Coiifrlbiitlnna <o ililai coliimn are
reaaextrd froui Confcflernte vefer
nna nn<l ofher peraona famlllnr wlth
the lifMory *f the Wor Betweeu
flie Srntea. >nrratlves of pnrtica
Inr cneagvmenlN nnd peraonal nd
veiittirew sre eapcclnlly reqncated.
All contrlbuflonft ahonld be aent, to
the Edltor of the Confederate
Colurcn, Tlmcc-Dllpntcli, Rlcbmond,
HOW GETTYSBURG LOOKS
AFTER FORTY-SEVEN YEARS
Field To-Day Shows Wonderful Daring of South
ern Troops in Attempting Feat That Seems
Impossible to Modern Visitors.
BY COI? G. X. SAtiSSY.
"Then Paul stood ln tho mldst of
Wars Hlll," ls an excerpt from noly
wrlt recorded ln chapter xvll., versa
2-, Acts of the Aposlles.
Whlle a scrlptural text ls here
quoted, a law sermou ls not to be the
tubject of thls artlcle; the lncldent 13
rnerely used as a comparlson. The
great Apo?jlo of the Ocntlles stood on
Mars' Hlll to combat tho superstltlon
of the Athenians; thls scrlbe recently
stood on Culp'K Hlll and gazed ln won
der at the magnltude of the enierprlso
attemptcd by the elastlc Army of
Northern Vlrglnla Just forty-fieven
years ago at Gettysburg.
Untll wlthin the last half century
jclence had allotted thlrty-thrce ycara
as the aveiiige duratlon of human llfe
? a goneratlon. Wlthin the last tlfty
years thls same sclence has educated
clyuized man to a better knowlodgo ot
the lawb of hcalth and sanuatlon, lm
provements ln ventllatlon. hyglene and
other helpful mothods, and has there
by advanced the average duratlon of
human llfe fully tcn yaars. Therefore
a full generatlon and more has paased
over the Great Dlvlde slnce the thun
d*rs of 300 gunB waked the echoes and
phook the alr, forests and earth at
Gettysburg. Forty-scven years ls a
long hark back. and closely marglns
the half-ccntury mark.
? Few of the partlcipantB ln that
Tl'.anlc struggle got more of a view
of that great battle and hattletleld
durlng the actlon thnn thelr lmm<
dlate envIronmentH. They could see
or.ly that part of the fleld ln thelr
tmmedla'e front or flanks; therefore.
unless they have Flnce vlslted thls
Waterloo nf the Western Hemispher*
they have but a limlted conceptlon of
the magnltude of that flerce combat
that came so near glvtng the world a
The wrlter's place, as an atom ln
the make-up of the wonderful Army
of Xorthern Vlrglnla. was on the Con
federate extreme left. In the words
of Captaln John Esten Cooke:
"Thta chap rode wlth the cavalry
And heard the Jarrlng cannons roar
In front of Cemotery Hlll;
Good Heavensl How they dld roar:"
In attempting to damage General
Hookar'a arrny by pettlng hetween lt
nnd Washington, General Sttiart, wlth
the effectlves rj thren hrisiides of hla
trooper*. e.ut loose from rontart wlth
Keneral Lee anfl hls infantry on June
2?. 156". At Frederlck, Md., General
George G. Meade. superseded General
"Fightlng .loe" Honker in command
of the Potomac"army. Then General
Meade perststed in moving the Poto-,
mac army so as to keep it lntcrvonlng
between the maln body of General
Lee's army and Stuart's troopers; so
that thls small dlvlsion nf cavalry
did not succeed in conneoting wlth
the Army of Xorthern Vlrglnla untll
the evenlng of July 2?the evenlng
of the second day's battle.
Wm on the Left.
The wrlter was anxlour, to patlsfy
htmself that the mental photograph
of the topography and fleld condltlons
of the Confederate left had been cor
rectly recorded ln tho exeltement of
battle. Arrlvlng at .the llttle town
of Gettysburg one Thursday aiternoon
he struck out Baltlmore Street and
found that hlghway led through the
centre of the now fr.mous llttle' town
ln Southern-Central Pennsylvanla. On
the slope of Cemetery Hlll ls the
Battlefield Hotel; here your ' scrlbe
reglstered. In strolling out Baltl?
more Street. Just at the foot of Ceme?
tery Hlll. where a lane lntereects that
street, there ls a board fence whlch
wa/s there durlng the battle. Many
bullet holes plerced the planklng, flred
there by the Confederate Infantry
while presslng tho blue soldlern
through the town ln> the flrst day's
battle, A slgn advlses vlsltors that
the fence has been preserved lntaot
Blnc* that lGt of July, 1S6S, as one
of the mementoes of that momentous
Eo?y to Rench Fleld.
At supper the llttle mald servlng
the wrlter's table, told hlm she could
6ecure a rellable guide for hlm. She
was Informed this was just what was
wanted; so the guido was 'phoned for
and arrangaments made for hls ser
vlces the next day. At 7:40 A. M. the
gulde wlth team was ready. He asked,
"Where do you deslre nrst to go?"
Not aware how long lt would take or
the eaee wttu whlch the fiold could be
traversed, thls trooper answered. "to
the extreme Confederate left. where
Stuart'a depleted brlgades held posl
tlon." The gulde then atated that
polnt on the battlefiold was three
and three-quarter mlles from the
Passlng through lanes, graded and
graveled avenues and byways, that
poeltlon waa roached ln about an hour.
Whlle en route, passlng over a grassy
larte, the Iron markor lndteated the
poBltion that had been held by a
Georgia battallon ot artlllery (I
thlnk lt was'Cutt's),/and Just ln front
of the two guns marklng the posltlon
of Mllledge's Battery, two labqrers
with plck and spade wero at work,"and
as your acrlbe drew noar the plck un
earthed a Iragment of a twenty-fonr
pound Bpherloal case shell. the frag
mant about the slza of a man'a palm,
and is now a rello ln the wrlter's pos
Bosslori, ^Continulng our Journey, we
ca-ma to the- body of woofls ln whlch
Tiampton, formed hla brigado In tho
early aft'ernoon of July 3. 1863. Here
hbjects aeemed'to have undorgone but
llttle perceptible change. Even the
timber appearedMo have put on but
llttle growth ln these noarly five de
cades.! There were the samo wheat
flelds iln front and the Rummel barn
to the rlght fronf of Hampton's po?
Bltion; there, Just as roemory had
reoorded tanglbfe ohjects forty-aevan
years ago, they wero lntaot, with
ao ^Brceutlbfa chan?es, Tho KUldoJ.
called attentlon to this maryel?ar
renling nature ln lta devclopmenta.
Slab at Stuart'a Poaltioa.
At thla portlon of the fleld standa
a larj^e granlte alab Into which a
bronzo tablet ia let, notlfylng vls'tors
the poEitlon was held by Major-Gen
cral J. E. B. Stuart and four brigades
of hls cavalry July 3, 1863. Here
Hampton, Fitz Lee and Chamblla, wlth
Breathed's and Grlflln's Batteriea, and
a llttle to the right Jenklns'a Brl
gadc, posuiona are Indlcated by iron
Returnlng toward other portlona of
the fleld, part of the flrst day's bat
ileground was traversed, when Heth,
advanclng from the west on the Cham
bersburg Plke. flred the flrst ahell at
Buford's Cavalry; where Reynolds,
with the Flrst Corps, wlth Buford,
wlthatood A. P. Hlll's attacks; where
at noon two divlslons of Howard's
Llaventh Corps came to the help of
Reynolda and Buford.
Howard had dlrected Stelnwhehr to
fortlfy Ce?':ery Hlll in caso he waa
forced b.-v Here in tuls flrst day'a
battlo tl:< oderal army lost its beat
corps comntandor, Major-General John
1\ Reynolds. kllled. Then this trooper
and hlb guide traversed the left and
ccntre of the sccond day's battle
grotind. Up Culp'a Hlll, then held by
t-locum's Twclfth and the remnant of
Reyiiolds'e Flrst and Howard's
Elevtr.ih Corps, we cllmbed; thcnce
toward the Federal right-centre. where
Hancock's Sccond connected wlth the
Flrst. i^K-venth and Twelfth Corps. and
cxtondlns along to the left-centre to?
ward Ltttle-Round Top, where Slckles'a
Third Cnrps held the brldge near the
Opposlng this lin? Ewell confronted
formldabl" Culp'a Hlll. on through tho
streets of Gettysburg to Seminary
Ridge. A. 1*. Hlll extendlng south
along the rldge and ' Longstreet at
the hase of Llttle Round Top. At 3 P.
>!., Longstreet, on the second day, aa
satiltcd Slckles's llne In the Peach
Orchard, Loop, the Wheat Fleld and
the Devil's Den. Ewell attacked
Cemetery Hlll and fought hls way to
the crest, capturlng guns and break
Ing the Ferferal llne. After a prolonged
hand-to-nand struggle, Federal re
inforccments compelled Hays and
Hoko to ylold the creet. Up Culp's Hlll's
ruggod slde Ed .Tohnson's dlvlslon
nioved and forced the Federal llne
from Its lntrenchments.
After dlnner the tour of the fleld
waa resumed, and the Federal posl
tlons of the third day's battle along
Oemetcry Hlll, Llttle Round Top, Loop.
the Devil's Den and Death's Valley
were Inspected. Then tho llne
.Seminarv Hlll, where Alexander's
guns pltched Rhot, shell and shrapnel
upon Cemetery Hlll, and from which
the Confederate llne debouched in the
bloody assault that fatal afternoon.
A resume of the great battle Is not
intended here; no martlal sceno has
more nften been oxploited than the
story of Gettysburg. Here at the
Bloody Angle on Cemetery Hlll "high
tlde at. Gettysburg" was reached. At
this Bloody Angle Armlstead broke
the Federal rlefense and stained wlth
hls life's blood the spot beslde Cush
ing's guns. Here, indeed, the hlgh tlde
of the Confederacy was reached, and
thence after the fortunes ot the Con?
federacy began to wane.
Great Pnrk. on Field.
Twenty-three thousand acres ot
land. over which theae three day3 of
contest raged, have been acquired by
the Unlted Ktates as a battlefleld park.
and the retentlon of all natural as
well as artlflclal objects ln place at
the tlme of the great battle make the
Gettysburg Battlefleld Park one of the
greatest object lessons this contlnent
holds. A constant stream of visltors
come and.go as the aeaaona wax and
wane. Gettysburg, like the Capitoi at
Washlngton, ia the daily Mecca of
To an old trooper there came the
reeollectlon of those three days of that
great national tragedy, where 62,000
Confodoratea attempted the lmposslble;
whe^o 300 cannon hurled death and
wounds upon thousands. One ba^ but
to cllmb the rocks and seams of Culp's
Hlll on the Federal rlght, take ln the
tremendous strength to Its defenders.
then pass on to Cemetery Hlll. wlth Its
stone wall of defcjise and broad open
sweep of cleared and unobstructed
stretches of cultlvated land; thonce on
to Llttle Round Top and the Devil's
Den. defended by huge houldera of
rock, and wonder at tho audaclty that
prompted the aasults on these well
nigh impregnable posltlon6.
Jolinaon's Womlerful Feat.
Yet Edward Johnson climbed
through the tlmber and over the rock
wall up the sldo of Culp's Hlll, and
at ono tlme, my gulde told me, was
wlthln 350 yards of the Federal supply
trains and reeerve artlllery. Plckett
llkewlse broke the enemy's atrong de
fenae at the Bloody Angle on Ceme?
tery Hlll, and Law for a brlef eeason
held the dreat . of Llttle Rojtnd Top.
Suporta falllng, the prlzes slipped
through Confederate .fingera. "After
forty-seven years" tha magnltude of
the desperate enterpr'iae appeals to
an old actor in that bloody drama. wlth
pathetlo sadnesa. In the flrst day's
battle succesB perched upon the starry
croas, but the frult ofvthis suooess
waa not reaped, and Meade's arrny Waa
permltted to mass upon ground. nature
had rendered well-nigh Impregnable.
The second day'a battle results were
about a standroff, and- the third day?
tho> oruclal conteat?falled. .
In the analy6ls of Gettysburg the
most lmportant faotor ln the shaping -
results ls that llttle," but lmportant,- ?
"If." In hls "Remlniscenoes" G.enerfl,l
Gordon says so conscious .was he (of
the Importanoa of fprolng the flgntihg
after Howard's Eleventh Corps had
been smashed he'refused to obey three
aepaj-ate ordera to etop the - purault,
ani-oniy, jr/ben, th? siowsth, f^aHt.,,*ai
the'form of a peremptory order, dld
ho unwllllngly oboy. Hls soldler ln
htlnet admonlslied the idomorallznd
foo muflf. be presned, as that demorall
zatlon would becorne Infeoflous when
lt came ln contact wlth Stelrnwhohr
on Cemctery Hlll, and must al?o ln
ooulate the other corps. Fow of fhe
old fioIdlerB who have Burvlved that
terrlble confllct but at thls date be
lleve the lmpetus of Hlll and Ewell
would have, carrled Ccmetery Hlll wlth
but llttle loss. That nccompllshed, and
the i-lrflt and Elevcnth Corpa ln con
fualon and demorallzotlon. there could
.have been no masnlng of the other
Federal corps at or near Gettycburg.
Meade would have been compelled to
take posttlon elsewhore, poesibly at
Plp? Creek, as flrst Intonded.
Lnnk of Co-Opern<lon t,oat Day.
Lack of co-operatlon and concert
of actlon durlng tho second day lost
what frults had accrtied the flrst day.
The same may bo sald of the thlrd
In the study of Gettysburg, as well
as ln the other passages of arms be
tween the Army of Northern Vlrglnla
and the Potomac Army one 1b forclbly
impressed wlth Dr. J. Willlam Jones's
statement that General Loe, when
prealdent of Woshlngton College, told
hlm if Stonewall Jackson had been
wlth hltn at Gettyoburg vlctory would
have placed her crown of immortelles
upon the star-crossed banner. General
Gordon llkewlae emphaslzes thls when
he relates In hls "RemlnlHconces" how
lmprossed he was wlth the slmllarlty
In sentlment of the scerti at the tomb
of Lazarus whon.the bereaved slstera
sald to Mary's royal Son: "If Thou
hadst been here our brother had
not dled." The gallant Georglan para- ]
phrases the Bcane and language: "If
Stonewall Jackson had been at Gettys?
burg the Confederacy had not dled."
But the past Is hurled wlth the
thousands who perished at Gettysburg.
Refinlng avalls nothlng. We must bo
lleve the hand of Provldcnco so or
dered and we must submlt.
Over the 23,000 acres ot tho Gettys?
burg Battlefield. Park the govornment
has constructed twenty-slx milos of
splendld macadamlzed avenues, and all
parts of tho neld aro thus made easlly
accesslble. Along tho llnes held thoso
threo eventful days are soattered 540
monuments, many very handsome and
costly. in the aggrogate exceedlng $3,
000.000 in thelr construction.
All ohjects that had hlstorical value
have been retained Intact. Woods,
bulldlngs. fences are as when "stormed
at by shot and shell." Granlto slabs
contalning bronre tablots deslgnate
corps' po8itions on either Une. Iron
tablets mark position of brlgades and
batterle*. and in addltlon each bat
tery's position is marked by two or
more (now) obsolete oannon. hun
dreds of hrass, steel and iron mounted
guns belng used for the purpose.
On Semlnary FJdge, marklng a bat
tery's position, are placed tho only two
breech-loadlng fleld pleces used in
either army durlng the war. These are
English Whitworth guns that succoss
were not captured at Gettysburg, but
fuljy came through the blockade. They
came lnto the Unltcd States govern
ment's possesslon wlth the coilapse of
the Confederacy, are supposed to mark
the ppot from whlch they threw shot
GENERAL GODWIN FOUGHT
WITH BRAVEST OF BRAVE
His Brilliant Career Covered Some of Most
Thrilling Incidents of Antebellum Days
and of War Between the States.
[Colonel Wllllam H. Btewart sends us
the followlng artlcle wlth this note:
In givlng you this most lntereatlng
and thrllllng blography of General
Archibald Campbell Godwln, it seems
proper that I Bhoulrl introduce the
wrlter to your readera. Clarence R.
Hatton was born in Portsmouth, Va.,
In 1848. Hls father waa Danlel H.
Hatton. well known in this sectlon of
Virginia, the son of John Hatton, who
was the son of Capt. Lewls Hatton and
Ellzabeth (Goodrlch) Hatton. Captaln
Hatton owned Hatton'a Point (now
owned by "Wm. L. Wiae), on the Wes
tern Branch of the Ellzabeth Rlver,'
during the Revolutionary War, and \
waa at that tlme commander of a prl
vateer. hls own shlp. and besldes flght
ing, was mostly engaged ln runnlng
supplles for our trlpa, which be
would land and secret in dugouts in
tho wooda on that point untll our
troops could sllp down and get them.
Clarence R. Hatton's mother was Cor
nelia, the youngest daughter of Col.
Mills Rlddlck, in the War of 1812,
whose father was Col. Joslah Rlddlck
in the War of the Revolutlon.
He waa educated at the Virginia
Milltary Institute, and whlle there was
out wlth the corpa of cadets several
tlmea to check tbe Federal raids
threatenlng tho Virginia Central Rall
road. He was wlth the corps when lt
went wlth Jackson, when he defeated
Mllroy at McDowell, and then down the
valley In Jackson's most brllllant feats
Cadet Hatton left the Institute ln
1864, jolnlng the army ln the trenchea
at Petersburg, -where he was asalgned
as aide to Godwin's Brlgade. He waa
wlth the brlgade In the pursult of
Hunter down the Valley Into Mary
land to the suhurbs of Washlngton a
back into the Valley, engaglng ln
flghts almost dally, ln one of which
the adjutant-general waa permanently
dlsabled by a wound, and thereupon
Alde Hatton waa promoted to artjutant
general of the brlgade, and served ln
that capaclty untll the last Gharge at
Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864, ln which
he was severely wounded ln the neok,
the rlfie ball lodging In the musclea ln
tront of the neok bone, where It now
reraaina. He was ln a hospltal at Pe
Btorsburg whon lt waa evaauated. but
went out with the army on the lre
treat. and was sent from Farmvllle,
or near there, to Gen. Joseph B. John
Bton wlth dlapatchea, which he de
llvered at Ralelgh. N. C. and oont'in
ued wlth that army untll surrendered.
He returned to Nansemona county,
Va,, where he engaged In farmlng un?
tll 1874, when he went to New York,
a,nd ls now a olvll engineer and clty
surveyori and he la alao adjutant of
the Confederate Veteran. Camp of New
york. Although thla blographer of
th'e gallant Godwln was only wlth hlm
ln the fleld from the springr of 1864
iintll he was kllled, yot ho had known
ninv'and of hlm many years, beoausa
the- general had alwaya been a firm
ind'.'ast frlend of hlu father, Danlel
il. Hattoii. Therafore, this papev Is of
SBpeoial historlcal vaiue oii nccdunt of
the Hnowledge and .expertonoe pf the
ituthor, WILLIAM H, STE5WA.RT.]
Archibald Campbell Godwln waa
porn in the year 1831, ln the aounty of
Na^Mmoj^ a^ft.^ta^ <rf ylSBJni^ and
/, ,.'",? i '' ' (
!.,\AVl>-iiCfi,'ni.'i' ?A.W-.V.'i.* ?.. ^iV' ._ . .... ...
and shell flva rnllea lnto tho enerny'i
llnea durlng ?he hittfle,
Fltz Lee, ln hla "Llfe of the Gr^nt
Vlrglnlnn," relate.i when Pirkett's ainl
other shatterorl r.onimands s?t lufli to
Semlnary Rldgo General Pleapanton,
e.ommandlng tho Federal hnrne,
rode up to General Men<l<-> nnd mild:
"I glve you (in hour and a. hiilf to
prove you are a general. ,\t onco
order the advanre o? thls army whlle
I takft tho cavalry around ln Lee'a
rear, nnd we wlll end thls campnlgn
ln a woek!" A councll of corps com
manders voted agalnst asaurnlng tho
offennlve, so Meadn concluded to "let
well enough alone."
Should VIhU the Flrld.
Age and feebleness are fast over
taklng tho aurvlvors of Gettysburg.
The wrlter foela sure it would be a
groat satisfactlon to those who partl
clpated In the battlo and have not
agaln vlBited tho fleld to do so onca
more. He argues from hla own cx
perlence, and urgon upon all com
rades to make the Journey and vlow
the aceno under present condltions.
where Lec and hls army attompted the
well-nlgh ImpoEslblo and yet came so
In a presn dlspatch In the dallles
or tho 9th of June, 1010. appeared a
paragraph, "the Iron tahlets marklng
the posltlons ln either army, are bolng
replaccd by red granlte columns upon
whlch are bronzo tablets wlth proper
inscrlptlons. Flfty-ono of these wlll
mark ConfedcAto brlgades. and one
hundred wlll designato Fcdcral com
mands." Tho dlscrepancy indlcated the
relatlvo Htrongth of the two armles??
62,000 Confedarates, 105,000 Federals.
wlth 292 Confederate fleld pleces and
370 Federal cannon.
Tho wrlter hopos thls skotch wlll
attract tho attention of those who
have not vlslted thls memorable spot,
and that it wlll brlng up in thelr
hearta a wlsh to sco and go over thls
W'aterloo of the Wostern hemisphere.
He is sure each one dolng so wlll feel
amply repaid for tho trlp.
The fast-fading hattallons are rap
idly recrultlng tho mystlc onenmp
ment in the Great Beyond. These
aro the remnants of those of whom
Wllllam Swlnton, the hlstorlan of tho
Army of tho Potornac, wroto, "For tho
thousands thus placed hor3 du com
bat were the very elite and flower
of that Inooinparable Southern In?
fantry. whlch. tempered by two years
of battlo and habltuated to vlctory,
equalled any aoldlers that ever fol- I
lowed the eagles to conquest." Wero
further oommendatlon or compllment
needed, then the words of Teddy, the
Terrible. the late Rough Rider, execu
tlve of the ropubllc, fllls the bill: "The
world has never seen better soldlers
than those who followed Lee, and
thelr leader wlll undoubtedly rank
as, wlthout exception, the very great
est of the great captains the Engllsh
speaklng peoples havo brought forth,
and thls although the last chlef of
hls antagonists may w<-ll clalm to be i
the full equai of Marlborough and
It ls posslble there wlll be a great
celebratlon at Gettysburg three yeara
henoo. when the aeml-centennlal annl
versary of the battle wlll occur. Tho
wrlter would advlse eomra'des. how
ever, to tako advantage of lt now, as
llfe Is eo uncertaln and three years
hence mav IWV?r rnma tn tl-iorv.
I moved to the town of Portamouth, Va.,
[ the same year.
He waa the son of Lewls Qodwin and
Julla Campbell Godwln, who was the
daughter of Gen. Archibald Campbell,
! U- S. A., and in charge of United Statea
! publlo lands of Mlssouri and North
west Territory in 1S37. Hls grandfa
ther was Talbot Godwln. and hls
| grandmother was Julla Hatton God?
wln, of Hatton'a Point, on the Western
Branoh of the Ellzabeth Rlver. Sho
llvea on Londoii Street, -Portsmouthr
where she brought Archibald up after
hls fathefa death, and as may be in
ferred, hls early years were spent ln
this town. Ho graw up to be a splen
did speclmen of man. about slx feet
and four Inches tall and well propor
Dorlng the great gold fever ln 1S49
he went to Callfornla by tho overland
route, reaching the gold flelds after
many hardships and privatlons. There
he engagod ln succesaful minlng for
many years, branchlng out Into ranch
lng. lumber and mllling business. At
one tlme he owned a large and valua
ble part of Vancouver Island, but at
the tlme of the boundary trouble, when
hls property was thrown Into the Brlt?
lsh ltnes, he Immedlately sacrlfled it
and moved into the Unttea States.
An inoldent of hls llfe in the "West
was related to me by a person familiar
wlth the factn. showing the metal of
which the man was made. Godwln
was ln charge of a pajty engaged ln
suppreeslng an Indian uprising ln Ore
gon, havlng fought them hard. Many
of hls men were kllled, and finally he
got separated from tho remnant, and
was surrounded by one of the largest
and most lnfluentlal trlbes, but backed
by a steep mountaln, he fought them
slngle-handed untll hls ammunitlon
waa exhausted. Thelr shots seemlng
to have no effect upon hlm, tho most
promlnent chlef ordered they cease
flrlng, and demanded hls surrender,
but he refused, atepping forward,
dared them to do thelr worst. The
ohlof requested a parley?to talk it
over?which led. to a cessation of the
war and a treaty of peace. The In
dians after this looked upon hlm as
thelr best friend and called hlm thelr
Another Incident to lllustrato the
manner of man he was. Ho bought ono
of those old Spanlsh land granta of
lmmense area, and was engaged in
ranchlng, atock ralslng, saw and grlst
mllling on lt, and also worked a quick
sllver mlne on lt.
Ho sold off a portion ot this clalm
to a lawyer, Baker, who was after*
wards a Federal general durlng the ]
Confederate War. This Baker jet up A
a olatm to this qtiloksilver mlne which
Godwln was developlng to be one ot
tho most valuable mlnea In Callfornla.
Baker clatmed that the mlne was
wlthln tho llnos of the portion of tho
grant he had purchaaod and brought
sult for lt. This sult waa holdlng its
slow oourse through the courts for
several years at great expanse forlaw
yars and feea. wlth noend ln alght.
Then Godwln determlned to study law,
get a lloens" and defohd hls own.
oaae. This he aocompllahed, and won
Candldate for Oovernor.
r9VJjen tha Pemoormo porninat}^
?nvorttlon met ln Callfornla In 1S60
Godwln ctrm* wlthin one vote of re
oeiving tho nomlnntlon for Gavernor,
whlch wj,s oquivalent. to an electlon
If ho had been Govornnr he mtght
have cnrrled Callfornla lnto the Con?
federacy, General Albert Sldney John
rlon wi? hls elnsa frlend, nnd then In
command of tho Department of Call?
fornla. Think of the pouslbllltles to
iih wlth thoao ports on the paclflo
open. When Vlrglnla. seceded he lrn
medlately turned hls property over to
two men, namod Harrison nnd Baker,
and started homo by way of Now
Whlle In New ifork he stopped at
the Ant.or Houne. and Ge.neral Baker.
wlth whom he had had the. sult, know
Ing hlr. strong Southern sympathles,
tried to have hlm arreated. Fortu
nately he dlEcovered Bakor and hla
nquad entoi-ing tho front door In tlme
to oacapa by tho sldo door, and then he
finally mado hls way to Rlchmond.
There I'resldent Davla gavo hlm a
commlsBlon of major ln tho regular
Confederate Army and assigned hlm to
apeclat duty around Rlchmond, asslst
nnt provost marnhal In charge of Llbby
Organlxerl sall?bttry Prlnon.
Ile wlBhed to Jotn General Albnrt
Sldney Johnston, who wanted hlm, but
he waa so efllrient in hls dutlos at
Libhy Prlaon that I'resldent Davls ln
slsted that he shotild organlzo and
ostabllsh a pri^on at Sallsbury, N. C,
flrst, and lt w.in whlle on thls mis
nlon that he organlzed and was com
mlssloned colonel of the Fl/ty-seventh
North Carollna Infantry Reglment. Its
flrst blg battle. after servlng around
Rlchmond a while, was at Frederlcks
burg, December 13, 1S62. It was then
attached to Law's Brlgado. Hood's DI
Then lt waa baptlied in blood and
! immortalized by a gallant charge,
drlvlng a Federal brlgade from an
advanced position. ln a railway cut
near Hazel Run, whlch waa threaton
Ing to cut the Confederate lines in the
centre. Thls cut was Just deep enough
to make excellent broastworks for In?
fantry. A lino of woods stretched
along the odge of the ruu'B aottum,
whlch was marshy, and ln front of
thls locatlon for slx or clght hundred
yards was low ground.
It waa durlng tho furious assaulta
on Marye'a Hlli. on our left nnd at
tacks on A, P. Hlll's llne on the rlght
that a New Jorsey brigado effected a
lodgment in thls supposed lmpassable
swamp and lnto thls railway out.
Two unsuccossful attomptshad boen
mado by MaJor-General Hood to dla
lodge them from thls threatenlng po?
sition. About 3 o'olook ln the after
noon Major-Genoral Hood orderod
General Law to make another effort
to fclear the rallroad cut of tho enomy,
and Law ordered the Flfty-seventh
Xorth Carollna Reglment to make the
charge. In order to gotinto llne of
battle, it had to go over a corduroy
road through thls swamp wlth front
of fours, under heavy artillery flro as
well aa the sharp rlflo flre of the
on*my, but tho reglment moved for
ward company after. company, and
formed stcadily ln lino front wlthout
a falter, as accurately aa If on pa
rade; then at "qulck step," "rlght
shoulder shlft." it advanoed, soon the
rlfle flro from the cut bocame tor
rific; then "doubla qulck." and wlth
tho "rebel yell," a auddon rush, lt
was at the railway cut with loaded
guns. The enemy was drlven out,
kwied or capturcd, and over the cut
it rushed, never faltorlng (although
attaokod on its flank) untll General
Law Bont orders lor lt to retire to
the railway cut, when it "about
faced" under a murderoua flre, and
ln true allgnment marchod back and
took its position ln the cut wlthout
any confusion, tho left company by
a half wheel protcotlng the reglment
from an assault on Its flank.
In thls aftalr thls splendld regl?
ment )ost 250 out of 800 men and four
captalns and elght lleutenanta, kllled
and woundod. Thls heroio charge waa
mado in plaln slght of our comrades
on the hills. who enoouragod them
with mlghty yells, and also was under
the eyes of the beloved Commander
in Chlef, General R. E. Leo, from
Lee's Hlll, who well repaid the noblo
reglment wlth a compltmontary no
tico ln general orders issued the next
day, whioh was always afterwards
held by lt .as a proud atandard by
whlch lt should aot, uphold and sup
port, and the Flfty-seventh Reglment
never falled ln thls. They were mostly
of Scotch-Irish. descent. .
At tho reorganization of thls regl?
ment in Aprll, I8t}:>. lt waa asslgnod
to Hoke's Brigaaa, Early's Divlslon,
On Jlay 4, 1863, the Flfty-seventh
Reglment was ordered to dlslodge
General Glbbon (who waa trylng
to get to j-iee's rear at Chan
cellorsvllle) from a Btrong posi?
tion on the turnplko out of Fred
ericksbufg. north of Marye'a Helghts,
and her0 lt again distingulshed lt&*Jf.
With a rush over rough groundjaaid
under terrlflo flre of rlfle and can
nister lt drove tho enemy baok and
oaptured the position.
In the Gettysburg campaign Early'a
Divlslon led tho advance lnto the
Valley of Vlrglnla. Milroy waa at
Wlnchester. whloh he had fortlfled by
an entrenchod camp aiound it.
He was oompletely supprlsed when
Hoke's Brlgade charged and captured
lt, and although manned by superlor
numbers. the vlctory was completo,
Seneral Milroy almost alone ln escap
General Early advanced down the
Valley and on lnto Maryland. then lnto
Ponnsylvania. through Gettysburg to
Vork, whsre after waltlng flve or slx
rlays for orders, ho started for Lee'a
rendezvous at Cashtown. fortunately
by way of Gettysburg, movlng lels
urely untll, when the head or tho col?
umn was wlthin three or four mllea of
Gettysburg, about midday two reports
sf fleld guns were heard ln that dlrec
:lon; but they seenied far away, and
ivore supposed to bo a cavalry flght
some twenty mllea dlstant; but ln a
few mlnutes the llring became rapld
xnd apparently with many gruns. Then
Major John W. Danlel, of Early's staff,
xpproached at full speed with ordera
to haston to the ald of Gen. A. P. Hlll,
*vho waa hard pressed on Semlnary
Rldge, or hlll. near Oettysburg. Then
itt go the blaukets and all" incum
irances, for the wagon train topickup
ind brlng on as they came along, and
an wlth qulck stop, the laat mlle In
tho doubla qulck, for they could see
the smoke and hear th? noise of bat
Moved lnto PInoe.
Roachlng Oak Hlll, nenr the north
juburb of Gettysburg, Rprtsa's Dlvls
on was rushed on.' to tho rlyht to A. P.
E*lU's asslstanco on Semlnary Rldge,
ind Early's Divlslon formed wlth
rloke's Brlgado, commanded by Col.
[Bnac E. Avery, formarly of the Slxth
<orth Carollna Reglment, on the e.\
.reme left, Hayes'3 Louislana Brlgade
lext, and J. B. Gordon'a Georglans on
the rlght towards Rhodes.
? From thla position. (Oak I-IHl) away
on tho rlght could bo soon the Con?
federate and Federal ..lines ln battlo
arroy ln plain ytow ? for ; two mllea,
wlth po breastworks or fortifloations.
A. brlgade onour extremo-. rlght mov?
lng up?ajat of whlte snioke along the
anemy's llne;?'tho roar dfrMle and ar?
tillery, tho expeotad.yall. a rush and
Lhe onemy's.'Uhe ,'broken,' a second
arlgade movihg. ln .ooholpn?the same
^ell, same ruah "and sama fllsrht of
the anemv. But, HUVs left was hard -
pressed when Sodea fiame sweej^txa^b
down from Oak Rldge agalnat tho
encmy's rlght flank (where they had
maasod thelr heavy reglmenta) and
broke thelr llnea Into full retreat. Aa
the confllct moverl the aoiind hecame
moro dlstlnct and tho effeot w/ifl mar
veioiiB; tho men, wlld wlth excitoment,
went In to out off the relnforcements
hurrylng to the Federala' asalatance
wlth the greatest ohthualaam, for th'oro
was not an offlccr or man but belleved
the war would be elosed upon that
fleld that evenlng.
Cojanal Godwln'* Ftfty-serenth Reg
imeifF wns on the extrems left wlth
ilayos* nnd Gortlon. They o4osed?ln
wlth n rush and made a charge noth
Ing could attinri agalnnt. Thelr qulck
and hloofly work drove tho Federula
back through the town, brokon, ut
tcrly roufed, and were over half way
up Oniitery Hlll, Which the Foderals
were secklng as a rofuge from the
fury of the Confederate charge. When.
although full two hours of dayllght
! remainerl, for some reason which nevor
I haa been aatlsfactorily oxplalned. and
I now can never be, a halt was aalled,
and even the urgent appeala of Gor
don. Hayea and Godwln to be allowed
to take the hlll were unheedod. There
Bome one made a terriblo blunder, and
without a doubt loat the battle of
Gettyaburg, and most llkely tho Con?
Oh, for a fltonertrnllt
General Lee vyin ln the rear of
Hlll'a Corps, and waa not found untll
near dark. He had not been adviaed
earller of the condltlon of affairs at
thla point, but aa aoon as he waa, he
at once ordered an attempt to be
made on the hlll. Ewell plead dark
ness. Oh, for a "Stonewall" then and
there! That night of July 1 the brt
rrade lagt ln posltion at the toot of the
hlll between the town and oemetwy.
It paascd quletly except the nolae of
the plek and shovel uaed by the Fed
erals ln.fortlfylng the hlll, which had
been ao near In our hands, and the
rumble of guns and the tramp of reln
forcementa comlng up-to the Federal
aasistance. By morning tho enemy
had worked wonders ln fortlfying hls
position. Towards the evenlng of the
THE T05IB5 OF THE BURVTELtS A3
One HundreA and Thtrty Dollara Al>
Two weeks ago an appe&l waam&di
to the deacendanta of the Btxrwella, o:
Carter's Creek, It cortalnly la a aat
lsfactlon to bo deacended from peopli
whoae posltlon waa.ao powerful ln thi
colony of Vlrglnla that they were aal<
to control the polltlcs of tholr day
and lt this 1b a. aatisfaotlon. ehould no
sentiment lead'to the preservation o
The Burwolls and thelr descendante
have from generation to. goneratloi
malntained thelr social 1C not thelr po
lltlcal prestlg*, and the oare of thosi
tornbs will be a memorlal of theli
veneration of those who made the Vlr
glnlan famlly. The Burwell totnJx
will 8tand negleot no longrer; they crj
for prcaervatlon. elae they muat dlsap
pear altogether. Our plea, Just a fort
night old, has not been dlsregardcd
One hundred and thlrty dollars ha?
been glven, and soveral proraineni
membcrs of the famlly have expresset:
thelr sympathy and announoed theli
lntention of ntaking contrlbutions.
Notwithstanding this gladly aooept
ed ald, for which slncero thanks ar?
rendered, more muat be glven boforo
the work ls aotually begron. It will
take at loast $500 to make the removal
and restoratlon credltable and com
plete, and we beg tho Burwells agaln
to come and help us. Tho olan ls nuro
erous, but the clan ls not altogether
prosporoua?thla we know too well?
but many nickels make a mite, and no
contrlbutlon, howover small, will be
W. G. Stanard ana Sanvoel H. Yonge
are golng to ald wlth thelr indlapensa
hlo advlce, and in tho old oounty of
Gloucestor, whero thonombs lle brok
on and acattered. Mrs. Rlchard P. Tal
laferro is golng to glvo her actlve and
peounlary ald, These, wlth tho writ
er, constltute tho commltte? for the
restoratlon of the Burwell tomba,
Addresa all questlons and contrlbu?
tions to Sally Nelson Robins, Vlrglnla
Hlstorlcal Soolety, Rlohmond, Va.
IN TITB RAPI'AHAAWOCK COT7NTRY.
From the rtesolatlon of Portobago
back to the town of Port Royal seemed
a. atep from darkness Into llght, nnd
our host'a frled chlcken was moro suc
culent by reason of this glimpse Into
nhyslcal and peounlary darkness. Be
:iroes next morning we were off agaln.
rhe water trip from Port Royal to
rappahannook ls/>very beautltul. The
rlver geta wldSr and bluer, and the
narshes puttlng- Into the stream,
VYought wlth tho splondor of June's
rreenery, lay like great rugs of velvet
ioftnes8 upon the royal blue.
Howo, ln hls Hiatory of Vlrglnla, aays;
'Tappahannook, port of entry and aeat
>f Justlce for the county, llea on the
Xappahajmock, flfty mlles from Its
nouth ln Chesapeake Bay, and oontains
.bout thlrty dwelllngs. It has a good
larbor, and all the shlpplng belonglng
o he towna on the rlver ls entered
t tho custom-houso In this place. Ton
lago ln 1840, 4,591."
Tappahannock, from the rlver, Is very
retty. It la upon a blufC ovcrhanging
he water, and upon this bluff aro hand
ome houses, embowered ln treea. Tho
rharf dlvldes the upper and lowor res
iences, and, like all the other wharvos,
esounded wlth. tho moan of weaned
alves. What a year 1909 must have
een for calves, and how they dld cry
or thelr unheodlng damsl Tappahan
ock Is lald off wlth wlde, shady
treets, runnlng at rlght angles. The
nest houses may be seen from the
Ivor, notably the Parkcr house, tho
knderton house, tho Brockonbornugh
ouae and Gordon house, now owned by
udge T. B. R. Wrlght. On the street
unnlng from the wharf is tho hotel
nd alao some very flno specjmena of
arly archltecmre. The oourthouso and
lerk's ofllco are substantlal bulldings.
n the oourthouae are many portraits
f Essex worthlos, placad thero by the
idefatlgable energy of Judge Wrlght,
nd the clerk'a office boasts of an un
roken llne of records. The heat was
itensa whlle "we two" delv*d In the
scorda of Essex oounty and studled
appahannook, but only this botheved
a, for we met wlth typlcal courtesy
verywhere, and nothlng oould have
saeeded the urbanlty of the clerk, Mr.
The ohlef beautles of Tappahannook
re fia trees and tta rlver; Us strlklng
eoullar-Uy ls the reciurrense of Uttlo
raveyards at the street cornera. These
icred spota are guard.ed by lron, rall
igs and markad wlth stones .whtoh
trlko a solemn, and we.rnlng note
midst the dally walk of a wovkaday
?orld. Tappahannook haa had a,day,
ut not all of Its day, for wltk such
altuatlon modern Ingenulty mus.t-flnd
ania great work yet for lt todo. ?
There' used to be a unlque and oul
ured social olaas ln TappahannooKi
ut of tha old setUeri faw reuaala.
aecond day of July aannonadinjr befttBW "?
extendlng from the ^.tttwn to Ronnor ?;
Top. Then Longatreet aaaaUed the pow '
aitlons ln hla front to Peaoh OrchanS '
and Round Top.
Late ln the afternoon when the auix .
waa low, Oeru Hayes w?* ordered tol
attack the rldge wlth hls Loulslana,; '
Brlgade and Godwln'a North Carollna,
Brlgade (CoL Avery belngf kllled, Ood
wtn sttooeedad to the oomxnand). They ,
advanced ln nne order acroaa the pla
teau at tho foot of the hlll, belnsr
Bhelled from Cemetery Hlll ln front
and in flank from Oulp'a Hlll. They '
drove the enemy from hls entrench
monts on hlllsldo up the hlll, and wlth
a rush over the creat hey had drlv
en evarythlngr before them and dls- .
lodged every position of the enemy ln
thelr front on the summlt of Ceme
tery Hlll except a small redoubt oc
oupled by a. battery of artillery, when.
darkness oamo on, whon exhaustlon
and heavy loss oauaed them to walt
for relhforoomenta, whlch had been
?*nt for, to efleot a permanent lodg
ment upon the creat of the rldge they
No retnforcementa oamo, but lnstead
an order to retlre, whlch they did.
wlth great losa, for the Federala had
been relnforced ln great numbors.
An incident ln thla charge and cap?
ture of the creat of Cemotery Hlll may
be In placo here. Colonel Avery, com
manding the brlgade, was kllled in tha
very beglnnlng of the charge, wheit:
Colonel Godwin took command and ladV
lt ln the capture of tho breastworks,
helng the flrst man over them, nearlyv .
all the Federala were shot or fleeingr;.'
ho waa met by an tmmense gtant Of at
man. who rushed upon hlm wltla;
clubbed rlfle and attempted to bralr* ?
hlm. General Godwin, throwlng up hlaf
left arm, dlverted the blow, so lt feltt
to the ground wlth such force that lii
broke the etock from the barrel, antfc
before the man could recover GeneriE
Godwin came-down with hia aword, llt*
erally cuttlng hls head ln twala
Here agaln the maln plvot of thi
wholo position had been taken, ani
the succeas of the battle was throwi
away for lack of relnforoemen.t ot
even a brlgade, and, as ever seomed
to bo our fate ln thls battle, a laoli
of ^froper co-oporation and fallure t?
obey Lee's orders promptly.
(To Be Cpntiimed.)
which. wtth Its ivy, rta trees and ltj(
tomba, gtvee the tone of an Engllab*
vtllage, wlth its parlsh ohurch. A CoiW .
federate monument was ln procesa o?
erectlon ln 1909, and lt has slnoe beear
unvelled wlth approprlate oercmony anca
with a largo orowd ln attendanoe frorol
tho aurrounding country.
Essox county oan boas-t not only oC
thla pretty llttle town, but of marrjrrj
very lmposlng oountry places, notablyfl
Blandfleld and Epplng Forest. Tappa-j
hannock ls the county seat now, as lit
tho aforetlme, of the county of BeaexJ .
Here lived Spencer Roans, foremosw
among the great Vlrglnla jndges of th?
earty decades of the laet century. H*
waa Mr. Jefferson's chcdce for VIce-|
Presldent and hls own successor. BDsj
dled upon the bench of the VlrglnieJ
Court of Appeals, which waa then. &
much raore potentlal Judlclal power*
than in these latter days. Tappahan-i
nook was the blrthplaco of Thomas'
FUtchlc, edltor and. I belleve, founder.i
of the Rlchmond Enquirer, the greaS.
power which d-ominated the Democratloi
party and held the Old Dominlon etead- ?
fast ln Its porllous daya of the lasti
century, andln the cyclone of 1840, wheal
every State ln the then twenty-slx'
voted for the Whlg oandldates except,
New Hampshlre, IUinols, Mlssouri, Ar
kansas, Alabaraa, South Carollna and'
Old Vlrglnla, at the head of the col
timn, repudlatlng even her native sona,
Harrison and Tyler, and whlle other \
hltherto Domocratlc Btrongholds bent /
before tho whlrlwlnd ahe cast her vot? j
even than for Van Buren, in hls help-j
lesa minorlty In the electoral college.
The flrst Rltchle was AxaKlbald, all
Sootoh merchant who settled at Tap-1
pahannock. Thomas, tho. odttor, waa hls J
son. Ho marrled Isabella. daughter of J
Dr. Willlam Foushee, whose name la/
perpeuated by a stre?* in our beautiful)
clty. By this marriage there were laa-l
bella, Willlam, Mary, Robert, Margaret*.;
Thomas, Charlotte, Anu Ellza, Virginia* t
Oeorge. Another son of ArchlbaloV
Rltchle waa John, captaln, TJ. S. A.?
who was kllled at the battle of Lun-4
dy's Lana. Hls beautiful sword hangaj
at the Virginia Hlstorlcal Soolety andj
was presentod to that tnstltutton by!
MIss Vlrglnla Rltchle, who spent many)
years at Brandon wlth her slster. Mrs* j
Isabella Harrison. !
Ono of tho landmarks of Tappahan*]
noek la tho Gray house. '
Lucy Wellford the daughter of Dr<;
Robert Wellford, the emlgrant who set-. |
tled in Frederlcksburg, marrled Dr.-!
Thomaa B. W. Gray, of Tappahannock,]
and after hls doath conducted a schooll
for young ladiea In this old houae,! %.
where were educated to the hlghesH
ideals of womanhood the daughters 1
of the great planters of the Northern,]
Neck, of Essox, MIddlesex. King anc*|
Queen and Klng Willlam counties,
Tho house is a long wooden structure <
set in a shady vard and with a porch?? i
nothlng remarkable outside, but whert,
one entors the F.paclous rooms wlth
thelr flno carvlng and beautiful pro
portlon give a pleasant surprlse.
Judge B. R. Wellford has given u3
a charmlng gllmpBe of Tappahanhoclc*
"I have one memory of Tappahan?
nock ln the dimmest corner of. the
long1 long ago past. My mother had
taken her chlldren. my brothers, John
Spotswood, stlll living, and Armlstead
(whose lovlng memory ls preserved by
three noble sons and thelr chlldren)
and myself down upon the rlver on a'
brlef vlslt to Aunt Lucy Gray.
Durfng that brlef vlslt occurred the
great shower of stars w^hlch for sev
oral hours Ulumlnated the heavena
with the Ught of midday. I do not
know that scientlsts havo over been
able to accoupt for this atmos
pherlo phenomenon. I was too young
to be awakened ln Tappahannock
to witness lt, but the contlnued
talk cf my older cor.temporarles in
thelr rooltals of what they actually
saw, and to no less oxtent of what
they lmaglned they saw. has never
faded from memory.
Tappahannock was tho home of that
emlnent Ipwland physlclan, Dr.
Thomaa C, Gordon, and the blrth?
placo of hls sop, Willlam W. Gordon,
for many years my frequent assoolate
at the bar and ln the oourts, than
whom I never knew a greater lawyer. ,J
He marrled a daughter of Dr. Austln . <
In later yeara thla old Vlrglnla
town haa been the home of Thomaa /\
Croxton, M. C from Vlrglnla and atill
later of the Hon. Thoa. R. B. Wrlght. -A
He ls much my Junlor ln year?, bui > '4
ln hls hlgh offloe haa been the rep- "','!.'
resontatlve man of tb,e htgheat, typ? ,>'
of Vlrglnla. '' <?'? . , ,>?*
If Judge Wrlght wero to dle to- [4
morrow ho would leaye on the walla of V' ^J
every courthouae in the Rappahannookj (?.!;'<$
Valley the beat monument;. (p p?^.//|w
petuate hla honored memory^ ln. th%'>^|
form of portralts of the men Wjltt bVfmi'W
not enly llved for Ui? good rathftKr'F
iocalUy, but of the whol? Sfc^*^$M
(TO Be P9?ttOH?*tJp.^Bffl
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