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Amona the Men who^
Aiiiwitl?vH aa d or Br?in 4* OitttAdt?xlK^t?Aiii The Eye of the Octopus. through a System of " Peeping Toms " the Standard Oil Company Sees the Operations of Its Competitors. By Merwin Worcester. WHA"? do you think of iho standard Oli company and Its mothods? It may bo a revelation to you to learn that the Standard Oil com? pany already knows exactly what your position is with referonco to tho octo? pus, Its methods, and Its directorate, pro? vided you are a personage of mark enough, to make'that knowledge, worth while to tho Standard Oil company, materially or sug? gestively. For of all tho great trusts of tho time, the Standard Oil Is virtually alone In the opera? tion of a system of spying, inquisition, and small tlttlo-tattling, covering? not..only,'the. business of competitors, but prying into the ! smallest of individual and community opin? ions, gauging, measuring, and In tho great final ofllce of recapitulation a.nd deduction? striking its trial balances in public opinion with all tbo accuracy and concern involved in the distribution of ono of tiio company's enormous dividends. How docs the company accomplish all thla tabulated Information of the state of mind of Tom, DiCk, arid Harry of the world of busi? ness? One might ask in half answer, " How does it know where every barrel of oil produced by aa independent shipper goes and where every barrel sold by every corner grocer from I Maino to California comes from?" By tho interminable, unsleeping, never-fal? tering system of espionage based upon the philosophy o? the company's founder, "Noth? ing is too small and Inconsiderable to neglec't and nothidg too formidable to undertake"; this Is the system through which nothing I under the sua la new to tho Standard Oil company. ' 4? * Peeping Tom Type in Demand. There is a type of man wa'l recognized in all civilizations as of the Peeping Tom dis? position and temperament The full meas? ure of the typo Is attracted to tlie law, partly os a profession, but largely because of the opportunity It offers to become a t^pe ot dead beat presenting at least a sort of visi? ble means of support. This means, how? ever, is not visible, and for a good reason, to the shyster and his clients alike. To this Peeping Tom type in tho law the Standard Oil company looks for much of its espionage, personal, political, executive, leg? islative, and Judicial. Certainly this par? ticular means of support of tho shyster is peculiarly invisible, and from tlio company's analyses and deductions and testa of com? munity temper, quite as much as from the detail of the businesses of its competitors, the methods of the Standard are' relaxed, tightened, or otherwise altered to meet and suit conditions. Only a few years ago one of the greatest Virtuous acts of tho Standard, self-exploit? ed, concerned some of the Standard's rebates, drawbacks, and other like details of a great business so complicated and so distributed In its vastnesses that somewhere now and (hen .somebody would-some time almost necessarily fall into pett> Infractions of law which tbo head of the Standard OU com? pany itself could not for a moment sanction whori it finally was brought to his attention up the long lines of servants, agents, offi? cials, and the liko? ? Yes, a few years ago down in Ohio, the pres? ident of tho Standard Oil company, concern? ing theso small discrepancies in the conduct of the company business, pointed out that the company had refunded these certain illegal charges long before tho suit asking the re? funding had been died I . How did he know when to do It? Through Peeping Toms, who more ? than any other agency?mental, moral, spiritual, or super? natural?have been tho prompters of the omniscenco with which Rockefeller and the lights of the Standard company-have'been so generally credited. ....'?*?*? Spy System Rota.chea Everything. These Tome havo peeped at times because they were afraid not to peep. They1 have peeped because they hoped to gain favors by peeptngi And they have peeped-tor tne rea? son that they have been paid to peep^-pald a salary or commission or other fee In full of all demands, after peeping without regard to anything but tho ends required of the Standard Oil company. " There is probably not an Independent oil company In tho country today which does not believe that the Standard Oil company secures regular reports of Its business by underhand means," is part of the testimony of a witness in ono of tho many attempts legally to hold the Standard OH company to an account of its stewardship. Before one of the recent Investigations by the industrial commission witnesses came and testified to tho belief that at all times they and their men and the details of their business were constantly under tho espion? age of tho octopus of Standard Oil. Hero and there reports were made,that tank cars in tho railroad yards of tho various cltl?a showed evidences of having been opened by Standard spies in order that the contents of these independent tanks could be deter? mined and reported upon by Standard splet. * ?* Admit AU Agents Are Spies. " X<_>," admitted the Standard mouthpiece on on? occasion under the stress of investiga? tion, " we ask.our salesmen and our agents to keep their eyes open and keep us informed of conditions in their respective fields." And on that particular occasion before the indus? trial commission in 1898 It was discovered that the way In which agents were required to open their eyes In order to keep the com? pany sufficiently informed, as indicated in the blanks furnished for these reports to the Standard, was* enough to bring about almost any disease known to the oculist! Rockefeller, the Mysterious! Standard Oil, the Impenetrable and Omniscient! These have been the poslngs of tbe octopus and of the wl?nrrt which brought the creature into life. But behind all of thli lies the Intolerable spy system of the corporation, which, If business wore ali that business In cracked up to be, should stand In tbe open, Impregna? ble, With, a oapltnl ?took Valued at market prices' close to S700,000,000 and paying a dividend of |4B,0OO,O0O a year?o per ccnit upon $l)00,000,000^-the Standard Oil monopoly still must know whether It can re-tall oil at 11 cents In ono town while charging 11 In an? other, or whether pub.lo sentiment Is so distributed that the 14 cents would better. bo charged In, the on? town and the 11 conte In tho other. But thero are time*,;.of course, when the Standard Is compelled to take tho Vander? bllt attitude toward the public and Its opin? ions, as when at Dariyllle, II?;,'two years ago, ?It boycotted the town, refusing to sell Inside Its city limits any Of the Standard's products from crude petroleum simply been us? the town's public spirit was -,ieed to protest over the dilapidated condition of tho Stand? ard's oil depot and Its environment. In all the range of the Stan dard's seins* Interests thero Is not a field that Is not cov? ered by the spies and Inquisitors of tho sys? tem, charged with reporting to the headquar? ters of the Standard's control. these sociolog? ical phenomena as they have developed In Individual and community. ?'??? ?. . : i Bribes Employes ol Competitor* Twenty years ago or more the Standard had the system of espionage working In a business way as affecting the material trans? actions ot competitors. In 1883 John Teagle was a refiner In Cleveland lii, competition with the Standard. He had a bookkeeper who was loyal to the extent of reporting ta him the advances made by the Standard In order to get a full and accurate account of tho Teagle business. In this case, according t? the testimony of the bookkeeper, he was approached by John D. Rockefeller's brother and offered $25 In cash and a fee thereafter,' yearly, If lie would keep the Standard company posted In the details of the Teagle business. In these reports upon the Teagle transact 16ns, how? ever, the Standard ,was' not tc ?gure In the slightest possible publicity, all such com? munications to be addressed , tp an Imper? sonal " Postoffice Box 164, Cleveland, O." In this beginning of th? operations of the Standard octopus', as It has come to bo rec? ognized everywhere, the necessity seemed te be largely to keep-In touch with, every ma? terial transaction In oil and petroleum prod? ucts. Later, as a public sentiment developed and found voice In many ways, occasionally taking active form la active deeds, the soci? ological side of competition had.to.be con? sidered, and In tho last few years the eye ot the octopus has been as much to be dreaded as have Its tentacles. Recent developments' In Kansas Indicate that the Standard Oil company's ?pies have been asleep, or that the Standard has been taking an unduly light view of the revolu? tionary spirit of "William Bstloy Connolley ot Chanute, leader of tho Kansas crusades against tho greatest corporation In tho world. If these conditions arose from the In? competency of its spies, southern Kansas agents ot the octopus arc promised a shaking up that shall be lasting. / \ist "Deliver the Goods, 99 If You Don't You'll Fe.il. By H. J. Hapgood. WHEN Richard Boo has started out in life with noticeable energy and cour? age and some suggestions of ability, only to score two, or three, or four distinctly flat failures just beforo he suddenly springs up Into a phenomenal success, It may bo taken for granted that ho has tbo wholo lay world of his acqualiit anco guessing. And this is not at all strange, for the rea? son that In all probability poor Richard ho* " been guessing harder than any half dozen of his closest friends. How is it?how was it?that a man could fall bo utterly In as .many lines ns Roo failed in and yet be the wholo tiling In this new field ot his? He must havo had some influence, at work for him. They said thoy wouldn't havo his serv? ices as a gift at tho last place he worked. * * Flat Failure a?s Lawyer. One of these particular Richard Roes whoso experiences occur to mo just now be Igan as a lawyer a number of years ago. Ho took up tho law because his fathor and ble family In general thought ho ought to do so. He was an earnest studont ond when lie opened on oiilco ho sot earnestly to work for a practice. I Work??ho didn't do any i thing but work In tho first fow years, but without avail. There was not a living in the practice that ho could command and fortu? nately for him ho had to earn this living. It was late, but ho took a course In a com l mereiai colicgo, equipping himself ns an ac? countant. As a bookkeeper of avorago at? tainments, ho could commund a salary of $75 ? a month, having some uncertainty about I holding the placo. Ho was a hard worlier, to somo extent bocauso ho had to work hard In ids position, and in a great measure be? cause ho needed to hold tho position. He L felt ihe spur upon him to ". mako good." Ho lost this f?75 job, howovor, after a year and took up tho search for a kindred posl l tion. Ho got a bottof/Clianco. It was as \ executive in a big ofllce, -with a number of men undor his .supervision and a salary of ">1*?U a month. Ho was pleased at tho pros poets and wont into tho'work with his wholo 1 soul. Feeling that ho had struck his gait ' und that he had it least a fair chance at a competence, ho got married. Five months after lie took up tills executive position ho ? was given two weeks' notice to quit. ' ?,. * Strikes His Givlt e?s Salesman? It was a hard blow, Just when he was I working hardest and when ho felt that suc \ pees was under lila hand, lie was discharged 1 without having the least knowledge of where \ hi" had failed. He had a living to earn for his wife and for himself, und after a search , fur a position as accountant for a timo ho answered a newspaper advertisement for a salesman. li_Jiiid no knowledge of the art nf sellljig goods, anil the Idea had appealed to hlin only us a last resort. it wus a discouraging outlook. Tho adver li.cr was a manufacturer of skirts In a little factory on the west Eide. He wanted and ROedfd ix salesman, but was steudiust in his rrfiis-.il t<? puy a '?alary, lie wanted ?suits atid would pay for results; he would give the young man a chance, if the young man would ? tako all the risk uf commissions on sales to reliable customers. He could go to wot It, or ho could make way for some one else who Would. .Manifestly thero was something In the man; it Is the ?upremo lesi of nerve In the new salesman to undertuke Ihe wprk on commission. Roe went to work with a ?am pie line of skirts about which he knew abso? lutely nothing. But unknown to himself he was a salesman born, and he had not been on the road a weok bofors ho knew It. In a month he was a success as a salesman, and at 38 years old ho finds himself In his particu? lar nicho in business, selling skirts and cor? sets on commissions that last year paid $3,500, and which In three years more prob? ably will pay 55,000 a year. * * Prefers to Work on Commission, In this position my friend Roots Illustrat? ing one of the anomalies of salesmanship. Ho Is In that position where probably within a yoar his employer will call him into-the onice and suggest paying lilm a salary of $3,600 a year thereafter, If the employer does offer this Roe will refuse It flatly. There are two classes of mon working on commis? sion. Ono kind Is too poor, to draw a salary and tbe other too good. In tho beginning Roe had begged for a salary?any sort of living salary?and tae employer had refused; now he Is approaching a salesmanship that cannot afford to accept any salary consid? ered within tho bounds of the work. Ho has his established clientele, he has tho knowl? edge ot what ho can do, and with his energy and ability to do hard work for another ten years at least,1 he will not bind himself with salary bonds, but will work on commission. This is my friend Roe, who failed as a lawyer, who was discharged as an inefficient bookkeeper, who could not conduct} a busi? ness olllce satisfactorily, but who at 38 years old has found his gait tn selling skirts and corsets all over the western territory of a west side Chicago factory. ;?'?', How was It possible?? There is no necro? mancy In It. Ho had to work to make a liv? ing, and he kept at It. falling by chance into ? the one place at least where he could " de? liver the goods." In all probability his for? mer experiences .were of no value to.him, unless his failures might have been a mere spur, ? Ho had always jvorked hard and In none of his failures did he'have a premonition that he was to fall ; ho thought he was " mak? ing good " in every experiment uhieagln that of tho law. * m Must Stand or FeJl on Merits. In these employments on salary, porhaps he did not realize, as must be realized, that thoro is a certain market value for men In certain avenues of business. These men may want more than tho market prlco and the employ ers for tho most part may try to get them for less. At tho same time in the employment ? t men this fixed markot price Is coming nearer and nearer to tho possibility of a schedule. Thero was never a lime before when tho ties of blood or the Influences ot a "pull" counted for so little aa they count now. The competi? tion of trade today is such that thore can be no room for tho business man who holds his place because of these things. To show how modern business, is realizing the oondltlon, I know an agency which. Is paid a flxed figure by a St.-Louls and a New York houso simply that the directing officers of theso two corpo? rations may refer to.this company all Inter? ested friends -who. would unload employ?i upon thorn, explaining that all employ?s for the corporations are taken through this soureo only, Under this plan, If friends Insist upon forcing tho employment ot tho persons, tho corporations havo only to notify the agency to report adversely upon the applica? tions. As another example of how tho ties of blood do not avail, I know a father whoso son la Just out ot college, and who appealed to an agency to place the boy In a business In which the father was a past master. " Why don't you tako him?" I asked. "He's a good boy, Isn't he?" Tho father assured me that the boy was all right, and that for that reason h? wanted him, to leant the business somowhore else than In his own works. " Ho Is of the stuff to stand knocks, and I want to Insure his getting them whore they will do tho most good. I need a boy Just llko him, however. Send mo one If you can put your finger on him." Tho result was that wo put the son with another business house and got a likely young collego chap for the father. * ? Should Choose for Himself. Concerning tho failures that may bo made by tho young man before ho strikes his g.ilt, ono of-* tho greatest handicaps posslblo Is frequently put upon the young man by his x ow.n fnthor and mother. Thoy havo " chosen a profession for him!" It Is quite as sane for ono to invite a friend out to a restaurant luncheon and order a dish seasoned with garlic without knowing tho friend's tastes In the matter. I know a fond father who is a shoe sales? man and who Is making $7,000 to $8,000 a year out of his work. Ho has a son who has. a tasto for salesmanship nnd who has boen Insisting that he will talco up the work when Co- ptains of Industry Are Masters of Detail. Bv G. R. Clarke. THE mastery of details is tho common denominator In tho lives of million? aires. In tho analysis of sucoess there are as many rides forgetting rich as thero aro rich men. The combined examples of those who already have attained position seem to point to endless requirements. Attention to detail, however, either natural or acquired, is so Invariably present, as to point to its being fundamental to the money Instinct. It is found in tho Uves of men who have nchleved largo fortunes and in those who have conserved and added to them. Its valuo receives early recognition on the part of omployors. Astuto, financiers time and again have seen In it the sign of certain success for men who yot have to make their record. George Gould early mado a powerful friend in Russell Sago. Ho Ilrst won the elder man's admiration by the thorough way in which he mastered all his work while In his father's olllce and became acquainted with tho details of railroad work. Sage, who always has boon known as a stickler for details, often was given Information by tlio young clerk as to the cost of spikes and ties, This captured his heart at once, and he argued with good reason that any young man who could havo such accuroto knowl? edge In tho beginning of his career surely later must be a ?safo man to conducto great railway Bystem. It Is duo to this reason more than any other that tho namo of Rus? sell Bag? may be found in tlio directorate of many of the Gould companies, and his money has been placed in the stock of mnny more. * * Georg?*? Gould Master of Dotivi 1m. Today Georgo Gould'B namo appears on the official records as the president of more than half tlie roads In the preceni. Gould syatem. This position Is more than official. Nothing? o( iniportancolsdone without first consulting Mr. Gould. Hie word is absolute law In every one.pf the roadjs belonging to his system. He is surrounded by secretaries, asso? ciate oillcers, clerks, and messengers, and each person in the building, from highest official down to office boy (and thore are no other companies In tho building) Is subject to his reali at a moment's notice to share In the work which he outlines. Ho has private telegraph wires between his New York office and tho principal centers touched by -his roads, and is in direct communication with all his properties. He not only directs the finances In a masterly fashion, but has much to say In the actual operation of them. He also goes over the lines often to see with his own eyes what Is bolng done. Stuyvesant 1-Ish Is another railroad man who has a surprisingly Intimato knowledge of the exact condition of affairs all pver the Illinois Central system at any given moment, and this evon though his olllce Is in New York. Mr. listi received hie training ae sec? retary to John Newall, the former presi? dent of the Illinois Central, who was one of the sevorest disciplinarians in the country. Mr. Newall, like the average railroad presi? dent, had able assistants under him whom ho held responsible for currying out all de? tails. In addition, ho personally watched the carrying out of the details himself. ' Mr. Fish absorbed Mr. Nowall's beet traits and built up an expert knowlodgo which ex? tend?a to every practical detail of railroad operation. Personal Supervision by Bplroonf. ? common saying attributed to tbe em? ployes of August Belmont ls? " ?if a pin falle upon tho floor of Itila banking house he hears It." Ho pays attention to oven tho most trivial details, and no mutter how large his mall Is or how hard pressed he may be for time he look? over and anuwers every letter, Shortly after ho leased the Manhattan ele? vated system from tho Goulds he began rid? ing up and down the railroad, with a seeming delight In getting caught In crushes and hanging to straps. All the timo he was studying the system, and beforo long ho inaugurated reforms l that perceptibly re? lieved the congestion. It is often said that tho secret of his sue? cess along so many linos lies in this trait of personal supervision. With a stop watch in one hand and a camera tn tho other he watches hla horses worked, His trips of in? spection to hla Kentucky stud'aro more a matter of business than ot pleasure. He knows how many pounds of dog blsoult are eaten In his famous kennels In a day. Ho gave the building and trying out of the yaoht Constitution constant supervision, and what? ever ho does la said to " show the Belmont mark of scrutiny." Of Marshall Field those who work under htm say that, from his plain office boxed off In a corner pf his store, he sees more that is being dope than anybody else In or around it. His? 8,000 or -4,000 employes seem to bo congregated on trie-top _of his desk tyUli''a magnifying glass between" hUn and them. No (torn of tho great worl* around him is too srnall to be worthy of his attention, Sir Thomas Llpton pays of his employes:' " I have In all some 10,000 men, and a n(cer Jot of employ?s you never saw. I nevor had a etnike and never expect to havo one, for I mako It my personal duty to see that all of my men aro comfortably flxod, Wo,???? to? gether In perfect harmony. I am careful about the kind of men I employ. I mako sure that every man In my service Is sober and of general good character aa well as a good worker. Attention to all these things Is, I think, one of the chief aids to success." * I? F rick Never Break? Engagements One striking feature of Mr? Frlck's long ? business training Is that he never neglects or breaks nn engagement and never forgets' a statement mado concerning a transaction. Though he trusts largoly to memoranda, his mind Is a vast reservoir of fact and state? ment, from whloh ho draws with unorrlng ac? curacy when any quostlon Is In dispute. And the memoranda bear out tho record of his memory. Tho most striking foaturo of Sonator Clark's nature is his Infinito attention to detail. With It Is united a caution which amounts almost to suspicion and distrust of his fellow-man. It Is' his boast that no man has ever fooled him a second time. His dally mall is enormous, one of the largest budgets, If not tho largest that comes to any man in public Ufo except tho president. Yet ho endeavors to road every loiter and to read it carefully, Ho starts In to dlctato re? plies, keeping two secretaries busy, and a letter from the humbles^ constituent or busi? ness man, if it is a genuine communication, receives prompt nnd courteous acknowledg? ment, I-iator be reads overy dictated reply and signs it himself, Ho novor has been able to accustom hlmsolf to the practico of leaving to his sooretary tlio signing of unim? portant mail. Ho lias been equally conspicuous for this trait in the attention be has given routine work in the senate, and it has boen carded out in overy phase of his life. When Ih Butta ho goes under ground" with clothes of oil? skin, inspecting overy nook und corner of his mines. ( ,G', . ' This trait IS one for which James J. Hill always has been renowned. . Ho astonishes everybody.whom he meets with ovidonca of tho extraordinary fund of detailed Informa? ,*1ony which lie possesses. For Instanco, re? cently some ono asked Mr, Hill offhand about tlie co3t ot hauling coal per ton per hun? dred pilles, Ho not only made. Instant an? swer to this, but was ablo to toll offhand the ? cost ot hauling a ton Of coal 100 miles bl overy civilized country in ?be flob?? ho Is out of school. The father says no, however, ho Is going to mako a mechanical engineer ot tho boy; ho Is going to put him . Into a business where there will bo a. homo j life?whero somo position will attach to his work In tho, world. ! I didn't tell the father that engineering brains today Is tho cheapest commodity that Is on'-thc market; considered from a worldly \ point of view, It Is a quality of gray matter ' thnt docs not comparo with tho gray matter which lifts $8,000 In commissions every yoar from shoo sales. Probably tho boy has tho gift of salesmanship and mny Improve oil the father's record If he be left to his own choleo of an occupation, whilo it forced Into , tho engineering, his one falluro may mean down and out. Perhaps the life of tho trav? eling salesman Is not all that It might bo, viewed from tho domestic sido, but In tho business worUl tho labor market Is estab? lished and 13 ruled by the laws of supply and demand. If salesmanship were the easiest, simplest, plcasnntest life In the world It could not havo such' rowards In money. em Young Mon in Demand, Today the market valuo of men In tho higher positions In business lite Is at least 10 per cent under the figuro tliat ruled In tho height of tho prosperity In 1002. Last year public attention was called to the almost universal "letting out" or employas in tho big Arms and corporations. Tho fact was that the labor market was too strongly bulled. ' Salaries wore.higher than conditions Justi? fied. The result was a general movement 'ridding tho employers of old and Inefficient workers and tho employing of new, younger men at smaller salaries. I knew of positions ?that had bcon occupied by older men nt ?5.000 a year to bo given over to younger, more efficient men at $2,000 a year. At the same ttmo you could not have found an em? ployer In a successful business who sacrificed his true and tried and efficient omploy?sT Thero la a danger line established always when tho employe begins to receive all that his position will bear, He cannot go to an employer under those circumstances and ask that his salary be cut, but, on tho othor hand, ho may feel thut ho Is In dungov of dismissal because ho Is gottlng so much money for work that Is so light, or so ensy of nccoin pjlshment, or calling for so little responsibil? ity. The one thing for such a person to do under suoh circumstances Is to reach out for more work and more responslblllty?to try to givo to the employer something that is not easy ot purchaso by a mere weekly entry on a salary roll. Thero are such things, * * ? Are You ''Delivering the ?ooda"? I have a friend who Is selling steol for a big Chicago house, Thoy forced him out on the road O'i a commission basis and now they cannot force him to accept a salary. Thoy offered him ?2,fi00 in salary lust year, but ho refused. " No," ho said, with finality; " I'm going to mako $3,800 next year while you are offering mo only $2,600 salary; O, noj" And ho will hold thorn. Ho has a clientele tliat he can take with him to any othor stool house In tho country. Ills customers all over tho country are disposed Ho wrlto to him sug? gesting that tho " duck shooting Is good," or tliat " ilshlng Is excollcnt Just now," Indicat? ing bot\voen -the. lines that an order for steel Is awaiting hie,coming. One has only to know tho sharp."merciless nature of oompotltlon nowadays to realize that a-salesman of this lype virtually can make bis own terms.