlcant looking, thin-voiced scholar from Orange county. The Constitution was adopted by a vote of 89 to 79.' It was through Patrick Henry's Influ? encie that Mr. Madison was defeated for c-lectlon as one of the first two United States Senators from Virginia, but ho was elected to the House of Representa? tives, fortunately enough for him, for the Senate at that time and for somo timo afterwords, was simply a good spot In which to hide away,, or preserve a man who claimed high office. It Is ex? tremely Interesting to trace with Mr. Hunt, step by step, the fight led by Mr. Madlaon to have the Federal capital located on th? Potomac. Ho never dis? played greater ability, probably, ;nd his side'Wpn,'though-.through a bargain not specially creditable to either party. But Mr. Hunt Insists Mr. Madison had noth? ing to do with making the bargain. "Madison as a Partisan" Is the heading of one chapter of Mr. Hunt's book. Peo? ple at all familiar with the character of Mr. Madison have hardly regarded him as a strenuous partisan, and Sir. Hunt's picturing of this side of his character is peculiarly Interesting. Mr. Madison and Genoral Washington became so com? pletely alienated that tho last words spoken by tho Father of his Country hefoto hi took to hin toM from the Ail? ment from which lib died, wore words of condomtiatlon of Mr. Madison, uttered with asperity. It Is made pretty clear by Mr, Hunt that It was Mr. Jofterson's Influence that caused rnitch of Mr. Madi? son's pnrllsnnry. But It Is also indispu? tably established by Mr. Hunt that tho prevalent opinion among American his? torians and political writers, that' Mr. Madison was Indebted to Mr. Jefferson for all his Idea? respecting government, la flagrantly Incorrect. While' Mr. Jef? ferson was studying government In a dinotante way In Prance, nnd theorizing on human rights In a philosophical way, Mr. Madison was a master workman In constructing tho fabric of the republic, and meeting conditions and solving prob? lems In a manner which was to inlltienco this government so .long ns It shouid exist. "Dolly" Madison Is given a chapter by Mr. Hunt. Incidentally, ho mentions the fact thn.t recollection ot Mrs. Madison Is still vivid among old members of county rnmllleii In Orango. Some'day I.am going to givo the story of the acquisition of TAiulslnna by the United States while Mr. Madison was Secretary of State, but not now. President Madison; fleeing from the capital nnd wandering about In the woods of Virginia In tho night, narrowly escaping falling? Into British hands', In? sulted by the fleeing mob, who blamed him for their plight; his return to tho capital, to find only Its blackened walls of the white House, arc features of the | story told In Mr. Hunt's chapter on "The War President." "Mr. Madison's sin was In trusting others to do their duty," says Mr. Hunt, In dismissing this, tho most humiliating chhpter ili American history. I fool sure every 'citizen of the States which seceded from the Union In 1S61 would "enjoy reading the' chnptcr In Mr. Hunt's book, headed "The Gloomy Fed? eralists." New' l?nglnnd opposed* tho war, and their representatives In the Congress wero. on the most >frler,illy terms with Great Britain.' They voted for tho war measures, but told tho Brit? ish that they hoped for a short war, which would throw out of power the Madison administration. "On February 1," say? Mr. Hunt, "two of them called on ?Foster (the British minister) nnd gave him advice as to tho best course fbr his country to follow. Under nd circum? stances should England accede to Madi? son's demands. A short war would be beneflclnl to England. 'In short,' re? ported Foster to his government, 'they seemed to think that Great ?Britain, by management, could bring tho United -States Into any connection with her that she pleased.' " One who does not know how bitterly tho "blue light" Federalists of Now England hated the Union at that timo can scarcely credit the Instances quote?1 by Mr. Hunt, so extravagant were. tho utterances and actions of tho majority of the people of Now England. St. Georg* Tucker, writing to Mr. Madison from Wllllnmnburg July 27 1?<12, says: "I am mortified to observe the probable predominance of a faction in Boston, whose designs "nave long been suspected by me,,and, whose, present do termination seems to, bo elthor to rule or to dissolvo Ilio Union." After tho war began, Mndlson was In? formed that a dls?aWr Id tho American arms In Vermont would cause disaffec? tion to tho Union, Governor Strong, of Massachusetts, proclaimed a public fast for a war de? clared "against tho nation from which, wo am doBoended, and whloh for many generations has bocn the bulwark of the religion we profess." Tho Boston agents for the government loan of *.l 1,000.000 with Which to carry on the war were obliged to advertise that tho names of subscribers would not be made public, and oven then. In New England, where there waa more capital thon In any other section, took only ?l,0O0,00O of bonds. In I'rovldonco, when tho news of? the declaration of war came, tho bolls of tho mcetmr houses were tolled as though for a ftinoral or a public calamity. Many sliopi) were closed, and flags were lowered to hnlf mast. Christopher Ellory, who reported? thoso facts to Madison,, said many of tho peoplo hoped for British suc? cess In the war. In Connecticut, Republicans said tho legislature wns a treasonable body, but that "one-third" (!) of the people would defend the government. Town meetings were held all over Now England and tho war denounced. Preachers thundered ngnlnst it from tho pulpit, people from Down East overwhelmed Madison with letters, telling him how greatly tney dis? approved of him and tho war. Massa? chusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island nnd New Hampshire sent delegates to a con? vention at Hartford, which had for its ot-Ject tho eventual withdrawal of the States named from the Union. A delega?? tlon seni to Washington to wait on Presi? dent Madison, reached there after the new ? ??! the groat victory at New Orleans was received, and they wont homo with? out ever seeing him. Mr. Hunt brings out very clearly tho fart that this New England discontent wan not really due. to the hardships worked- by tho embargo, which forbade the seafaring New Engl?nder putting to sea. He quotes 'from a Department of Stato MS. tho observations of Robert Livingston, who, during the period, of greatest discontent, traveled through Massachusetts, Vermont, Connecticut and Now Hampshire. "Never havo ? at any timo," he says, "witnessed more ease ani comfort than I have seen in tho whole of this oxtonslvo Journey." Mr. Hunt does not say that Jealousy of other sections of 'iho country, ospeclally of Virginia, was largely at tho bottom of . Now England's . attitude towards the Union In 1812-?. Dr. Edward Everett Halo, In his recent and most disappoint? ing book, "Memories ot a Hundred Years," an autobiography, shows very plainly by tho foroclty of his attacks on "the Virginia dynasty, Its fuss and feath-, ers and foldorols," that New England tired of tho Union In Its early days bo cnuse she.could not rulo It. For forty years now all love of the Union finds Its embodiment In Now England probably until tho sceptre departs or unfortunate partisanry puts her In a political mi? nority, ? , .' _ '? ?. '.. After Madison's retirement from the presidency, he never again held a political office, save that of a member of the. Con? stitutional Convention of 1829. Mr. Hunt says Madison had for years desired a new Constitution. One of his chief objections to the? first Constitution was "that it had novof been submitted to tho peoplo foi their ratification," according to Mr. Hunt? suggestive, in view ot the fact that the penpin of Virginia wore not given oppor? tunlty to voto on tho prosont Constitution* Madison tiled at Montpeller, Orange county, Juno 28, 1890. Oh the morning ot that day ho wa3 removed from his bed to lilt chair, as usual, and his niece brought htm his breakfast, and left It with him* urging him to ont. A fow minutes later sho returned, and found him.dead, He dlod alono, "Ho mado no parting speeches and took no sorrowful farewells," says Mr. Hunt, "but among his papers wa? found this, his last message to his fellow countrymen. Tho volume ends with the document! ? ADVICE TO MY COUNTRY. "A? this advice, If It ever see tho light?; will not do so till I am no more. It may1 bo considered as Issuing from tho tomb, where truth alone can bo respected and tho happiness of man atone consulted. It will bo entitled, therefore,.to.whatevet' weight can bo derived from, good Inten? tions and- from tho 'exporlonce of one' who has served his country In various stations through a period of forty years; who espoused In his youth rtnd adhered through his Ufo to the causo of liberty, and who has borno a part In most of the great . transactions which will constitute epoche of Its destiny. "The ndvtco nearest to my heart and deepest In my convictions Is THAT ??T. UNION OF THE STATES BE CHER? ISHED AND PERPETUATED. LE'fl TiU: -OPEN ENEMY TO -IT BE RE? GARDED AS A PANDORA WITH HER BOX OPENED, AND THE DISGUISED ONE, AS THE SERPENT CREEiPINO WITH HIS DEADLY WILES INTO. PARADISE." Mr. Gaillard Hunt Is a Louisiana mart by birth, but has for somo years past bren a citizen of Alexandria county, Va, Ills brother In tho Governor-General of'. Porto Rico. Mr. Hunt Is the author of ah historical sketch of tho United Statos coat-of-arms, a history of the Sta.tc De? partment, a serlos of articles printed In' the American Historical Review on the origin of the spoils system, &c, &c. He is ono of the permanent under ottieni? ? in tho civil service, having served with promlnenco since ho was eighteen year? of age, and now chlof of tho Bureau of Passports in. tho State Department. He,. la the author ot an authoritative worH J on passports. .-,, ii Mr. Hunt spent many years collecting? materials for this life of Madison. H?IJ put In weeks at Montpeller, the Madlsor?!, hpmostead, In Orange, county, arid In Richmond, at the State Library and at the rooms of the Virginia Historical Society,; where he appears to have collocted a considerable amount Of data. It was Iti Richmond that Mr. Hunt discovered the bust of Madlsoni a cut of ;whlch serves as frontispiece '?or the biography. Th< statue was ' unidentified When Mr. Hunt first saw It, but ho Inter established the fact that It was Madison's, and ,he'? ber.-.? l.ieves,? from descriptions of, Madlspn'e. personal appearance, that the likeness l? a good one. . Mr. Hunt's book is the first of a serles of the lives of great men of America, which will be brought out by Doubleday, Fago and Company, New York, In ,an .ef? fort to tell tho history of the country through biographies of leading men. The next? volume - Imi;the. series will bo a ,11 to of Andrew Jackson, by Professor John, S. Baasott, of Trinity College, Durham, , N. C. ' WALTER EDWARD HARRIS. : t THE RHINE A TRADE OUR INVASION JSS (Special Correspondence of Tho Tlmes Dlspatch.) COLOGNE, April ll.-I wrlto to-day of the Rhine. Not the Rhine picturesque, not the Rhine romantic nor the Rhine of castles and cathedrals, but the Rhino .as a trado routo and as tho great water avenue of the American Invasion of Ger? many. During this trip In Europe I havo filudled It from Its sources to Its mouth. I was near Us beginning on Mount Saint Gothard in Switzerland, 1 saw It rushing past Basel, the head of navigation, and wntched tho enormous trafilo moving Into it from Rotterdam near tho sea. It Is D2?? miloa from Basel to tho German ocean, and throughout this distance. th& Rhine is spotted with towns and cities; It Is cut by canals, which lead to tho Seine and tho Danube, and others -which bring It Into connection with tho busiest soctlort of this busiest of all the continents. You can got from Hamburg to tho Rhino by canal. Tho ports of Belgium havo access to it and a network of railroads lends out \ fiom it to every rjuarter of Europe THE RHINE AT COLOGNE. Hero at Cologne the Rhino Is about 1.300 foot wide, and it is deop enough for boats drawing twelve feet of water. Tho Jail Is Flight from here to the sea, and the How Is eo slow that It does not Impede navigation. .A little further south tho river narrows, nnd in tho Seven Mountains tho current is no swift that tho steamora make only a .low mllos art hour, and so strong thnt tho banks havo to be walled In with etonos almost tho wholo way to keep them from washing, Cologne Ib tho trade center of tho Rhine, j It ha? about four hundred thausand peo? ple, and Is largely dopendent upon Its river trade. It ha? built up a groat har? bor for handling tho traffic and Is now a peperai transshipping point for all parts ,of Europe. Ships come here from London, Brcmon, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Rus Bla. There are'? dally boats to England, end three boatB which run regularly be? tween Cologne and St. Petersburg. AMRERICAN ON THE RHINE. Tho most of the goods from tho United flotea is transshipped at Rotterdam, Am? sterdam, Antwerp or Hamburg, and a large part of |t Is sent up tho Ruino in barges. J have spent much time on tho river, now pacing raft? of logs and boards of Amer? ican lumber, now going by stringa of nar? row bargos, oach two hnndrod or more feot long, illled with American whoat, nnd olhor barges piled high with barrels of 'Amorlcan potroloum. I havo met a fow 'American travelers and one or two ot our drummors, but the most of the travel Jb European, and tho most of our goods go on German nnd Dutch boats Handled by Gorman Importers. A GREAT INLAND PORT. - Cologne Is a good place to study the Rhino traffic. It Is tho headquarters of the leading steamship companies. The trade is carefully watched; It steadily In? creases from year to year, and It now approximates ,'a million tons annually ?omethlnfi like four thousand passenger hoats aall at Cologne overy year, and the freight boats number many hundreds, Thero aro also stilline vessels, and ttn enormous trafilo by tugs and barge* ] saw my first Rhine barges at Rotter? dam. They jiro bullt for narrow parts of the river, and are, I venture, the longest boats mada In proportion to thetr width. Tho average barge Is about flftosii ioet wldo and two ?r throo hundred feut tonfi. It looks like a groat blank eel as It Is towed up the river, At the hack (if ? ?t is a-little cabin, with a stovepipe, st|o?. Vit out of Its roof, and about midway la a hinged mast so rVxud that )t can be raised and lowered at the bridges. Euch fcarge has a rudder, sometimes so ' Aarge that It la moved by a horizontal wg wheel pushed around by the sailors. On many of the barges tn milles pf ?atmen IWe. You see the washing hang m* ?a f'hv-i?i?* tbo wgmw ?opking ftt the J sterns of tho boats, and' the littlo ones playing about over the cargo. THE PASSENGER BUSINESS. Tho Rhine pan an Immenso passenger business during tho season. This Is now at Its beginning, and It will continuo un. til late In the fall. There are two great passenger companies which ha>/e regular dally services to Mainz nnd Cologne and Dusseldorf. They are doing well, paying regular dividends of six per cent, and over. Their stocks are considered safe Investments, and they are bought and sold on .th* exchange. - It Is not tho foreign travel, howofer, that makej tho boats pay. That Is enor? mous, It Is true, but It is nothing In com? parison with tho local traille. The Rhine Ih one almost continuous village. There are towna everywhere near the river and back from it, oxcopt In the most moun? tainous parts, and on holldaya the bouts are crowded, and. as tho faros are cheap?;* than those of the railroads, the everyday travel Is great. A difference In weather makes a big difference In the profits o? tho companies. Tills Is especially so as ta the foreign traffic. A' cold Whitsuntide means thero will bo no traffic from Lon. don, and a cold season may cut down the ' dividends more than ono per cent. There are now about a hundred steamboats on the Rhine, and the an-erogo number of paesengers exceeds a million a year. Traveling Is comparatively Inexpensive, and, strange to say, It costs less to go up tho stream than down It. It' takes only a day to see the most beautiful part of tho river, and you can have a round trip ticket at reduced rates. Each pas? senger Is allowed ? hundred pounds of baggage froe, ? small chargo being made for loading and discharging tho trunks. All tho stoamers have eating accommo? dations on them., nnd tho food Is qulio as good as on similar boats at home. At 1 o'clock thero is ? table d'hoto dinner, which costs 75 cents, with reduced rates for children. Breakfast and supper are also serv'oa. HOW GOODS ARE HANDLED. Nearly all tho Rhino towns aro growing and are steadily Improving their port arrangements. You see cranes on tiio landing places at many small towns, all the cities havo wharves and tho busy scenes ?????? them show that this part of Germany Is Industrially allvo. Tho port nt Cologne Is formed by an Island In the river. This has been walled In with great stona blocks nnd pavori with cobbles. Bridges connect It.with tho railroads and the cars aro brought right to the boats and loaded and unloaded with great steol cranes. Thero aro cus lom-hoiiBcs on tho Island with bonded warehouse, und toh facilities are such that scores of barges and boats can bo handled nt one time, As I walked along upon this Island I saw a hargo unloading South Carolina pino. Tho boards woro built out over tho sides of the burgo bo that It scorned to bo a pilo of lumber a hundred foot wldo, two hundred feet long t|nd ton feet high, It had boon towed up from Rotterdam by a steam <ug, und when 1 saw It tho hydraulic cranes wero lifting up ? hun? dred boards at a tima and dropping them on to tho cars, which wero to take them to the Intorior. Near by were only barges loading, goods for -tho United Slates and I was told that eumethlng Ilka two million dol? ?ala' worth of goods are annually ship? ped from here to our country. THE RHINE AT DUSSELDORF. . Another big Rl'flne center Is Dusseldorf about two and one-halt hours by steam? er down stream. It Is tho chief port of Westphalia, an enormous Industrial re? gion underlaid? with coal and Iron, Uns soldorf Itsolf has Iron and steel work?, foundries, furnaces and rolling mills, it makes railroad cars and electrical equip? iponls and tho samo is truo of Cologne.. Duusoia?-r? la also ^ 89?t ioT ?mmucJ other towns nearby, and does a great business In selling American machine tools, Carolina pine and some of our .best hardwoods. It takes a great lot of Cal? ifornia fruit, and has until recently im? ported considerable iron and steel tubing,' ulthough this Is now furnished by Gor-.; many. It is from thero that a large part:' of the Krupp shipments go out. Including | those' to ?the United States, which are heavy. MAINZ AND MANNHEIM. Up the Rhino above Cologne there are ? .number of Important ports, and especial? ly Coblenz, Mainz and Mannheim, am surprised at the size of Mainz. It is growing like a green bay tree, and now has more than ono hundred thousand population. It Is situated where the Main flows Into tue Rhine and gets tho traille of both rivers. It was so rich in the past that It was called "Golden Mainz," and a score of other things. Its anallne dye plant is the largest In the world, Its ex I ports to the United States alone amount? ing SlO).0O0 a month. It has J.OOO men In Hs,_ chemical works. 1,400 workmen in its :'comb , and 'doll factories and other thousands making wood pulp, which, strange to say, It exports to the United States. It also sends us patent leaCi-.rr tc the value of something like ??,???,???) a year, and at the saiiit? time buys a few Amercan Bhoes. It uses American to? bacco and makes millions of cigars every week, which are shipped to all parts of Germany. ? NEW GERMAN TOWNS. ! These Rhine towns aro among tho new ost of the German cities. This statement seems strange when one . ronTdmbers that they thrived in the days of tho crusaders. Cologne was founded about the time" that tenis : of government. Municipal owner? ship Is coming to the front along tho old river. There Is ' much city prldo, and but little boodling. Dusseldorf owns Its own gas and electric light'plants.' It has .public- bath houses, where you can get at cost, a?.Turkish ,or Russian bath, first, second ?or tliirdrclass,. ..It has Its cwn slaughter houses and market houses, and Its own ice plants and cold storage establishments. Tho municipality nets also as a wine merchant, selling wlno by wholesale, and making a profit off of It. It has a municipal savings . bank, with a pawnbroklng attachment, and also homes for tho aged and ? thoso who aro too feeble to earn their own living, Dusseldorf owns Its street cars and so does Cologne, and the fares In both cities are Just about half what they are In tho United States and the . accommodations equally good. My car.fares cost me about ?5 a monili, or. JUO a year, while at homo In Washington. In Drusseldorf I could COLOGNE, THE RHINE TRADE CENTRE FOR AMERICAN GOODS. It was at ono timo tho leader of the Joaguo of Rhenish towns, formed during the middle uges to boom tho trado of this region. To-day it Is overshadowed by Frankfort, but It has an Increasing trade, Mannheim, still further up? the Rhine at tilo mouth of tho Neckar, might be called an American trade center. It has ouormous Imports of American grulli, coai oil and tobacco, and is tho hund quarter? for tho transshipment of Ameri? can .goods, Tho Diamond .Mutch Com? pany, tliq Standard Oil Company and tha Puro OU Company havo plants thoro and our leading exportera of all kinds havo tholr agencies. Mannheim is tho head of Rhine naviga? tion for largo boats and ilia chief point of distribution for grain, cotton, ' coal oil, lumber and coal. Ovor sixteen thousand boats unload at Its duck every year und i, ??* traigli t runs um iato the. uiUUvaa of tons. It Is a groat commercial eoutor, its bunks having a capital of ?80,000,000. It: is also a manufacturing city, making dyo stuffs and chemicals, corks and oars, bcor und glass bottles, agricultural Implo, monts, pianos, cocounut butter, cigars and Caesar overran Gaul. It was so rluh dur? ing the middle ages that instoatl of say? ing ""as rich as Croesus" they said "as rich as a cloth merchant of Cologne," and It ha? been an .important town from that timo until now. And still it Is a now town! Since tho Franco-Prussian war It 1ms boon almost: rebuilt. Tho old wall has beon torn away, litui a side street, paed -with asphalt, with Ireos In tho tenter and rldowaya ami driveways on each sido, has taken Its placo. New luiusos havo been erected along this streot, and, Indeed, tho whole city looks as fhoutfh It wore put up for show. It Is only In the elder sortions thut you find antiquo structures, and th? [ pa.th.eduU. although bejrna centuries ?V*, waa only completed along In tho eighties. It Is now tho finest cathedral In Europo, and cost, all told, a little less than *3,00O, 1)00, Dusseldorf Is also a now town, and thoro aro now buildings ull along tho Rhine, Including the villas of tho rich, which havo grown up under tho shadows of mediaeval castles. MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP. The Rhino cities aro now in their sys have the samo for just half und save $30. Hero in Cologne one can buy a yearly pass, good tin all Unes for ?30; monthly poises nro sold for ??.38 and the ordinary nro for the longest dislalico Is J 1-2 cents, while tho shortest dlstanco costs less than ?> 1.2 conta. Children under ton years pay Toss than 2 cunts, and student? attend? ino- educational institutions have com? mutation tickets for. 1 1-6 cunte. The chief advantage that the railroads here havo ovor tho.su at homo Is in tho lower wairM for motormon and other employ es; for coal, stool rail? and car equipment ?usi. cost ubout tii? ?une, ?f to WWW? motormen receive S3 cents and conductors about 72 cents for a day of ton hours, and other employes aro proportionately cheap. FAiKMING ON THE RHINE. It Is wonderful how the Rhino Valley Is cultivated. Por the. greater part ot tho distance between Cologne and Mainz It Is Very, hilly, .but every Inch of avail? able space Is used.. The,mountains are terraced In places, the earth being held. In with 'Willis of stones, and some of it, I am told, carried up from tho lowlands on the- backs of women and men. Some of tho patches are no larger than a bed quilt, and a flold a yard wide will run a long distance around a hill or up a mountain. This is especially so in tho vine-growing roglons, which are in tho most mountainous parts of tho valley. The land Is so rough that all cultlva l tlon must bo with tho hoo or the spade, and heneo back broaking. Tho grapes aro planted in rows running up arid down hill. Each vino has its own stake, and it is- cut down to a central stem or stump every year. All along tho river under such vineyards aro little towns of ono or two-atory houses with roofs of slate or tiles. There are no houses in the vineyards, thoj most characteristic buildings being thej whlto stone castles high up on the sides of tho mountains. The soil Is carefully handled. It Is fer? tilized and so treated that although It has boon-producing for centuries It still yields abundantly. 1 expected to Und I Rhine wines on tho Rhino very cheap, but the bost are exceedingly dear. The prices rleo and fall according to tho sea? son, for sometimes tho ' crop Is short, causing a genoral rise, .One of the best wlno regions Is that of tho Rheingau, which runs for about fifteen miles along tho river. It Is hero that tho Johannesborger wlnos are pro? duced. They como from ubout fifty-five acres of vineyards, being made from tno best grapes raised in that area. GERMANS AS WINE DRINKERS. Tho Idea provalls in tho United States that tito Germans drink only beer. This Is not true, They consumo vast quanti? ties of wlno, nnd their wines on tho av? erage are good. Every olty has. scores of wlno restauranti!, and many botole havo tholr wlno restaurants and beer restaurants sido by sido. The difference is that anything ordernd in the wine res? taurant costs considerably moro than tho same thing In the beer restaurant. Even beer costs more If tnkon In, the wine ro" tnitrnnts. The n^oplo often drink wlno with tholr menls nnd It Ih p commnn thine tn earry wlno along with a lunch on tho enrs. As to boor. It tnkn? the nlaoo of water amono? young nnd old. nnd no nno'-thlnks ?nvthlng strnnro o<" rhildron drlnklm? It. ? snw a school teacher brinar thlrtv school ohlldrnn Into a restaurant tlm other day. He ordered dinner for thorn, nnd oncli hart hor pint glnH? of beer. FRANK G. CARPENTER. Tho Time for Recreation. In this Insistent age, when life every? where Is at high pressure, thero Is great need of emphasizing tho Importance?yes, tho absoluto Importance?of recreation. What la work worth, especially brain work, when It Is performod with jaded faculties, the energy of the brain cells ho? lng exhausted? Ono ambitious of becoming a writer, for example thinks ho is saving timo t>y forcing his brnln beyond natural ijmlts, lie believes that what ho dous o\pr hours I Is clear gain, nnd that writing a chapter ? or an article attor his day's work In an office, u ?lotory, or a store, Is to his nd vantago But sooner or later ho will real- | Izo his mistake. Naturo will not be cheated. A man may profitably occupy his evenings In study or In some other occu? pation than that by which h*> earns his dttBy bread, but ho cannot do a full day's work of any kind and then wlsoly at? tempt to do oroatlvo work In tho evening. A fresh brain is absolutely essential to tho production of original thought, Even a recognized author who forces too much work upon his brain will eoon seo thnt his writings are not Jn as much demand ns thoy havo been, and that his reputa? tion Is waning.?O, B. Mardvlin in May "Success,'' ~ , 1 A CITY EDITOR: Brlglit's Disenso and Diabetes Are Positively Curable. Before the business men who Incorporated tta Fulton Compounds Invested they put them to tho lest .in dozens of oases. ? Hearing that U. M. Wood, the editor and proprletoj? of The Wlno and Spirit Rovlew, of 5-JO Montgomery St., bini'' b c?rtala cuso of JJrlght's Disease; hu wugoneof thoeeurgBd to test it. Thu following letter will: cow bo understood! : ? "Oftloe Wine ond Spirit Rovlow, "520 Montgomery St., Sun Franoisoo. ; \ "Sept.-Jl, 1001. "Gontlemen: ? consider it iny duty to tell Ibo world what tho Fulton Compounds did in my caso. la Novumbcr, 1E09, attor a long ill? ness, which carried rao to tbo vergo oil tho grave, a ?oloutlflo analysis by tho most notod analyst la this city disclosed that I was'a via-. ? tlm ot Drlght's Disease. My physician told mo that my only hopo lay In a strong constitution . and a change to a warm elimo. He suggest, a/1 Santa Barbara, ami I wont there, having fit Una ' from 225 pounds to loss than 190 In a short time,'" " DurlQR my absence In thu south a Sao Fran cIboo business man culled upon my wlfo, anil told her of the Fulton Compound; that livrai actually curing Hrlnht's Disease-, and urged that I try It. I began under protest. I sooa folt bettor. Normal sleep loturnud, ? and la a few mouths I regained m? boalt.li. I now weigh ?3U pounds, a?? enjoy butter health than I have lu tltleeii years. Naturally I told several Irlemls, und lu every ins tunco thu resulte wero tho same, evor, where tuey had been suffering for years. Tin world ' ought to know that Hrinht'e Disease, Is at lust curable, and appro? dating my own pood fortune, 1 will be gladio give further details lo Interested parties. " R. M. Wood." Modleal works agree that Urlrrht's Disdi'?? and Diabetes aro lnourablo, but S7 per cuut. are positively recovering under the Fulton Com? pounds, (Coronimi forms of kidney complaint and rheumatism offer but short resistance.). l'rlou, II 'or the Urli?ht'B Disease and 11.50 for tho Diabetic Compound. .lohn J. Fulton Co,, V10 Montgomery street, Situ Francisco, sols ?ompounUoiB. Free tests made for patient?, Descriptive paiupblet mailed free._, Owens 4 Minor Drug Co., Distributor?. Can Cancer Be Cured? It Can. Without the uso of the knife we cura Cancers, Tumors and Chronlo Sores, charging .nothing for examination. Our patients are. our beat friends. Come and see the cancers wa haye removed and cured from our now hanpy patients, and aro dally curing. They are wonderful. If then you are not satisfied, w.e w|ll pay nil your expense?. Kellam Cancer Hospital . Twelfth and Bank Streets, Hlchmonil, Va. '. ... .,.'.:?..? ??* WM ? GULLINGWORTH & co, GOAL, COKE uo WOOD Lowur l'?imo ?W. VffgW Fbtm 8614 '?