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Burlneas Office.916 E. Maln Street. Waahlnirton Bureau. .326-7 Munsey Building. ManehMter Bureau.1103 Hull fltreet. Pcterebura; Bureau.40 ?.". Fycmnorn St. Lynebhurg Burenu.3U> Eighth ft. BY MAIL One POSTAOE PAID. Tear. Daily wlth Sundny. ..18.00 Daily without Sunday 4.co ! Sunday edltlon only.. 2.00 'Wcekly (Wednesday). 1.00 By Tlmo?-DI?patch Carrler Dellvery f>r Ylco ln nichmond (nnd auburbel. Mancho? tcr and Petcrsburg? Ono IVcck. One Year. Daily wlth Sunday_14 c?nt? 16.so Daily without Sunday..10 cenU 4.60 Sunday or.Iy. .30 (Ycarly aubtcrlrtloos pnynblc In ndvance.) Entercd January 27, 1903, at Rlchmond, Vn.. o? second-r!ns? matter under aet of Cor.gress of Mnrch 3, 1*79. _ HOW TO CALL TIMES-DISPATCH. pernona wlahlng to communlente wlth The Tlme?-DI?patch by telephono wlll nsk cen? tral for "4041," nnd nn belntr nnswered from ( the office swltchboard, will lndlcate tho de partment or poreon wlth whom they wlah to apeak. When calllnp between 6 A. M. and 9 A. M., eall to central office dlrect for 4041, compoflnp-room; 40(2. hualnws office; 4043, for malllnjr and presa-rooma. MONDAY. APRIL 27. lflnS SELLINC, BONDS ABBOAD. Tho railroads aro the largest em Iployorsof labor and the blggest spend iers of money ln Amerlca. When the i railroads are aciive iron and steel mllla aro employed, coal mlnes aro btisy and cotton nillls flnd ready sale for thelr fahrlcs. From the same jcauso.the farmers get good prices for / thelr crops. nnd by whatever n.ime ' Btich condltlons may be known. whethor it is called prosperity or hlg bank clearlngs or gond tlmes, tho fact ia that men genernlly throughout the . Innd are employed in turnlng thelr 1 tlmo Intn money. This money makes trade active and stlmulates the demand ; for labor and for supplies ln the most out of the way plaees. It ls interestlng in this connection to note that the pearl divers ln the Ir.dlan Ocean are starving because the ; panlc in New York has destroyed the 1 domand for the products of thelr la I bors. In likc manner the inahillty of I the railroads to horrow money for the ;'further development or thelr lines has J caused a cessation in the iron industry j and a marked lessening of the output of the cotton mills. All this is by way o? preface to the rencouraging and gratifying fact that i the Pennsylvanla Rallroad has placed : a ^40,000.000 loan. a large part of whlch came from Europe. This means , that the bankers and investors of ? England and France are lendlng us money for the development of our re sources. The flrst effect of such a slt | tiation would he to encourage home ; investors to huy good railroad bonda, ?? and when once this encouragement ? has heen mnde effective, we will see I a steady return to those condltlons of j satlsfactory employment whlch were so I unlversal in the United States from 11901 untll tho latter part of I90f. Such a return is necessary, lf we are to re J storo prosperity, for the New York I Labor Bulletin shows that at the c.nd j of Docember, 1907, tho rate of unem ployment among union workmen was 32.7 per cent. compared with an aver? age of 18.3 per cent. for tho years H902-'6. In the building trades the per contage of idleness In New York Clty .was 42.1. and^while, tho summer may brfng rellej;. ?... wlfi' he apparent to ^every thinker und'student of tho reln jtlons between employment and poverty j[that for two out of every flvo men who fjtre hullders to be out of work must |tmean wtdespread dlstress. it will be ^romembered that in Jaraes J. HIll's ,oplnion 51,000,000,000 a yoar would be .necessary for flve years ln order to :.put the railroads ln rhis country fn ^posltlon to handlo the freight offered. Llt Is true at prosont that the freight ?cnrs are standing idle ln large num bers, but whon the railroads begfn to ' get money for nrw construction noth Ing will niove invre rapidly than the ifrolght cars, and the more thoy movo tho more freight will there bo. Pros? perity may bo a llttle loisurely vn re? turnlng, but its home-oomlng to the United States cannot be provented. M THE SLBEPING SICkXESS. El FlghUng dlsease by deatroylhg tho l?erms by whlch it ls propagated la one .of the remarkable advances of moderr. jjireventlve medlcine. The dlscovery !.that the deadly Roman fever, yellow :fcvcr and malarla were all transrnittod Jby mosoultoos opened the way for Im ;rnunity for those who were able to keep jthemselves free from the bltes of these ?Insocts.' Now comes th0 further infor niation that the dreaded slecplng slck 'ness of Afrlca, one of the most horrlble 'palnful and dlstresslng affllctions that has ever vlaltcd mankind. |s llkewlse duc to the blte of an insect?the tse-tsu fly. f Investigatlon of tho tse-tsa fly haa \ ehown that its habltat is reatricted to *> narrow belt of forest growth adjoin ing water. The Hmlt 0f its zone ia BUpposc-d to he about two miles, and ?clentists matntaln that it can only transmlt infectlon wlthln forty-eight ?bours of the time at whlch the fly Itself; beoomes polsqnous. Ut-bpite this infor jniatlon. however, no pian has yet bec.i ficvised for preventing the spread of jthe dlssase. Out of tha 00ft,oqq souU jjformerly inhabltlng tht- shores of Vlc |torla Nyanza and tho Ulands of that great lake, tho ne.ws reuorts now tell us that more than 200,000 have- been .already swept out of, exlstencu. The \ ?urvlvors are belng placed beyond the ;r?ar.h of tho Infoated dlstrlcts, and the afnicted arft belng trcated wlth every t jfcripwa remedy.' < y A descrlptlon Of the appearanco of | tbe'A suH'tnnK wlth this dlsease l? 'furnlsln.f1 by llrsketh Rell, tlie Brltlsl commliisloner to Uganda, who vlsltei the rcfuge mnlntalnnd by llu* "Whlti Fathera" of the Algorlan commission In varlous opon alr wnrds Mr. Bell sat* these eufferors at IMffcrcnt stages ol tho dl8<Jft*0, Little chlldren, whose only Indlcittldn of thelr Infectlon was' thc fwelllnp of glnnils ln thc neck, were plnylng nbout, all unconsclous of thc cloom that awnltcd them. Contrary le thf generAlty arceptcd oplnlon, tho more ndvnticod stifferers wero In grcnt paln, thelr lethnrgy belng thc result of pxhniistlon nnd not from any stupo fylng cffect of the Infectlon. Those In the ln.it stnges hnd rcached a hor rlble dogrce of cmaclntlor.. "Thc suf ftrlngs of theso wero such thnt those who had strong nfttures froquently went ravlng mad from tholr paln. Such unfortunatcs woro Chalnod to heavy logs to prevont them from damaglng thcmselvcs or othors. Thc mlsfry wrought by thls dlsease ls fcarful to contcmplnte, and desplte thc studles of even such scleritlsts as Dr. Koch, as yet no remedy has been dlscovered. THF. TREA8UR.Y niSFKTT. The currericy situation now confront Ing Congress Ir undotihtedly nggrn ??nted and rompllcated by the conditlon if the United States Troasury. How ivor closcly approprlatlons for tho de inrtments, for the army and navy, for ?Ivers ,ind harbors, and for local public itsildlngs may bo parcd down, a sub tantial deficit ls a forogono concluslon. rhe surplus of last year has beon much riore than wlped out. Government expenditures up to Aprll !3, 190R, amounted ln round numbers n $540,000,000. Expenditures to that l.-.te in 1007 amounted to $478,000,000. "his ls an incroaso in expenditures of 162.000,000. Slmultaneously the customs coeipts have dropped from $271,000,000 year ago to $239,000,000 now, and ttic nternal revenue recelpts from $218, 00,000 to $204,000,000. Tho comhlned hrlnkagc here ls $46,000,000, whlch ls educed by tnlnor galns ln other re 6lpts to a net loss in income of $4 0, 00,000. Last year at thls tlme the 'reasury showed a surplus of $55, 00,000. Now It shows a deflclt of I6.f1n0.000. The net chango on the ?rong side of the ledger execeds $100, 00,000 lt Is no wonder that Congressmen urn a deaf ear to the Presldent's ur ont plca for four new battleshlps, and re bendlng their energies to the pass ig of an emergency curroncy meas re of some sort. The worklng bal nce of $50,000,000 in the Treasury is tr from belng lnexhaustible. On tho rcsent basls of dolng businoss. it can c only a questlon of tlme before tho overnment will have to hegln calling 1 the J200.000.000 which lt has on de osit with natlonal banks. Should thls ontingency arise next fall, when largo tims of money will be required by the anks for moving the crops, lt ls easy 0 see that without adequate relief a crlous currency stringency may be pre ?ipltated. The conjunctlon of such a tringency with a presidential electlon vould obvlously prove unfortunate for he party In powor. THE NEGRO IN ILLIXOIS. It has taken twenty years of hard Ightlng for the negroes of Alton, 111., to ecure the rlght to attend the white chools, a right whlch was guaranteed hem under the laws of the State. The ong drawn out lltlgatlon ended last veek, when the Illlnois Supreme Court inally took thc matter out of the lands of the local court and gave judg ne'-it for the plaintiff. The plaintiff was Scott BIbb. a negro, vho decllned to send his chlldren to he colored schools, and sought judl tlal protectlon. Bibb is long since lead. Senator Palmer, his original :ounsel, is dead, too. But State Sena nr Renholt took up the llght after 'almer dled, and has pushed It vlgo ously ever slnce. So far as Alton was oncerned, it was a hopeloss flght from he start. Seven tlmes the Supreme :ourt se'it back the case to the Alton :ourt, with Instructlons to enforco tho aw, and sevon tlmes an Alton jury lecllned to obey. Law or no law, they vcro _ detcrmlned not to allow negro hlldren In white schools. Thero was lothlng left but for the higher court 0 take matters Into its own hands, ind this it dld after twe-nty years. Mr. Ray Stannard Baker, who is in reattgating tho race problem for a pop ilar'magazlno, has wlsely decllned to lonflne his investigatlons to that sec lon of the country lylng below Mason inil Dlxpn's line. Wllllam E. Curtis, p-f tho Chicago ilccord-Herald, ihlnks that Atlanta '.s ?tho' most progresslve, up-to-date clty 11 tho South." We havo nelther tlme lor space to dctall tlie number of new ihlnks to whlch Wllllam E. ls now en :ttlod. It ls Idle for them to heg us. We Miiiply cannot glve tho Houston Wentlict- Commlttoe thc reclp'e for tho rtmrvolotis and molllfluoua Aprll show ors of, Old Vlrglnia, bocatiBe we really don't know II. Thc London Gentlewoman thlnlts] that it would ho impoaslblo for a wo niiin ln a plcture hat to comnilt a orlme, ln tho same way, wo suppose, lt would he Iniposslble for a woman Inl a Merry Wldow to do anythlng small. I Consldorirtg the volumo of buslness! she turns into the marriage license' buroau, we personally think that Mr?. Lllllan Russell is entltled to a falr commission. We further trust thnt whilo Candl date Sherblc Becker ls tourlng WIs con.?ln ip a balloon. he wlll be abovo snylng or dolng anythlng mean. The author of the phrasc "mad ns a hatter" must have had his protspecUvo eyo on the Inventor of the Merrv Wldow. Meantlme, any Invegtlgatlon looklng to thc redtictlon of 'Interatate expresa rates would command tho undlvldcd Bupport of tho Georgla presa poets. It contlnuDs dlmeult to see what the ftiture, whitohousewifely speaking con talns for Mra. Philunder Knox. Probably Smiator Aldrlch mado a mlstake ln not amploylng 0 collector to handle hla blll. , lf the fler-t went west for a frollc, it i,does not anpeur. that u went ln yaln. . Borrowed Jingles ovn ni'.M'n ANlMAi.S, Whnt time I seek tny vlttuous cnuch t, ateal fiomn surcensc from tho Inliora of th dny; Ere atlrnco llke n poUltlco cotneii Io henl In ahorl. when I prepnre ln hlt tho hny Mta alumbet's clinlna < 1 (|iinte from Monrc hnve bOUnil me. I lieitr n lot nf nnli?en all iiionnd mo. Time wns when falllng off tlie well-knotvi lofl Wero hnrdrr far thnn fnlllng off ti ateep, IVut thnt wns ere my nelghlior'B genth dog. Begnn to thlnk he wna defondlng Pbeep From 12 to 2 his bnrklng nnd liln howlln; Aecompnnlee two tomcats' nlglitly yowi. Ing. At 2:10 ahrtrp the piirrot In the flat Across tlie way hla monnlogue eaxnys. At ,1, iiitim. n? Clllbert anya. tllfl cat; At I n. mllkmnn'a horso, exulted, nelghs. At 11:15, nor does lt every vnry, I Ii< .ii- tho dtilcet notes of a catiury. Enrh llvlns thlng I love; I love the blrdV: The benata In field and forest, too, I love. flut I hnvo wrlt these poor If metrlc wordi T? query whlch, by nll thn pnw'rs nbovo, v nll tho ntilmnls?prny tell me, Bom? one ? :.i called by nny cotlrteay n dumb one? j?Frnnklln P. Adams, ln N. Y. Mall. ? m MEREI.Y JOKTNO. lurmtng Stircess. "Does nnybody around here make a. auo ctfr of fnrnilns? "Yea," nnswered Fnrmer Orntoasol, "Or Joo Struthets doo?. lle sold hla farm and la puttlng' the money out at Interest nmong us fellers."?Wnshlngton Star. The PoUttrlnna' Wny. 1 "Remember," sald the prudeni man, "thnt the word* once apolten can never be recalled." "No," nnswered Senator Forghtim; "but yoli can nlwaya mako a fUls and say you were mlsquoted."?Wnshlngton Star. Must Have Marrled Noblemen. "I hear that Joncs's four dnughters are ninrrled." ? , , , , "Ia that ao? I suppose ho's glnd he a gol them off hla hands." "Not cxnctlv. Be now hns to keep the four huBbunds on thelr feet."?Brooklyn Llfe. Etonom.v. | Lord Lewson?Why. Pat. thore uaed to be two wlndmllls there. Pat?Thnio for you. alr. I.orrl Lewson?Why Is there but onp now7 Pnt?Bedad. they took one. down to lavo more wind for t'other.?London Tlt-Blts. Spolled the Gume. Mra. Poplcy?Llttle George won't take mllk at nll now. Be uaed to llke It. but? Mr. Popley (croisly)?No, and lt s nll on account of your Imprudence. Mr3. Poplcy?My Imprudcnce? Mr. Ptipley?Yes, you allowed him to hear you say It was good for him.?Fhil aOelphla Fress. The Grav? Professor. Flrst Co-ed.?Ever notice how grave Pro fesEnr McOoojle always la? Second Co-ed.?Yes, but there's nothlng sirange about that. He does all his thlnk Infc' ln the dead languagcs.?qhlcago Trtb une. THJB MERRY K.NOCKERS. The Phlladelphla Presa. the leadlnsr Knnx oigan of Pennsylvanla. calls on Taft tr. ttsign. This adds a humorous touch to the Knox campalgn.?Naahvllla Tenncs-: seean. Kricfly. then, the Pouth sccms to be dlvlrfed into two classes?those who are fightlng drink and those who are flffhtlng diunk.?New York Mall. Mr. Bryan's ata^ement that the cartoona of him are not so bad as they used to bo may mean that he ls seltlng to luok mora llke them.?Boston Transcrlpt. It seems no longer to be a questlon whether lt is as cheap for two to Ilve as one. but whother lt ls possible.?Providenco Trlbune. Bryan'a enemles declare that h? "la loslng ground," and lt muBt be admlfcted that he Ia. He lost some three or four squ&re miles a few days ago. when Dela v/nre Instructcd for Judge Gray.?Brlstol Htrald-Courier. We obsorve In one of the Sunday supplement slorlcs that "the man wns \ery noneommlttal, mcrcly remarklng. MM1044& hhhllhoO." Wo supposo "the man" waa a brakeman chargod with the duty of calllng out the statlons nlong the hnc.?Washlngton Heraid. Owlng to the illness of .ludd Lewis. of Houston. there la an cffort belng made k, have the Amerlcan Fress Bttmorlsta* Convention at Denver thla summer. Read ers must not confuse this wlth another conventlon to ho held at Denver. The two are dlstlnct.?New York Mall. FEBSONAL AND GENKRAL. The women of Russia and the men of Japan are the most export needle-workers In the world. The great Oxford dletlonary, whlch has been under way for a generatlon, has reach ed "pre." The carcass of the average horae ylelds 3G9 pounds of meat, as shown by'the ob servatlons of the French horse butcher. A motor vehlcle purchosed by tho town of Tynemouth, England, can be uaed as a p.-lson vun, flre apparatus or ambu lance. Statlstlcs show that, though falr-halred people are as a rule less strong than those who havo dark halr, yet the former llvo lenger than the latter. It cost her accuter 430 to brlng Bdna Park, a nurse, from Sewlcklcy, Pa., to Phlladelphla to answer a eharge of stoallng a coreet cover worth 50 cents. Edward C. Myers, of McKeesport, Pa., a brakoman, drew his pay and stopped work to get marrled and a short time later was tnstantly ltllled by a traln. New York Clty has 113 publlc parks, varylng In slae from a (ew square yarda In the angle at the croaslng of atreets, up to Pelham Bay Park, contalnlng 11,751) acres. Last year (100T) 23,395,634 gallona of kCroiene oll were Imported Into Tlentaln, of whlch the United States suppllcd 11.689.34S gallons, Kumatra 9.858,639 gallona and Borneo 1,847,647 gallons, Trlal trlps have been made on a new railway up the Wetterhorn, whlch la so sieep that 1? Is callod an "elevator." It rnea 4fi0 metrej, In a length of 600. whlch lt a gradlent of 3,960 feet a mlle, or 75 per cent. Blnck Forest CuHtoma. The peasant farms of tho Black For est are banded down from father to son ln a dlrect llne, often datlng back 100 years. There Ts no dlvlsion as ln France; nll falls to tho helr, only hore it ls not the eldest, but the youngcat son who Inherits. It Is rare thot a Bur (peaa ont) dles bh rolgning head. When h? gets on In years he abdlcates, In ordor to end IiIb days In the Lelbgedlngehaus (dower houso), whlch /stands beslde each Hof (stoadlng). That ho doos so In favor of hla youngent boii is very sonalble; were It the elder ho would havo no peace; for n? soon as he marrled he would try tn Induce his parenta to retlro Just at an ago when power Is sweet est and bcst exorclsed. Kor this roa ?on the, practlral farmera of bygono generntlons declded to hand over tho Biicoesslon to the youngeat, slnce when nenjamln (h a full grown man father ?la^ob la old and glad to rt-Bt. This law of inherltanee goes hy tho narne of Vortel. Should tho helr of his own free wlll deq|re to reslgn In favor of his elder hrothor the lattor must btiy thn property from him. In such case ihe youngor niay bo termed a kin<l nf Ksau.?Bohemlan. Gooil Iloetrliie, The dlsnnKition of central govern menta, whstljor of tho natlon or tho Mate. to Interfere ln nffalra of Coni mortweulths and munlclpalltles, Ih mupli ln cvlaonco Just now. It la a tondency llahlo to procood to undo Blrablo lengths unless sensod and re Msi.-.l by those dlrectly uffected.? bprlngfifild nnpubllcan. The KenHnky llrnnd. A Kenlucky Judge told his new Knind Jury laat Monday thnt nlght-rld Ing may |eml to anarchy. A curlous puliiu- would llke to know what leini the jinlge woqhl apply tn tho Htfito of affairu nlght-rldlng has already led to. k-Now. Orloanu Tlmofl-Dsmocrttt. STATE PRESS | Teii I.nfp. ! X'olotiel Wlngo'a 1,111 for the appolntment 0, a bnnk examlner could lie paaaed now very readliy?-by the detiositmn or tho Iinnk of Mecklcnburg.?Orayadii flaaotte. Tlio IIF?t Trlliutf. Aa to a monument to tlio Iftto Senator laukadale, forricboity miRht try to entorog hl? rnmnup pute elrctlons law. IIIb ld?* jvni, ndmli-Rhle. nnd If then- la nny Nntv ln the Htntutn, why not dlsrovor It and rori-ect lt??Norfolk Landmark, I'rnm the Moutha of Jlal.e*. Tlie Boston llernld tnltos very ai?rloualy tho rofumtl of the little elght-yenr-old acliool fflri t0 joln her class ln Ihc slng ? Ingof "Hhertnan Murchlnw Throtmli Oeoi rlii- ' Thls occuired In a pnlillc acliool In St, hotiis. and tho Herald lnal?l? that tho clilld nhould havo been apnnked Into obo dlir.co. J . To expect Hoiithernors or thelr chlldren tfl Joln In tttneftil Jubtlatlnn over an tn eldonl whlch ecllpaed In wnnlnn oruolty tlie progreaa of Altllla tlii'ongli the plalna ol Ilaly la to aak too inin-li of hutnnn natuie. Aa well have ask"d the i.'tibana to atnft poem8 of trlumph to Weyler nftei one of hla progrexmea wlth aworrt and loieh through tlie defertielesa aectlona of tliat unhappy country. shorman's lolaure ly pnrade from Atlnntn to the Sea waa not war In any ?en?e of the word; for It v.o? nnopposci] by any nrmed fdrce. Tho plllage and deatruetlon only asirumed the liioportlona of n promr-ditnied dovastntlon nfiet llood'a i-.rmy dlaappeared from Sher ninn'a rront. and thcrr was liothlng left to <all tho vnnclala to account morn formld nblo than the old men nnd women and ihllrtron of tlie terrltory whlch waa ilevaa tutcd.?Vlrglnlan-i'llot. 1'ollowlng the Leml or tlie Demorfnta. Tho Republlcan party nt thla tlme. and for novernl yoara paat, haa been followlni; palhs blazed and polntcd out by the Dem otrata and arlvocatlng polloles proposed by theni for thc pnst ten years. perliup* Iong er. And thla la truo ln nntlonnl as well au ln Stnto politlcs. How Mr, Rooiovelt ann hla Bympathlaora have advorated poll rles and docttlnea Ilrst nnnounced by Mr. Bryan, is well known nnd ovon aoknowl edged.?Cllnch Vnlley News. Standlnir I?nt. Tlie Houae of Representatlves haa now become but a macblne to reglater the edlota Of Speaker Cnnnon and Dalnell and two or tlirce other Btandpatters and tmat pro Uctors-Montgomery Messenger. X-HAY TO STAMP OUT CnlME. ny Pmventlug Trnusiniilsloii of Crlnil mil Tciidf nclea. Thnt tho future crlmlnal and lnsane population of thls country can be vast ly lessened, nnd, In fact, almost stamp ed out, by the X-ray ls the startllng ri.eelarat.ion mada yesterday by Dr. Graeme Hammond. the eminent alienist nnd sttident of crlminology. "It has been dlscovered by sclence that tho appllcatlon of X-rays renders storllo the spark of future llfe." Dr. Hammond said, "and I um heartily in favor of the enactment of leglslatlon that would permlt such appllcatlon to be made to all perslBtent offenders agalnst tho laws." Dr. Hammond Is a rirm bellever in the effects of heredlty. He declares that the chlldren of crlmlnals are like ly?either through heredlty or early environments?to become crlminuls themselves. He quotes sevieral au thorltles supportlng that vlew; and in stances numerous cases to prove his iirgument. The obvlous measure to suecessfully ii^ht crime in the future. therefore. is to Insure tho world agalnst future generations of crlmlnals, he con tontls. "lt was discovcrod by accident, quite recently, that the X-ray possessed qual ities of sterillzation." Dr. Hammond explalned. "Those who dlscovered it were the flrst victims?the doctors who spend hours each day using the ray. Experimonts upon anlmals fol lowed. "The idea came to me then that here was an ideal method for carrying out the plan of sterllizing crlmlnals. whicli has been urged from time to tlme. That the world wlll come to such measurcs as a general and acceptod proposltlon Js certaln, and I thlnk we are ready for It now. "Slr Frnncls Gaulton, an Engllsh au thorlty, wrltes of a case where from one crlmlnal woman and her offsprlng came 360 crlmlnals. Amerlcan au thoritles wlth which I am famlllar tell of the Juke famlly. among the 120 members of whlch there were scarcely a dozen honest or vlrtuous members. Nearly all were murderers, tnlevet, forgers. assasslns, and dissolute per sons generally. All this mlght have been prevented by scientlflc treatment of the orlglnal offenders. "Bert Mlller, of Cornell, tho leading expert on crlminology, declares there Is such a thlng as a crlmlnal braln. Its convolutlons are different from those of a normal braln. Crlminnls, aecordlng to hlm, cannot provent them? selves from belng crlmlnals any more than a man wlth muslcal tastes can rid l-.imself of those."?New York Amerlcan. French Courage. The Frenchman waa etlll pale and trenibling from his encounter wlth tho rough. "Dld I not conduct myself well, hcln?" he demanded. "Falrly well. At thc same tlme, for one who has fought four dtlels, there was a certaln pallor, a certaln nervous ness, that rather disappolnted us." The Frenchman loOked mortlfled, Then he tapped slgnlflcantly his llttl'o glass of flne champagne. "But I had none of this," he said. "I was taken unprepared. I had not tho tlme to?what you say?tank up." "But you don't tank up for a duel!" "Don't we? How little you know: Imaglne lt?the horror?the gray deso latlon of tha dawn?the surgeon wl'.h his cold and glitterlng instruments? tho wltnoiises cruelly sea'rehing you for tho Jer.sl slgn of fear?and all this without tanklng up? "No, no! Every Frenchman, boforo a duel, tanks up. A duellng fleld smell8 llke an Amerlcan bar. And It ls astounding, wlth the thought of tlio duel beforo you, how much lt takea to tank you. A plnt, a litre sometlmss, but steadles the n-.-rve and cleaiM tho eye for the dread encounter."?Phila dolphia Buiietln. The \egro a'Pactor,. The Brownsvllle iiuestlon is no long er treated wlth a sneer by the party leaders. Senator Foraker's convlnclng rcvlew of tho evidenco has attractod tho attontlon of the country. Thero ls a gi-owlng demand for thc full text of his speech for clrculatlon. Managors of the Rcpubllcitn congrosslonal cam? paign are boglnnlng to serlously con Hldor what thls may mean. ln tho last congresHlonal elcction flfty-f|ve Re riiibllcans were clected by less than U, 000 majorlty, and nlnoteon were olect ed by h.-?s timn l.ooo majorlty. In nearly all tho dlstrlcts represented by tlioso mon thore is a sufflclent colored voto to wlpe out tho majorlty If lt should bo turnoil from tho Republlcni) rankn. Tho colored vote holds it slrateglc poBltlon In Ohlo, Indlanti, Illlnols, Inwa nnd Marylarid, It ls not at all ImpoHHlblo' that tho control of thc Hourc may be dotermlned by tho negro voto. Tho polltlcal wisdom of Konator Foraker's pollcy, as well as lts diroct and slmple Justlce, la now hcglnning to he wldely appreclated,? Boston Herald. A I'lca for Sblrt SleoVea. Shlrt sloovoH, saya tho Hon. Francls Ilurton Harrlson. of Now York, are u good enough onntumo to work In, "a gmid coHtuiiiii to flght In, If need be." lf Mr. Harrlson luid his way, tne Prosldent would go dowu to the troiit dour of the Whlto House in ehi't Hleo.voa a nd carpet sllppora and greot a 1,1 callera iindir a plcture of the old iiuknri hiickct done |n brlght-colorod yiirn. siiiil have a few T. D.'s to eparo, no ihiit the dlpiomnta coulcl.slt oi)t on tho back drmiHtoprf and talk thlngs over niun-to-maii faslilon, ?? they do at the clty ym'drt uurUM dlnnor hotir. Mr, Harrlson has a trua hucltwooda t 1b llko for pooplo who wea." flno clothoa nnd don't IIvo In M?tV?, !f he had li 4 way, aiiiliiiHHiidnrH would work thelr pimnago ni'iiiMB ihu oouaii on tx iattlo alcani?r aml then Hiiva tho country iiiiirn monoy by taklng ln loilgorn. "> o lot?Unfuinlmi-ni f.-> tt wlin i'iioivi; nlco and pupny; HUltabii fo.' I'.'llill $*n}'<-m nmn; apply AmorlcA.t einhsufty.'???oa luu JoutuaL , *, ' Great American Historians of To-Day nv w. b. iionn, pii, n., Itiludolpli-Mnr-uii CollrKC. Itpttry Clinrlca I.cn'a Work nml WrUlngs. Most Houthorners of good oducatlnn and of lnfliiontial atafitm In llfe bnre ly know the naine of tho Neator of Amorlcan hlatorlans?Ilotiry Chnrles Lea, of Phllfldulphla, So buay have our people been nnd ao unoatenttttious ls Mr. Lea that tho opportunlty for nc ijimlntiUiee has hardly offeretl. A mod e?t studont, wlth slmple tastos. livlng apart from the great buay nnd cor rupt clty of whlch he Is a cltlzen, nvorae to advertlaement and wlth raro slnglenoafl of purposo, Mr. Lea has for moro than flfty years aonglu to know the ralson d'etrft of the Catholic Church, Its innnnor of llfe, Its methods of denl Ing wlth Its mombers, ita strange faa elnatlon for. mllllons of manklnd ln all ages. His volumea liave come from the preas at almost regular Intervnlt durlng the last four decades, and not one of thom has been lacklng ln any of the elements whlch mako a great bonk?profound scholnrahlp, dlgnlty of style, penetratlon, falrness and sympathy. Hla themea have been: "Studfes ln Church Hiatory," "Su porstltlon and Force,'! "Sacerdotol Collhaey," "The Expulalon of tho Moors . from Spaln," "The Papal Ponltentlary," "Auricular Confesslon," "Tho Inqulaltlon of the Mlddle Ages" and "The Spanlah Inqulaltlon"?slxtoen stotit volumes, not less than 10,000 pageal No Amerlcan has over shown such a vast knowledge of Europonn hlstory and Inatltntlona, and few Euro poans havo equaled him In lntelllgent, falr-mlnded dlscusslon of the Catholic Church. Nelther Ludwlg Pastor nor Leopold'von Ranke, of vjermany. have atirpassed him. Amerlca ought Indeed to be proud of hor great scholar and hlstorlan. Mr. Lea was born In Phlladel'ptila ln tho year 1825. Ho came 6f a famlly of publlshers, and early Interested hlmaelf ln books. Llke Darwln and Huxley, the groat Intcllectual leaders of the nlne teonth century, he became enamorcd of nature, and about 1S80 he was ?n atithorlty on conchotogy. But before our terrible Civil W'ar began he had already dlppod deep Into the lore of Etiropean hlstory. Hla Interests rap Idly crystalllzed around Mother Church, then regalnlng Its hold on European mlnd and thought from whlch the I-'rench Revolutlon and Napoleon I. had dlvorced It. lt was the tlrrie when, after rovolutlon andreactlon and revo? lutlon agaln, the Roman Popes were flghtlng the Itallan natlonallat move? ment and threatenfng to consolldate Italy under the aegls of clerlcal au thorlty. Catholic wrlters and members of tho papal hlerarehy have never loved tho ;reatest livlng Protestant hlstorlan of ;he church, and the reason Is not dlf flcult to dlscover. Mr. Lea laya bare ln lls masterly accounts of the church's ivolutlon tho role of superstltlon, tho part brlbery ^and corruptlon have >!ayed ln building up the most power? ful rellglous Instltution on earth. Not bound fast to Protestant tra flltion, Mr. Lea nevertheless shows and cannot avola showlng ho.v truo was Martln Luther'a great r.dlctment. But this ls far from the author's purpose; lt ls not as an apolo ;Ist for any system of thought or for tny crced or no creed that ho works and wrltes. Indeed, no true hlstorlan can lefend anythlng or ahy man. Apolo getics has been the weakness of most American wrlters on rellglous and noral questlona. That the Roman Church dellberately 'alslfled the tcxt of the Bible is not ihown; but that its leaders so twlsted ho saylngs of Chrlst as to Justlfy papal usurpatlon and eplscopal tyranny can lot be galnsald. The great hordes of he North were Ignorant, auperstitlous ind warllke. The Catholic mlsslonarles adapted thomselves to the rcqulrements Df lgnorance and superstltlon ln order to wln votarles. The Buperstltlons )f the Germans were thcrefore lncor lorated Into the teachlngs nnd practlces ;f the church. The bloodthlrsty Franks vere encouragod ln their terrible pas slona lf only they would destroy the Arlnn Chrlatlans, whom Rome hatci. Superstltlon and force early -became prlmal elementB In the upbulldlng of the ihurch. Mr. Lea shows that they re nalned Important factors Iri church rovernment; that an Instltution rooted and grounded In chlcanory and plausl blllty would not llkely depart from such practlces If it later became neces sary tr> destroy rtvals or enemles. In tho magnlflcent Bectlon of Mr. Lica's work callcd the "Inquisltlon of :ho Mlddle Ages"?three large .vol imes?the reader cannot escape tha conviction that the slmple soclallsm of .lesus, the Jew, whlch Ernest Kenan portraya so beautlfully In his "Llfe of5* Chrlst," has been the slender basla upon_ which tho most arrant tyranny known to hu nfian hlstory was made to atand. The Roman Church before the Clugny re form purifled It to an extent, was a remnrkably hldaous instltution to whlch novertheless mllllons of men adhered x.ost devoutly. But the Roman Church to ?whlch tho Western world adhered ln 1500 was equally bad, though contaln? lng, of course, olements of good, A more Instructlvo work, however, for A.morican, especlally Southern readers, ls the last Instalment of Mr. Lea's T.-rltlngs, bls "Inquisltlon of Spain." This Instltution, founded durlng the lialcyon days of Ferdlnand and Isabella, ivas Intendcd to weld all tho popula tions of Spaln Into "a slngle falth, to brlng the motley peoples of the then dlsunlted peninsula under the spreadtng roof of Rome. There was hardly a voloe ralsed In opposltlon to tho movement. Why should not the unworthy Jew and tho degonerato Moor be compelled to glve up his falth? And of courso all Elpanlards should be forced to conform to the standard of falth ao beautlfully nxempllfled in the llfe of the great Queen. It was Indeed a natlonallzlng work? thnt of the Inquisltlon?and right well tlld tho monarchs and rultng" classos lend a hand. Rlch Jows were glven bhort notice to change thelr" falth or glve up thelr property; Industrloua Moors wero allowed the alternatlve of embraclng the rellglon of their oppres sors or of emlgratlng. Cruel and terrl blo punlshmont was metod out to all who failed to l|ve up to tho standards nf Rorpe?property was conflscated when Its ownor failed to ahow a burn Ing zeal for the church, and death by torture and the stake was the portlon of any who denled tho smallest polnt lu the Chrlatlan falth. Spain was Indeed brought to the feet of tho Popos; .Jows and Moors emlgrat eo or wero expelled when they dld not ylold all that was dear to thom. Spaln became a Dead Sea of uillformlty, No dlssentlng volc* was ralsed, no dlscord thore; clolators and chapels rose upon evory hllltop, the monk's cowl and the nun's wolru face woro to be soan on ovory street, every high way; great lnnded estatoa were wlthdrawn from the busy hand of induetry and addod tp tho doad hand of tjie church. Unlty, unlty was tho Idea whlch domlnated that unfortunatp land for the rte^t 400 years?and backward rather than for ward went tlio greut nionarohy of For dlnand and laabella. Au.thtr* oo?!d fca only <>M teltti, pne churclH ao therct waja in a siiort time,,. Manufactures in Japan nv rnioiimin; .1, ii.vikiw Tokyo. Wlion .lapnn ttirncd from Orlentnl tradltlon to Occldental progrena, llie greatcst ehntige In Uh InduMtrlal llfn wns wrought by tho Introductlon nf niochlnnry. That the trnnsltlon ls not yct complcto ls sliown by the fact lluit thc larger portlOn of Japnncso j manufncturod prodncts evten now am ! Imnd-mndc And cdme from factorles [where the only motlvn power Is "elbrtw i grense." In tho llrst Instoncc, the new I metliod of manufttcturlngcame, llke nll other JapaneHO progrnss, from the gov? ernment. The Imperlal government bullf. ciittou and sllk splnnlng nilllti, | shlpbuildlng yards, glass fnctorlos, wcaving nillls and the |ll<e. ln 1890 these conecrns were In thelr Infancy, hut the government begun the worK of turnlng them over to private com panleB. By 1893 the government wns well out of the manufacturlng busl ncsfc except for maklng lts own neq t'KMary supplleg. The Imperlal hou*o hold become a successor, in large part, by beeomlng shareholder In the new companles. The manufacturlng buslness waa modeled along Engllsh and Amerlcan llnes nnd grew ateadily, but slnwly. Immedlately after tho nunao-Japune.so War, the openlng of the Korean and Manchurlan markets to Japanese pro duots, wlth dlstlnct advantages over other countrles, gave a great Impetus to the Japanese IndustrTes. But the Japanese stockholder Is a money spec ulator and not a manufiictiircr. When tho cotton mllls sold large quaptltles of goods In Chlna p.t good prlces, tho stockholders Baw there was a proflt nnd they demanded lnatnnt and com plcte dlvlslon. That Is the reason why tho Osaka Cotton Mllls, whlch have been paylng from 12 to 30 per cent. dlvldends each year for four ycara, are now unable to accept delivery of the raw cotton shtpped to them from Amerlca. There is no thought of laying by a surplus to guard agalnst thc very con dlttons whlch now obtaln; there is no fund to nrovlde new macninery for that whlch Ib worn out; there is no object or purpose In view but Immo 'Blate dlvtdonds. Very few concerns glve tho proper care to runnlng *.he macninery, so that lt Is soon worn out. Then the whole thlng Is Junked and new macninery bought. or the mlll closed. The majorlty of the larger mllU are so new that the machlnery Is stlll in a fairly good condltlon, but aa thls Is due to no care bestowed upon It, It Is imposslble to tell what wlll happen In a fow yeare. Labor the Japanese manufacturers certalnly have In abundance, and at the very cheapest prlces. A cotton splnnlng mlll does not pay fabulous wages even In Amerlca. but In .lapan the wages run from 2 to 15 cents a day for operatlves. and from 15 ?o 40 cents a day for machinist*. The cheapness does not mean as great sav Ing as nilght be indicated, for the la? bor is unsklllod and self-wllled, so that almost twlce as many operatlves aro requlred to turn out a given pro ductlon. An Amerlcan cotton mlll superln tendent would go crazy If he were forccd to stay an hour ln one of the Japanese mllls. The "hands" are laugh Ing and talklng, vlsltlng and gosslp Ing, whlle broken threads remaln bro ken and fully 10 per cont. of the ma? chlnery ls nonproduclng, because of lack of care. Of course, there are exceptlons. Some mllls under tho cnarge of European superlntendents and foremen are well conducted, and the operatlves are kept wlthln reasoii able bounds of Industry. Long hours are the rule. for thc Japanese generally ls lndustrlous anJ does not object to worklng eighteen hours a day. But he does object to being rushed through that eighteen I hours. He takes his tlme at hl? workl and dlstrlbutes hla lazlness through] a whole day of industry. ln the cotton mllls the day's work ls twelve hours for adults. whlle the hours for those under eighteen years old are grad uated from nve hours up. Thls slldlng scale ls the Japanese method of taklng care of the chl'd labor problom. That feature of nu manltarlan reform ln factorles whlch ls called "welfare work" ln Amerlca has made great headway among the Japanese manufacturers. At one cotton splnnlng mlll near Tokyo, a plant of 85.000 splndles, Engllsh-equlpped, the soclologlcal work aeems almost to overtop the cotton yarn buslness. In thls mlll there are 3,000 opera? tlves. Of thCBe 1.000 llve In the villago nearby. whlch ls owned by the mlll company. These are ln famllles and llvp in much the same fashton as the I mill hands ln an Amerlcan mlll vil lage. except that the scale is much lower. as everything In Japan must be. The other 2,000 operatlves are from distant polnts in the country, and most of them are young and wlthoot any memhers of their famllles with them. These 2.000 boys and girls, for only one voice In the affalrs of govern? ment. The monnrch assumed the same dlvlnitv. tho same unlversal authority. the same infalllbillty whlch marked the ti glme of the church. Local assem blies of the people, such as our Stato Leglslatures, were abollshed, and llke wlse tho old Natlonal Asscmbly. the Cortes. Spaln became both polltlcally and rellglously united. centralized, unl form, and two infalliblo monarchs ruled the nation?the Klng and the Pope. Wlth infalllble and dlvlne rulers. there was no room for dlssent, for free speech, t?V crltlclsm. One dead lovel of thought and oplnlon prevailed: there were no lnventions, no dlscovor les after th0*e of the great Columbus. and his confreres. Not only so; a premium was set upon esplonage. It was every man's duty to dlscover to the authoritles any, even the least, aberratlons of thought, the very slgns of lnternal dlssent from the unlversal Spanlsh rule. For 300 years the older and lndependent famllles were the object of dela tlon; they . lost thelr prominence, were even brought to their ruln by secret sples, who wero enriched with conflscated property for thelr sneak lng work. The Spanlsh character was radlcally changed. They becamo secretlve, vln dlctive, "allent as tho tomb," little dU posed to talk and terrlble In thelr pas sions when once they found channels of activlty. Mr. Loa shows more clearly than any one elso has done the meanlng of abso lute centrnllzatlon ln a nation, of unl formlty of thought, both rellglous and polltlcnl. It Is a sad plcture whlch ho glves us of the trlumphant Spanlsh In c:ulsitlon, treadlng the best of Spaln Into dust and yet rejoiclne In tho work, Invlting and urging ruln in the very ardor of thelr success, Marahall'a Grave. Editor of The. Tlmes-Dlapatch: Sir,?On the 24th instant there came to Shockoe Cometery gato, all alone, a disttngutshed looklng gentleman nevor aeen hero before. His pollshed. polltu mannera, qulet, undemonstrative dlg nlty and strlklng personal appearanco, at once arrested the attention of the keeper. He Inquired of the wrlter lf he could direct hlm to tho grave of John Mar shall. I walked wlth hlm to the placo, and he spent several minutes carefuliy lnspeotlng the tonib, the Inscrlptlons, onvlronmonts, etc. He then asked to bo shown to the sectlon contalnlng the romalns ot United States Senator Ellls, a judge in United States Court and mlnlstes to Mexlco. It seems from the mscrlption. on the marbje slab above hla rostlh'g-placo tjrnt he wau a natlve of thls State, but a rep rosentntlve of the State of Mississlppi, He mu8t havo veturned and dled here |n hla old age. We kn?w nothing of his hjstory, but are ?ure ha ls remenj. beied by sonie of the cltlzona ot R1?U , none of them Is more than twenty-one, llve In n great bonrdlng house, whlch. Ih condtictod by tho mlll. Mr. Fugl, the genernl manager of the compnuv, Is called "pnpu H.-in," hy all the hoard ors, and If clieerfulncss of demeanor counts for nnythlng, thoy aro nll happy. This immense bonrdlng house ls a great wooden building. The hands nre dlvlded Into "fnnillleB" of thirty. and each famlly ls preBldod over by a niatron, who oxerclses dlaclpllne, caros for thoac who aro sllglitly 111, and monds clothes. The serlously 111 go to the hospital. Forty cooks preparo the rlne aml flsh whlch mnke up the bill-of-faro at the btg hoardlng liousa. The water ls all dlstllled. the plumblng Is niodern, and on the whole these 2.000 young Jnpanose may be sald to llve under condltlons a thousand tlmu* botter than they ever knew bofore they came to the factory. Tho yoiinger operntlves, those who are exemptcd from the full twelvc-ho;ir dny at work, Hre compelled to go to school. Tho mlll malntnlns two large schoola wlthln the factory Inclosure? one for boys nnd one for glrls. From two to four houra In achool each dav Is compulsory for all the younger hands. These schoola teach the eom? mon elementary hranchoa and, In addl tlon. certaln technlcal textlle lnstrtic tlon ls glvon. If the school teachor who daily lecturos there children on mechanfes would walk ncroBS the ynrd and superlntend his clasa whlle they cleaned Bomo machlnen. It would r.u better for the mlll. But everywhare ln Japan ono sces evfdences of a cer? taln lnablllty to co-ordlnate theorles and practlce. The crownlng glory of this partlcu Iar mlll ia Ita theatre. A great struc ture, bullt after the Amerlcan order, wlth a high atage for drop "tirlalns. two curved gallerlea and an lncllmd floor. Is llttcd wlth 2,000 Amerlcan opera chalra. Contrasted to tl.e .Inp anese theatro wlth level llopra nnd no chalrs at all, thla theatre la an Aladdln's palace. The electfic llghtl?< features provldo for all tho stage nf fects of the ordinary Occldsntal play house. and there ls a regular orchtutra of ten pieces whlch playa Occldental music. In thla theatre three perfortn* ancea a week are glven, free of eharge, to the mlll hands. On Sunday the theatre ls converted Into a Presbyterlan church. There Is an early mornlng Sunday school, a mornlng preachlng Bervlae. and an ovenlng service. As the large ma? jority of the operatlves are not Chrla tlans. attendancc at Sunday servlcea Is voltintary. L'aually there are over 1,000 at the mornlng service. Sunday aff> ternoon some mlsslonary glves a pop? ular lecture In the theatre, often Il? lustrated wlth maglc-lantern plcturea. and generally aimed at givlng the Japanese mlll hands a peep Into the outslde world. The entlre manufacturtng output of Japan ls now worth about $250,000,004 a year. and of thla more than half comea from the households wher* tho handlcraft lndustriea are carrled on as they have been for centgrlea. But the machlne Is slowly and aurely forg Ing ita way upward and the hand workers are driftlng Into the mllls. That the factorles are already taking steps, to amellorate the condltlon of these people when transplanted from rural freedom to system dlsclpllne, la a fact whlch wlll cauae rejolclng among humanltarlans of other landa. Ten years ago there were 650,Ooo weavlng houses ln Japan. in whlch over l.ono.ooO persons wrought on hand looma. Nor,- there are only 400,000 weaving houses and 750,000 hand weavers. Durlng the same pcrlod the wenvlng mllls have Incrtaseri from 50 to 260. and they now emptoy SO.nno people. However, the prlnctpal mllls In Japan llmlt tliemselves to splnning eotton or to windlng silk. and the greater portlon of JApan's export* Is made up of the half-wrought cotton yarns and raw silk. The government. which once went out of the manufacturlng buslness. re turned to it when tobacco manufac? turlng waa made a atate monopoly. and lt haa made some costly experlments in a steel mlll, whlch was Intendel io supply Its own shlpyards and arsenals. But as lt Is now. the government oper ates thlrty-four manufacturlng con cerns. employlng over 100.000 persons, at average wages of 25 cents a day. Japan is burning with a desire to liecome a great manufacturlng na tton. deBplte the fact that It must al ways dopend largely upon other coun trles for raw materlal. If those ox pertri who have atudled\the altuation iro to be credlted. this ls one Japanes? embltinn which wlll never be realizad untll the Japanese mantifacturer he gins to care more for the health of his maehlnery and less for the size of hla divldend. (Copyrlght. 190S, by Frederlc J. Has kin.) To-morrow?Educatlon ln Japan. mond. The gentleman referred to seemed to examlne these sections wlth absorblng Interest. We then walked back slowly to the gate, glanclng at other monuments that attracted attentlon. On arrlvlng there he entered the llttle house, and selzlng a rude pad of wrltlng paper lylng on the table, wrote the fol lowlng words: "C. W. Perry. Clare. MIch. The cltl xens of Rlchmond ought to keep the llttle cemetery thab holds the remains of the llluatrlous Chlef Justlce. John Marshall. with the care his emlnent virtues and abilltles merlt." He was very pleasant ln his conver sation, and had been down South wlth an invalid wife, wlth hopes that sho would bo benefited by the balmy Sqjnhern atmosphere. He bade us a cordial good-by. and l6ft for his far-away home ln Mlchl gan. Wo glve to the publlc the mess age he loft behind, and each one can mako his own comments. ROBT. W. JOYNEB. Shockoo Cemetery Gate. Chlnese Iron. In July of last year a shlpmei)t of 1.500 tons wns made from Hankow to Brooklyn, nnd the further Infdrmatlon ls glven as algniflcant that this Iron was lald down in Brooklyn at $17.50 a ton, this prlce includlng freight at $4.75 a ton. That Is to say. this Iron was brought down tho Yangtse Rlver to the sea", a-distance nf 600 miles, and then 14,000 miles farther by way of tlie Suez Canal before It was dellvered at the Brooklyn wharves at a price whlch made the transactlon practlcable. It ls well known that there aro im? mense undeveloped stores of coal and Iron In the Chlnese empire, and much of avallable supply ls ?n navlgnblo rlvers. Much moro Uos where It can easlly he renched by railroads when the tlmo shall come for thelr construe tlon. Thero' ls good reason to belleve that somo day a conslderahle propor tlon of this Chlnese Iron will find its way to the United States.?Manchestor Unlon. A SuKKostlon. That spllt among tha Virginla Ro publlcans ls a serlous matter. It may cause them tho lops of the State ln Novembor,?Indlanapolls News. |n It for Fun. It ad<ls liumov to a presldentlal cam palgn that Tom Watson and 8am Wll? llanis take thelr nomlnation serlously. ?Roehester Herald. LONG BISTANCE PIIONB iS\ R. L. Barnes Safe & Lock Co. 5lanufucturrrn of lllgh-Grnde Ktumlurd Safea nnd Vnulta. Factorles Nos. 1 and 2 Trlgg Shlp Yards. Oftloaa and Snow Rooms, Jl-lS-15 North Fourteenth Street, Hiahmonri, Va. LUMBER Sash, lllliuls, Uuiira, Mouldlpga. I.urgo Stock. Low Prlcea. WOODWABD Sf SON, Klulimond. V?.