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The Art of Self-Defense.
TO PROSPECTIVE ATHLETES
By ROBERT FITZSIMMONS
Champion Middle-Weight of the
The great secret of propor training for
ell kinds of athletic feats Is to use com?
mon sense. This Is tho keynoto of success
for all athletes.
Common sense In eating, common sense
In exorcising, common senso in sleeping,
nil form a combination that brings ono
One thing that I want to Impress u*.m
the young athlete Is not to oxertux hitn
jelf at the outset. Tills mistake has been
? Lesson In Street Defense, No. 3?Ht
je Now at My Mercy.
the undoing of many a youth who would
have devoloped into a big, strong athlete
if lie had not. started with wrong Ideas
of how to tralu.
Different people need different work, A
frail, delicate boy , cannot stund as
vigorous work at first as a big, lusty chap;
and yet the little one has Just us much
chance as tho big one If ho only goes
ebout things In the proper manner.
Good health is tho ilrst essential of on
ethleto. If one Is not healthy, then he
must endeavor to build himself up In |
this direction before starting on any
oourse of physical exercise,
This can be done only by laying down
certain rules and following them strictly,
These rules are very simple.
61X RULES FOR YOUNG ATHLETES,
Do not drink.
Da not smoke.
Do not chew.
Get all the sleep you can.
Get all the pure, froshalr you can,
Eat plain, wholesome food, and plenty
Adhere to these rules, and gradually,
but surely, you will find yourself becom?
ing stronger and stronger. Finally thu
day will conio when you will never know
?t sick mornent, Then Is the time to
eommenoe your exercising. At this stage
Another duty presents Itself,
FIND YOUR WEAK POINTS.
You must find your weakest physical
points. Theso must bo built up so that
they will correspond with the rest of
if your back is weak It must be
strengthened; If your arms, your legs,
or your chest aro weak you must pay
particular attention to these parts until
you feel that they are as strong as the
rest of your body. After this has been
accomplished you are fairly upon the
road to the making of a "perfect physical
man," Now comes tho dally routine of
regular training; do not forget that this
routine must never be overdone. It Is
Just as harmful to overtrain, In fact more
harmful, than It is not to train at all.
You may easily ascertain Just how much
ercerclso your system can stand. Then
regulate your work accordingly. Gradual?
ly, not all at once, must you. work your
system up to tne point where It Is capable
of standing the strain which you desire to
place upon it.
HOW TO TRAIN.
If you are training to be a runner you
must strengthen your legs and thighs.
Vou must also see that your wind Is good.
If you want to wrestle,?, you must have
a .good, strong back, chest, and neck
mus oies as well as strong arms and legs.
This is also the caso with a boxer. Every
on?i of his muscles must be well developed.
In addition to all this ho must learn to
bo quick?quick on his foot and quick with
his hands and arms. Different forms of
tithetica require entirely different styles
of training. Somo do not require as much
head work as others. Perhaps the boxor
has more need for clear, cool headwork
than any other kind of an athlete. He has
ho many lessons to learn before he can
be rated ns ovon a fnlr boxer that it takes
u long while to reach any sort of perfec?
tion. He hns not only his body and mus?
cles to build up. but his brain must bo
properly trained. All of this takes time,
and can bo done only by long, careful,
systomntlc and faithful training and mus?
Ono thing thnt I want particularly to
Impress upon the young atlileto Is the
priceless value of a good home nnd pleas?
ant home surroundings, Somo boys and
young men linve an idea that an athlete
must bo "tough." This is all wrong, and
A Lesson In Street Defense? No, \m
An Opponent Tbr?vfifn* \o ?t*r* ?
fight with Mt. * ?
it has been proved time and again that
tho athlete, whether a runner, wrestler,
boxer, oranything else, can best fit him?
self for manly sports If he leads a clean,
wholesome, good life, And this can bo
best found amid pleasant home surround?
FIRST LESSON IN. BOXING.
Cool head and good temper essential to
Boxing is one of the best exercises that
Right Kind of Muscles, Long and
Sinewy. Not Bunched and Knotty.
a young man can take up, The art of
self-defense, as It is called, brings Into
nlay ?,? many qualities and helps to de?
velop so many traits of character which
figure In ono's dally Ufe that It furnishes
quite a moral tralnng In Itself.
An even, peaceable temp?rament Is de?
veloped by boxing; patienco Is taught
by the same means, A cool, clear head
In moments of dnngor and confusion is
always found In the man who knows how
to uso his flats for pleasure or protection,
as the case may be,
In boxing, as In everything elee, tliero
Is a right and a wrong way. It is a long
road to travel before one can be called
even a fairly good boxer, At the start,
however, It Is a good plan to memorize
certain rules which must be strictly fol?
THREE CARDINAL RULES,
Do not get "rattled."
Do not lose your temper.
The mastery of these three rules Is of
more consequence that the learning of
the many blows and guards which In.
timo become tho property of a boxer.
The blows are learned naturally. It is
not everyone, however, who realizes the
Importance of mastering the three rules
which I have laid down. . It can easily
be seen of how much Importance they
If a, percoli le cool end good-natured
Vhen poxng he has an advantage at
?????over one who loses bis head, g*l?i
angry, and rushes headlong Into dan?
ger. If you are boxing for exercise and
pleasure a cool, clear head will help you
to see every opening which your opponent
.KEEP YOUR TEMPER.
Do not get excited, and you will not
lose a single chance of?scor|ng a point.
At the same time, you are good naturetl
and ready to laugh at any hard knocks
you may receive yourself. All thi?? Is
training for the moment of real danger.
You may be nttncked In the street by
footpads. They Intend to rob you, and
you may be in a lonely, dark locality.
Of course their first effort?? nre directed
to rendering you helpless. Now, take the
man who does not know how to box, who
has' never been drilled to keep cool and
calm in jnoments of damrer. What hap?
pons to him? Hs Is probably found lying
in the gutter In tho gray light of early
morning, his pockets rifled, and with
possibly a fractured skull.
Then look at the man wno as a boy
learned to protect himself, who knows
the science of self-protection and who
can stand firm and true before a couple
of fast-flying fists.
He Is probably pitted against a couple
of burly, clumsy, cowardly ruffians, They
come at him with murder in their hearts,
Does ho loso his self-possession? On the
oontrary, he wnlts for the attack, selec's
the toughest-looking one. with the Idoa
of getting him out of tho way first; mea?
sures his man carefully and then Fends
in a well-directed blow, right or loft, as
the caBo may be. Ten to one Mr. Ruffian
goes down. That leaves ampio time to
vanquish footpad No. 2.
This Is only one picture to illustrato
tho great advantage of a knowledge of
the art of self-defense nnd the qualities
which go with It. A thousand Instnnces
might be quoted where the qualities
which faved this man from the footpads
would come Into play.
Therefore I say everyono should leant
to 'box; let all parents encourage their
boys to learn to protect themselves -with
their fists. It does not multo ruffians of
thorn; It does noi teach them to bo
Vicious; It does not turn thorn Into bull'es,
But it does make them manly, upright,
??elf-possessed, elear-hendod man,
They know their power and can afford
to be merciful; they are cool, and there?
fore do not fear danger; they are mjld
tompered, nnd therefore lovable. When
they are right, they advance -with de?
termination which brooks no obstacle:
whon they tiro wrong they hold their
peace. Learn to box; but'bo sure you
learn tho right way.
Soft and supple muscles the kind that
A Lesson in Street Defense, No. 2?I
Grasp His Coat by the Collar, Whip
It Down Over Hie Back and Arms,
Thu? Leaving Him Powerlee*.
gives athletes speed strength, and last?
A professional strong man came Into
my gymnasium one day and eald, "I
would like to be a boxer."
"A boxer, eh," I replied. "What
makes you think you would make o
"Why, I am as strong as a Hon. Just
come In here and I will show you."
And then this strong man went Into my
gymnasium and took the heavy weights
and the heavy punching bag and tossed
them around like feathers. In a moment
he was puffing and blowing llko a por?
poise, but ho stepped back and looked
at me with a smile. He certainly was a
picture of strength. The muscles stood
out all over his body In big knots. From
head to foot he was one mass of knotty,
"How is that, for a starter?" he said.
I did not say a word. His Ignorance
was pitiful to me. Walking over to on?
sido of the room I took a set of boxing
gloves from the wall and handed, him a
pair. Following my load he put them
It took mo about two minutes to show
that man how useless, unwieldly and Im?
practicable his muscles were. Ho ..andled
himself Ilka a cart-horso. He was as
slow on his feet as a messenger boy. His
brain acted as did his muscles, slowly
and stiffly. Although'a big man, weigh?
ing perhaps two hundreds pounds, he did
not make as good showing with me br
many amateur lightweights with whom I
had put on tho gloves.,
I think I showed him clearly tho uso
lessness of his heavy weight-lifting
muscles. Thoy wero good for one thing?
the service for which they had been
Like every athlete In his profession ho
was muscle-bound. Thoso huge masses
of muscle, gained at the expense of many
hours of hard work, wero for all prac?
tical purposes of no more use that a
hand organ would be to a shipwrecked
sailor on a raft in the middle of the At?
In fact, such muscles servo to help
shorten one's Ufo, The muscle-bound
man, with every fiber of his body
drawn to a tension that pulls at the vo
heartstrings, most frequently dies with
what Is known ns an "athleto's heart."
A muscle-bound man Is worse than n
ski ?-bou nd horse. He Is as awkward
and ungainly as a crocodile would be In
a ball-room. Take htm away from his
chosen profession and he Is all at sen.
He Is a frightful object iesson against tho
use of heavy dumb-bells, or heavy
weights of any kind,
The man or boy who wants to become
quick, strung, and clover must avoid tho
use of heavy weights as curofullv as
though they wero poisonous snakes.
They completely destroy all that supplo
ness and agility whloli mark every de?
tail of tho clover athlete's work.
A iniin who Is a runner, Jumper, box?
er?In fact, anything except a heavy?
weight lifter?can bava no use for knot?
ty, unwieldy masses of strongth,
Even our best wrestlers nowadays re?
cognize the fact that muscles uf that kind
are of no use to them. They know thai
there are right nnd wrong muscles lust
as well as they know there is a rie"1
nnd wrong way to wrestle. They know
Hint such muscles bring them premature
old age and early death.
Thus It Is that every ambitious young
athloto ?should strive to truln his mua
c?es In tho proper way. Light dumb
bells, Indian clubs und other musclo
bulldlng weights sliould never bo for?
Do not use heavy weight*.
Do not exercise too much.
(Copyrighted. 1901, by A. J. LreXol Bid
?lo, PhlladelphU-i ?
WHAT MUSICIANS TALK ABOUT,
Hopeful Signs for American Opera?St Satns in the Role of
a Prophet?Chopin as the Hero of an Opera?Ladies Will
Not Take Off Hats to Theodore Thomas?The Bishop of
Gloucester and Edward ^ Elgar.
WASHINGTON, Dec. B?It looks ns
though this country would havo In a
few years a distinctly national opera with
American singers, Tho old idea that
overythlng musical must como from
abroad, is slowly but surely disappear?
ing. Opera directors are now engaging
American girls In preference to forlegn
era whenever possible. Both of tho men
who havo bocomo prominent in tliLs field
ol work, Mr. Conrlcd of tho Metropoli?
tan Opera, New York, nnd Mr. Henry
Savage, whose name has become synony?
mous with the production of opera In
English, have shown a desire to oncour
agi- home talent. Mr. Conrlcd has .or?
ganized what ho calls tho "soliool of
cpera," and from this school he recruit?
ed the Valkyrie maidens who appeared
In "Dio Walkuero" last week' In New
fork. Thoy were Marcia Van Dresser, Lil?
lian Heldolbach, Josephine Jacoby, Paula,
Ralph, Isabelle 13outon, Selma Kronold
ana Johanna Poehlmnnn.
Camille Saint Suene made a statement
before tho Astronomical Society of
France, recently, which will appear in
cicdlblo to ninny. Ho said that, an artist
of his acquaintance had shown hltn a
painting and asked him whether he
thought It would lio-hung in tho salon.
Immediately Saint Snons had a vision, ho
says, of ono of tho galleries hung with
pictures, and among thoin, on tho right
entrance nbovo tho lino, was that of his
friend. Two months afterward, when the
srlon opened. Saint Sucns woa present,
and saw tho picture bunging oxtictly
where It had been In the vision. Tho
role of prophet is a new ono for this
Mr. Graham Peel, an English composer,
has mad?"! some Interesting arrangements
of old folk tunes of the British lalos,
.?it a recont concert In Manchester, ling
land, a number of theso arrangements
wero performed, together with somo of
Mt. Pool's original compositions. Among
thu lutter, a song entitled "in Youth ?
Is Pleasure" Is said to be a thoroughly j
pood composition, a miniature which I
shows tho composer to bo possessed of
great talent. Next to this Is his Hong,
"Awake, Awuke," tho lirat number of
tin? samo net, The best ni' tho folk sunga
arranged by Mr. Peel, were "Turn Yo
lo Mis," ono of the most poetlo among
highland melodies, and thu Nortli'Coun
trv English, "Jenny Nettles," which was ?
both quaint and Charming, I
Mmo. Clara Butt (Mrs, Konnerley Rum
fordi Is unid to be suffering from a too
great Indulgence In the ballad. Tlie fa- I
incus contralto und her husband uro mak?
ing a tour north of London, and tire slug
Inp programmes of short songs. Spino
ol Mme. Butt's admirers claim that the
adoration, with which elio inspiri? her
audiences on account of her Illimitable
vocal powers and enthusiasm, Is making ;
her careless of tho higher vocal art, to
which sho might ospito, and her stylo in
oratorio is suffering, it is stated, us a
A very favorable Impression was cre?
ated in London recently by a Scandlna.
vlai) messo slngor, Miss Maja KJoliler. Sho
preientfld at her concert some unfamiliar ?
?tonga by Peda r Arnold Heise, a native o? j
Copenhagen, (1830-1879). Though not a
prolific composer, his "Dyvekes Sango,"
which were charmingly sung by Miss
KJohler, are said to belong to the high?
er strata of this class of music. Roman?
tic, warm In coloring, charmingly varied"
In thoir offocts, and of truly Northern
flavor, aro tho qualities attributed to
tieso songs. Emil SJogren, a Swede, born
at Stockholm, In 1853, was also represent?
ed at this concert. His three songs, were
applauded rapturously by the audience,
Beforo Richard Strauss sails for
Amerlen, ho will give concerts In Eng?
land and Scotland for a brief period. He
will arrive In Great Britain In the early
part of December and will conduct a
Berlioz memorial concert at Queen's
Hall on tho 11th. On tho Oth of December
hr Is to accompany Frau Strauss In her
recital of his songs. In addition to this
ho will conduct concerts In Edinburgh and
Glasgow, and will nppear ot a chamber
music concert In Birmingham,
Ladles who attend the concerts ot
Theodoro Thomas' orchestra In Chicago
will not remove their hats, although they
have beon requested to do so by the man?
agement, and although a city ordinance
requires It. Several explanations have
been vouchsafed as to tho true cause of
this action or lack of action by these
residents of tho "Windy City." but no
ono seems to be certain of tho real rea,?
fon, Perhaps, these ladles cannot bring
thnmselves to put a ?50 theatre hat where
It Is not In plain view of their social ri?
Herr Felix Motti, who made his ap
petirnnco as conductor at the Metropoli?
tan Opera Houso, Now York city, a few
nights ugo, has been appointed conductor
ot tho Munich Opera In place of the late
Herr Zunipa, Motti will not take up tlie
baton In Munich, however, until next
spring, after ho leaves this country. The
salary, which It Is reported he will re-*
celve abroad, Is $75,000 per annum. It paye
hotler to be an opera director than to
Lillian Btauvelt sung at St. James Hall,
London, on the 10th of November. The
critic of the Pall Mall Gazette writes that
her voice la much Increased In power
siticu ho ln.it heard her, while her facility
Ir. the employment of her superb organ,
is ua striking us ever. She was at her
tost In Liza Lehmann's "Molly's Spinning
Glncomu Orefice'? opera, "Chopin," wee
performed In Milan the middle of this
mouth, This Is tho opera, It will be re?
called, which wus concocted from th*
Polish composer's own music, A novel
Idea this, to take sections of a planet's
music and put them .together Into an
opera. A .- :udy of tho score Is fascinating
troni ono point of view at least, One ob?
serves a familiar run such as only a
Paehmunn could render with suitable
dreaminess, Uut here it Is sung by a
soprano, or, perhaps, Is transformed into
a contrnputal tete-a-tete between the so
prunos und altos of tho chorus. The en?
tire. Thirteenth Nocturno CA minor) ha?
been used for a grand finale ta the third
act. What, ? wonder, woukt Choi^r* s*jr
I? ho could he*?? Ut