OCR Interpretation

The times dispatch. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1903-1914, November 12, 1911, Image 3

Image and text provided by Library of Virginia; Richmond, VA

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85038615/1911-11-12/ed-1/seq-3/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

Contributions to this eol?qu? mrm
rt<i?t?<ti1 front Confederate vetcr
pr3 und other ?arsons familiar wttk
the hlitorr of tk* Wer Bct-??e*n
tke IMatem. Wnrrotlvm of pWlrttou
lar rvRi-.Kfmmt? and ptrfOMl od
rentnrvn nre ???tIuIIt r?*J*c*t*d.
All contribution*, ?boald ho Sent to
The Editor of the Oavafwternt*
Colntno, Tlnew-Dtapatrh, TtlrhmoaS,
Sharp Criticism of Confederate Captains,
i avis Caused Said
IKroin the Washington Post, June.
i sa:;.)
Recently 1 party of ox-soldiers,
composed ol Guneral llclh and ' oi
driel steams, the government commis?
sion for marking ?h<- battle lines;
General Lohgslrect and Coltihol l.at
robe, of his staff; Major W. H. Mills
Mr. C. I". Cohb, one of McClcllan'i
bcouts in the Antlotahi campaign, and
iho subscriber visited the battiolleld
ol Ant|etmn General Longsircct and
l.'olontl l.ati went tip with the com*
mlsaldiicrs to definitely scute the po*
t-uion.i or some of the general's troops
during iho battle of September 17.
Notwithstanding his scvonty-iw* \
years, General I.ongstreet la clear and
vigorous In mind, with a wonderful
memory. Physically he Is not so well
off; one arm Is almost totally para*
)? zed from the gunshot wound in
I'lcted by his own men In the Wilder*
i.eyp. nnd among other Infirmities o(
??''I a^e ti" Is i'ery deaf, making necoe
nary Ihn use 01 a sneaking tube. >??s
? >e Is ciour and his step measurably
flrrh. II? -till enjoys u good dinner,
. ltd Is a genial raconteur in conversa?
lie talked to our parly unreservedly
on every conceivable phase of the war.
He has long been engaged upon hit
autobiography. the manuscript ol
?\vhlcll is now ready for the. printer.
His vi-dt North was mainly to arrange
for Itt publication nnd for some map
work. The book win be largely de
voted !?> events in which lie was an
tti tori including Mexican war experi?
Ills (?pinions and criticisms were s
Important and Interesting that 1 fell
warranted in taking them down. )
eubsenucnlly asked him If he had any
objections to their being printed. De?
precating my high os 11 mate of their I
value, lie mid the world was welcome J
to his opinions for whatever they were
worth, and only stipulated for the!
rit*ht to revise my report.
The. matter used Is substantially' In
General Longstrcel's own words, and
till, with the exception of tho Intro- j
dUctory. hps boon revised by bis own
land. He to.nh- few changes. When
J suggested that bis somewhat harsh
criticism of Geherai Bsrly be omitted,
the old warrior grimly replied. "It will
ho in my book.' i
I hrer Shots nt \ iitlotmn.
In riding to and fro over the Antl
etatn fiel,; General Longslrcet's mem.
ory was refreshed by the scene of thtj
grout battle. When the spot whore
tti- LTnloii general. ? Israel -1?. liietora?
son. was mortally wounded was
pointed out to lit in the Confederate
veteran casually rorn.trked: "There
were for our side three lucky shots
?ire.I on this Held. 1 moan the one*
that eliminated Hooker, Man*ileld and
Richardson. They were the aggros*
she, fighting generals on the Federal
side, who ntenaced us. After the last |
of th- three foil iherc was practt*
? ally an end or serious offensive op?
erations fir tho day on that side."
"I was aware that General l.ons
Mrcot had originally disagreed with
General Deo in tho fail of iS?3. ns Id
Ute advisability of mo kins tho Harpers
Ferry campaign- Hie preliminary mover
ments of which he proceeded to ex?
plain and criticise somoWhat. This led
naturally to a discussion of tho merits
of'the two commanders In the opera?
tions culminating In the baiiiea of
South Mountain and Antietnm, fir.o
of our party put this question:
"Do you think, genera!, as has I t
alleged, that General he's low .
mate of the Federal commander ?
the reason for his extraordinary ?1
positions in tin-. Harper's Ferry crii
pa i Kit?"
I,op nnd McClcllnn.
"rorhanr so. Dee's experience wllli
McClcllnn on tho peninsula certainly
must have tended to give him confi?
dence In any collision with that officer
General Doe. b.S a rule, did not under?
estimate his opponents, or tho light?
ing qualifies of the Federal troops But
after Chancollorsvillo he camo to h;?vd
unlimited confidence in his own nrtny,
arid undoubtedly e.xatlgei n|e,l Its
capacity to overcome obslnclos, to
march, to light, to bear up under de?
privations and exhaustion. It was a
rl.Titgerous confidence. I ihink every
officer who served under him will tin
hesitatingly agree with me on this
To some further suggestions General
Longstreet replied: "General Dee bar.
a certain respect for General McClol
inn. who had been his subordinate it
the old engineers. But l jud^e thai
thin feeling assumed somewhat the
shape of patronage, like that of a ratl.
er toward a son. Ho never feared any
unexpected displays of; strategy or ag?
gressiveness on Iho part of McClellun
ami In dealing with liiin always seen -
o?l confident Hint on the Fed oral's part
there would bo no departure from live
rules of War as laid down In the
books." ,
"What estimate do you place upon
General McCiollan, General Longstreet.1
Was ho considered on your side as a
man of real capacity?" 1 asked.
I'lnniiitig for Defeat.
"At tlr.si we ware-anxious about hint
and the grent and well disciplined
i army ho was gathering. Put with his
. first operations toward MtihaRSAs. nnd
on the peninsula his true character be.
canto manifest. We learned that Mc?
Ciollan was only dangerous by reason
of his superior numbers. Like General
Lee. ho was greatly learned in the
theory and sclor.ee of war; he know
how to light ft defensive battle fnirly
well. But In offensive tactics ho was
timid nnd vacillating and-totally lack?
ing In vigor. In those particulars tie
Wat" diametrically Hie opposite of Lee.
McClellan instinctively overestimated
)ils enemy and underestimated his own
resources to meet that enemy, lie v.as
always planning, it no-inn to me, of
the necessities in case of defeat, not
with a vlow to victory.
"McC|c|lan commenoed too high up.
:n fact, lie should have begun as the!
colonel "i ) regiment, lie was un?
doubtedly something of an organiser
mid a good drill Piaster, lie lost a
great opportunity here on this Sharps
burg Held?no griioral could usk for j|
better. Commanding a greatly si.- i
porlor army, opposed to an enemy <M I
vidt-d by the Potomac. Sh^nandoab]
and ti.. Hluc Hldgc into feur weak,
isolated t>8rts. whose location he abuo-l
lutely knew from General Lee's -.irli']
len dispositions, which had accident-'
ally falbn Into his hands. McClellan'*
failure t.i pot or.lj relieve Harper's
Perry, but to destroy at least one of'
the segments of General Lee's army.1
must be considered about the most
disastrous failure of the war on cither
"Properly General McClellan should
have merely threatened D. II. lilll ..t
Turner's Pans, und poured his troop?
through Crutnptor.'.-i Gap upon McLnw's
and Anderson s re;,r. with the Potomac]
River and the Harper's Ferry garrison'
:n their front. There was no escape,
foi them, and by this movement Har-j
pel's Perry would have been wrested!
froni our clutch, instead McClellan
elected to turn northward upon usj
and Hunt at Turner's Pas?, where hel
losl eighteen hours, and then, nfteri
another delay of over lhlrty-slx hours.i
to attack in-- In a chosen position be-|
I hind the Antlctam. Sharpiburg was:
the greatest single day's buttle of tV.e
'War. and Involved the greatest l-issesj
! on both sides.
liavls'N Pear In 1803,
i "Strange to relate. President Davis
held a high opinion of General Mc
: Clyllan's military capacity, ami trem?
bled for the sufety of Richmond In
tilt spring of 1 562. Personally. J had
not much regard for him in the field.
At the very outset I predicted that he
would bo fully a month getting reaay
t-' beat Magruder's 7,000 men on the'
P'n.nsula, and proposed that mean?
while we make n Hank movement
agajnst Washington by crossing the
upper Potomac. The suggestion was
not well received and Mr. Davis even
' seemed to be offended at my cavalier
opinion of McClellan."
The Second Maessaas right.
j A discussion oi Anllotam and Gen.
McClellan without includln:; General
, ie would be like the play of "Hamlet"
with Hamlet left out. In fact, during
nil this talk. General L*<- was nalural
! ly a central object of Interest. I fi?
nally propounded this i|uostlon to the
j general:
"G.-iicral lx>ngstreet, which do yuu
' consider General i.ce'?i best battle?"
"Well." responded the general, re?
flectively, "perhaps the second battle,
of Msnassas was, all tilings considered,
I the beat tactical buttle General I 6?
eve- fought. The g'^nd strategy Ol
tue campaign also ivtl tine, and secnii
to have completely deceived General
Fop.-. Indeed, Pope failed to compre?
hend General Leo's purpose from start
to finish, and, on August 30, when I
was preparing to push him off the
War rent oh l'ikr, he ctiU Imagined us
lo be in retreat, and his most unfor .
tun a la movements were based op i .iti
false urfsnmpllOn. Had Pope ri ipre
bended the true situation i .rly us
the afternoon of August ' ' us I think
he ought, it might .? pone hard
with Jackson befof 1 arrived. Pope
was outgenorali . and outclassed by
lrf-e. and tlire improper dispositions'
Is line nun army was outfought.)
(Ill, . will not do to under-1
ti Pope; ho was an enterprls-|
inn soldier, and a lighter. His move?
ments in all the earlier singes of that!
I campaign were excellent for his pur-j
pose to temporarily hold the lines tlrsti
of the Rapldan and (lien the Hap pa - |
honnock. In the secondary affair with
Hanks at Cedar Mountain, we had
gained quite a success, yet Pope
promptly concentrated und forced
i Jackson ba>.? iiguln over the river."
I said to the general that 1 thought
j I ho world generrlly wouli agree with
him as to that campaign, and then
asked him In which of the battles he
though i Leo displayed his poorest
lie promptly answered: "Although It
Is perhaps mere supererogation to ex?
press my views, yet I will give them
lo you for what they are worth. 1
have always thought the preliminary
disposition to capture Harper's Ferry,
Involving us a corollary the battles of
South Mountain and Antletam, were
not only the worst ever mndo by Gen?
eral Lee. but invited the destruction of
the Fonfederate Army. 1 was opposed
[ to the movement because, hlB plan and
the topography of that vicinity mudo
necessary the division of our army
Into four ports In the immediate pres?
ence of n superior enemy. But, chiefly
; owing to the timidity if not incapacity
! of the Federal commander, and some?
what lo the prestige we had gained On
I the riilckaliomlny and along Bull Run.
we captured Harper's Ferry and es?
caped witri u drawn battle. Tactically,
as usual, Lee fought a good defensive
but tic at Sharpsblirg with greatly In?
ferior numbers, and wlU.urew" at hit
lelsurj across the Potomac without
Lee's Weakness at Gettysburg.
"General Lee displayed his greatest
weakness us a tactical commander ai
Gettysburg, although, for the reason*
named, Anlictam might well nave been
lo iib far more dlsastious had tho Fed?
eral army there been commanded by
such a man ns Grant. Tha ^.ctlcs at
Gettysburg wero weak and fatal to
?urcc??. General Lee's attack was
made In detail, and not In one co-ordi?
nate, overwhelming rush, It should
have been. Th" Mm collision was mi
I unforeseen accident Wo did not In-1
vad<: Pennsylvania lo merely tight, a!
battl-. Wo could huve ?rotten a battle
anywhere in Virginia, and a very much
better one than that offered tin nt Get?
tysburg. Wo invaded Pennsylvania not
only as a diversion to demoralize nie
dlsheurton the Noilu, ..
[to draw tho Federals Into balth -
our own Mrms. Wo ware to lo ma?
noeuvre or, to outgeneral tho Unlot
commander, as wo had done In tin
second Munsfsini campaign. In othel
words, to make opportunities for our
Selves and take prompt advantage ol
the moat favorable one that presentee
Itself. I had confidence that this wa?
the purpose of General l.ee ohd thai
he could accomplish II, Wi y ere noi
hunting foe ahy hghl Dial was offered
"When in the huiuedlalc presence oi i
the enemy General i.e. reversed thit
Ortenslve-detenslvi policy, the true and'
natural one for us, by precipitating his
army aguiust a stronghold from which
I doubt If the Federals could have been !
driven by less than lOO.OOO fresh In J
fin try That Is all there Is of Getlys
burg. We did the beat wc could; wt I
I failed simply because wo hud under- ]
taken too grout a contract und went
about It In the wrong way. Like Popo
nt Mci assar, l^-i: at Gettysburg outgen?
eraled himself."
nradr'a Lost Opportunity.
"Do you think, general, that General
Meude lost any upporlunilleH at Get?
tysburg after the repulse of Plckctl's
advance?that Is lo .?-. ? , could more
have been aeeomplished for the Fed?
eral cause than merely beating back
your rhnrKC3, and then, aftor tho Army
of Northern Virginia was exhausted
permitting It to withdraw at Its lelH
j urc?"
"Yes, doubtless General Meade fuiled
In enterprise after Gettysburg. Our
position wuh made extremely perilous, \
projected as wo wore deep Into the
enemy's country, by that series ot
bloody repulses. After the battle our
army was not only Inferior In numbers, \
but also In morale, to tho Federals.
We could expect no reinforcements.
Our artillery ammunition was nearly
exhausted. Wo were In bad shape to
withstand an attack. Wc might have
repulsed a direct attack.
"But 1 think General Meade should
have moved by our right Hank upon
General Lee's communications, toward
his own re-enforcements, rapidly com?
ing up, meantime still covering Wash?
ington. Wiiich, indeed, after Gettysburg
was in no danger from General Lee's
army. This would have forced us to
again deliver a second battle on
Meade's own term*, and the result at
Gettysburg is some indication of what
might have happened."
In answer to a question as to what
were General Lee's chief attributes as
a commander. General Longstrcct.
weighing well each word, replied as
Lee's Military Attributen.
"General I.ee was a large-minded
man, of great and profound learning
In tho science of war. In all strategi?
cal movements lie handled a great army
with comprehensive ability and signal
success. His campaigns against Mc?
Clellan and Pope fully Illustrate, his
capacity. On tine defensive General
Lee wus absolutely perfect. Reconciled
to the single purpose of defense, he
was Invincible. This Is demonstrated
by his Frederlcksburg battle, and again
in the Wilderness, around Ppntsyl
vanla, at Cold Harbor and before Pet?
ersburg. .
"But of the art of war. more parti?
cularly that of giving offensive battle,]
I do not think General Lee was a mas?
ter. In science and military learning
he was greatly the superior of General
Grant or any othfr commander on eith?
er side. Rut in the urt of war I have
no doubt that Grant and several oth?
er officers were his equals. In this Held
his characteristic fault was headlong
combat! veness. when a blow was
el ruck ho wished to return It on the
spot. He chafed at inaction: always
desired to beat up the enemy at once
and have it out. He was too pugnaci?
ous. His Impatience to strike, once |n
the prenence of the enemy, whatever
tho disparity of forces or relative con?
ditions. I consider the one weakness
of General Lee's military character.
"TMs trait of aggressiveness." con?
tinued General Longatreet. after a
pause, "led him to take too many
chances?Into dangerous situations. At
Chancellorsvillo, against every military
principle, he divided his army in the
|ire?cnce of the enemy numerically doll.
? :? his own. Ills operniions around
Harper's Kerry and AUtletam Were ev.-n
worse, it was among the possibilities
for a hold, penetrating, fignVliig com?
mander like Grant to close the war in
the Kast after Antt'etam. Our previous
losses ho.l been heavy: -the morale of
the army was low. and it was reduced
by thnt battle and straggling to less
than thirty thousand effectives, whereas
McClellan bad fully i no hundred thou
mnd. Aiioul this time General L-?e of?
ficially informed the Richmond authori?
ties of his great fear that the army
was In danger of actual dissolution
from strangling and desertion.
Puarnnclfy Agalnat Strategy.
''1 twai at Gettysburg." resumed
General LongStreot, "where General
Lee's pugnacity -jot tho hetler of his
.strategy and Judgment and came near
belnsr fatu! lo Ilia army and ?S use. On
the third day, when I *ald to ihlin that
no fifteen thousand soldiers the world
ever produced could make the march
of n mile under that tremendous ar?
tillery and musketry tire and break tho
Federal lino along Cemetery llldge, he
determinedly replied that the enemy
was there and that he must he ut
taeked. Ills blood was up. All tho
vast interests nl stake and the Im?
probability of success would not deter
him. In the Immediate presence of the
enomy, General Lee's mind, at all oth?
er times calm and clear, became ex..
cited. The same may be sn.ld of Mc?
Clellan, Gtistavus Smith, and most oth?
er highly educatod, theoretical soldiers.
Now. while I was popularly ealls.l a
lighting general, It was entirely dif?
ferent with me. When the enemy was
In sight I was contont to wait Vor tho
most favoratle moment to strike ? to
estimate! chances and even decline bat?
tle If I thought them against me. There
was no element In the situation that
compelled General Lec to light the odds
at Gettysburg.
"General Lee hud tho absolute con?
fidence, of his own troops and the al?
most unquestioning support of his sub?
ordinates. He had, by a series of sue.
cesses, completely overawed the Fed?
eral commander.;, and was wholesomely
feared by tho Federal rank and lUe,
wiho undoubtedly considered him the
oasy superior of their own generals.
These were treniendlous advantage*,"
fQDtroversle? Over Gettysburg;,
Tho general then proceeded to dis?
cuss sonic of the controversies at tho
South concerning Gettysburg, ajirt said
with some feeling that a deliberate
attempt had been made by ignorant
demagogues to mislead tl(e people us
' to his relations with T*eo at the bnttle
and afterward. He stated positively
that Lee personally had nevor criticized]
or found fault with his operations on
that field. I therefore asked: "I have
! heard It intimated, general, by some
\ prejudiced people, that Lee, on account
of coldness growing out of Gettys?
burg, to ho rid of sv?iu, brought about
your transfer to the West."
I General Longstrcct smiled at this
I suggestion, tnd snswerM promptly: I
I "On Ihn contrary, ha was at first
stroii?l> opposed to my going, and su>;
I ge?te<i another advance Into Maryland
I that fall Instead. I first proposed go?
l Ing W*st In the spring of 1863, aftoi i
Chancallorsville. 1 firmly believed up
j to Gettysburg and Vleksburs that wo
??oiiid win by concentrating an over?
whelming fcrCe attddenlv against Rose
crane. After whipping htm and eetab.
tlshfiiK ourselves on th" Ohio, I held
;thsl Hie Mississippi Valley would In?
stantly have cleared tueif up to the
I Ohio's mouth, as, Grant would have
been withdrawn to defend Ohio and
j Indiana. This, would have saved to the
Confederacy xomo sixty thousand men
lost at VIcksburK, Tort Hudson and
' Gettysburg,
' "The proposal v.-ns coldly received
by the Richmond authorities. They
preferred to meet the enemy In tho
Wost with detachments: always with
i the weaker force at the point .<f con?
tact. After Vicksburg and Oettys
| burg, when the darker clouds began
I to gather, I suggests it again to I?ec,
j and wrote urging It upon Secretary
?eddon. General Leo eventually went
! down to Richmond upon this business,
, and the Western concentration was
I fitislly agreed upon. Something had to
I he done. In fact, it was then too lute;
I we were too weak everywhere to effect
1 the concentration of the force 1 con?
sidered necessary to accomplish Bobo
crans's ?lestruction.
"What were your relations with Gen?
eral i,ee subsequently to Gettysburg,
general; were they as cordial and con?
fidential as before?" I asked.
''Every bit." the general answered
quickly and unhesitatingly. "They
continued to be of the closest and mos',
affectionate character. I was unaware
of the slightest diminution of confi?
dence In my military Judgment. These
friendly relations continued until long
after the close of tho war. My dis?
agreement with him with some of the
? details of the Gettysburg campaign had
no more effect to estrange us than
my dissent from tho Sharpsburg tac?
tics of tho previous year. Instead of
I being discredited with l_.ee, he sug?
gested to President Davis that I com
i mand the consolidated forces against
i Kosecrans in place of Bragg. But
I Itragg. proba,b)y suspecting something
j of the kind, precipitated tho battle of
I Ch'.ckamauga before my corps were all
I up. ?on\c of General Leo's original
correspondence with mc proves these
fact:1 beyond all controversy."
The Wtil and Bast.
"Were tlio Western Confederate gen?
erals jealous of your coming, gen?
eral?" I asked.
"I do not think the subordinates
were." ho answered, "for they to a
man lacked confidence In Bragg's skill
and capacity. They tiled a written re?
nnest for his removal. There were evi?
dences, however, that General Bragg
?himself did not like my coming."
"Do you think, general, tile troops
you took from Virginia behaved any
better at Chlckainauga than the West?
ern Confederate troops? And were the
Western Federal troops you met at
Chlckamauga any better than the Fed?
erals you had habitually met In Vir?
General Longstreet thoughtfully an?
swered :
"My troops were better disciplined
than most of Bragg's. hut I cannot auy
tihey were bettor fighters. I am posl- |
five that tho Western Federals wore no
better fighters than their Eastern
brethren, and they were not nearly so
well disciplined."
nnpldlty of Jneksou.
"General, what about Stonewall
Jackson? Was he as great a man as
the people of the South thought?"
"Jackson was undoubtedly a man of
mlllta.ry ability. He was one of the
most effective generals on our side.
Possibly he had not t:?- requirements I
In a oommander-ln-chlef. but no man I
In either army couVl accomplish more ;
With 30.0.00 or 10,000 men In an Inde?
pendent comand. But In Joint move- J
mcnts he was not so reliable. He was |
very self-reliant, and needed to bo alone
to bring out his greatest qualities. lie
was very lucky in the success of his
critical movements both In the Second
Manaasas campaign and at Chunocllors
Subsequently in the conversation
Geneva! Longstreet said: "I suggested
to General Lee thnt Stonewall Jackson
be sent to the Trans-MicstsslppI In
stead or Klrby Smith, as the best fit?
ted among all the Confederate gen?
erals to make ?headway against the
Federals in that region. The. sugsoa
tion mot with General l.eo's approba?
tion, but Leo wanted Jackson him?
This was new. and with considerable
surprise 1 asked: "Why did you as?
sume that Jackson was hotter equip?
ped for command In tho Western coun?
try, general, than any o/ your oilier
"U~ was the very man to organise a
grent war over there. He would have
marched nil over Missouri. Invaded
Kansas, Nebraska and Iowa. In fact,
the very vattness of the Mioater was
well calculated to sharpen his facul?
tas and g'.ve scope to Jackson's pecu?
liar military talents. His rapid style
of campaigning, suddenly uppoariug ut
remote and unexpected points, would
have demoralized the Federals."
"Did Genomla Early, Eweli or A P.
I HIM size up anywhere neat- Jackson us
lenders hi Independent command?"
tiltl tin ? Curled Darling.
"Not by any means," repllod General
Longstreet. "Hill was a gallant, good
soldier. There was a good deal of
'curled darling" and dress parade abouL
Hill: he was uncertain at times, falling
below- expectations, while at others he
performed prodigies. A division was
about Hill's capacity."
Miarp Criticism of Early.
"{Swell was greatly Hill's superior in
evdry respect; a. safe, reliable corps
commander, always zealously seeking
to do his duty. In execution he was
tho equal of Jackson, perhaps, but In
Independent command he was far in?
ferior; neither was ho as confident and
?elf-reliant. Ewoll lost, much of hla
efficiency with his lag 0.1 tho Second
ManasSSS, and whs always motte Ol" loss
handicapped by Early, who, as a divis?
ion general, was a marplot and a dis?
turber In Swell's corps.
"Early's mental horizon was a limit.
ed one, and ho was utterly lost beyond
a regiment oul of idglit of his corps
general. How General Lee could hnvo
t oon misled Into sending him down tiio
Valley with an army In 1864 1 never
clearly understood. 1 was away from
tho army that summer wounded. Early
had no capacity for directing. Ho
novcr could tight a battle; he roohl i
not have whipped Sheridan with Lee's
entire army."
"And now It occurs (o rne." resumed
General Lnngstroet, suddenly, "thnt
General Sheridan was pretty lucky In
his two principal opponents?Early In
I the Valley and Plckott at Five Forks.
He w4n his spurs without effort. Plc?
kott was a brave division commander,
but was lacking In resources for a
separate responsible command. Before
Five Forks he expressed doubts of his
own capacity to hold the- extreme
right, and urged mo to come, over ami
tnko charge. I wan north of tho James
] and could not Join him. I doubt If
] General Lee at first porcelvod G?rant's
object and force In the direction of
Five Forks. Sheridan ahould and could
have been met at once With half our
ttrmy and overwhelmed. Piekett, with
his small, Isolated command, wan an
easy prey. Our chief fault at Five
Forks was in lack of numbers. But
! the game, was " "ready lost. Every man
hisl sifter Mm is| of .laituary, I8?;.">. wan
tlcsHl> sacrllleod The surrender
<.dave taken place certainly four
months earllor than it did."
i "I havt ,i irreit curiosity, general, to
he.ir your military judgment on Oen
'irals Joo Johnston, Beau regard and
j Hood."
The Menace or Johnaton.
"I ha<) a high regard for them all.
General Johnston was ose of the ablest
generals th<- war produced. He -?rul<l
handle a Inrso army with ease. But
his usefulness to the South was tjroit
ly Impaired by the personal opposition
of the President. Ilu dared take no
risks on account of this "lire in tho
rear.' fearing that he would not be
Misialned, perhaps discredited before
the world. A menace llko that will
paralyse the best efforts of any com?
mander in the held. General Johnston
never had a fair trial.
Ilennrranrtl I.title Herded.
"The same may be said of Bcsure- !
sard, a brave, mettlesome soldier In !
action, and a strategist of the llrst or-j
der. lie was. llko Johnston, equal to ]
any command. Ho labored under the |
H.-itno disadvantage with Johnston.?ho
had aroused the personal displeasure
and Jealousy of the President, and nev
i r had his full confidence. lie was
very resourceful, made excellent plans,
and was Intensely patriotic. His mili?
tary .suggestions received little heed
at Richmond. Ho undoubtedly saved
tho capital from Butler.
"General Hood was an "i'.i :er ol mod?
erate talents .tnd lacked experience, for
high command. ile was a splendid
fighting soldier without Kiiilo. What
could have been accomplished early In
1863, as I had proposed, with a grand
combined army In tho West, say 100.
000 men. under un able loader like Gen?
eral Johnston or Beaiurcgard was dem?
onstrated by General Hood's bold ln
| vaslon with an emasculated force In the
fall of 1881, when our cause was practi?
cally lost. Ho commanded the heart of
Tennessee for we?*ks with less than
! 10.000 men."
Failure Due tlo Itnvls.
"Do you think, General Longstreet,
that the Southern cam;,, would have
been successful it tho administration
had been In other hands than those of
Mr. Davis?" I asked.
"1 haven't the shadow of a doubt that
the South would have achieved 11- In?
dependence under Howoll Cobb, of
Georgia, who was a statesman pure
and simple. The.-,, were others, per?
haps, equally as good.
"The trouble with Mr. Davis wa3 his
meddling with military affairs; his
The Storj of the llrmovnl of the Bur
Moll Tombs?Carter's Creek?The
Harwell* nn?j the Humen Toiubs.
! The Bur wells, of Carter's Creek,
were rich and powerful In the saven
tcenth, eighteenth and early nineteenth
oenturies. They could trace their
llncag:c away back to Chllporic, King;
of tho Burgundluna, A. 1>. 435, whose
daughter, St. Clotllde, married Clovis,
King of Krunce, In the latter part of
the fifth century; ami Dorothy Bedell,
mother of the tlrst Lewis Burwcll, of
i Carter's Creek, came straight from
John Bedell, of Wollaston. Northamp
I tonslllrc, who died in 14S5. So paw
I erful and Influential w.cre they In Vlr
( glnla that no leas a personage than
Governor Alexander Spotswood com?
plained thai the Council embraced too
many Burwells, declaring "that the
greater part of the present Council
are related to the family of Burwells;
If Sir. Basset t and .Mr. Berkeley
should take their places there will he
no less thun seven so near related that
they will go off the bench whenever a
cause of the Burwells come to be
tryed." As the Council consisted of
about twelve, one can nee tho Burwcll
The first l>ewls Burwcll canto over
to Virginia when a ooy of filtoen or
sixteen years of age with his step?
father. Hoger Wingato. His mother,
horn Bedell, married Roger Wingato
tho socOnd time. Her first husband
was Edward Burwcll, Hiid Lewis was
the fourth child by him. He was
baptised in the parish of Antpthill.
county of Bedford. |n Kurland, March
Lewis Burwcll. lust, whs successful.
He married Lucy Higginson, daughter
?Of the valiant Hnbert. who defended
so gallantly .Middle Plantation when
tho lndlmi<? assailed 11. He had a son,
Lewis, who inherited a fortune. Ilia
father took up 3,209 acres of lnnd, and
Ihc estate was called Falrtirld, later j
Carter's Creek. in the language of
the original grant. "Lewis Burwcll ]
got 2,350 acres north bide York River,
up Rose we 11 Creek etc., 'tue for trans- I
porlstion of it persons. January 12,
1640." . I
This second Lewis married Abigail j
Smith, niece of Nathaniel Bacon, presi?
dent of the Council, and second cousin
of Nathaniel Bacon, tho rebel, whose
tragic death in Gloucester county adds
a tone of pathos and much Interest
to It. lie built "Carter's Creek" man?
sion, the oldest, hottso of Itn size in
Virginia, which was burnt to the
?round some years ago and tho bricks
of Its ancient walls torn down end
sold. There wan no such house as
"Carter's Creek" ever ncen in this new
world. Its Hues were aoinew-liat like
those of "Stratford," tho Leo home.
In Westmoreland county. On one of 1
the gables was I* A. B. (Lewis und |
AblRall Burwcll) In big Iron lotters. |
How they did build to stand) Bui time '
and neglect do not consider the In- [
tentlons of the builder. Lewis (2) Bur
woll and Abigail Smith had Joanna
(31. Elizabeth (3i. Nathaniel (3). Lucy
(3), Murtha 13) and .lomea (3).
Joanna (3) married William Busselt,
member of the council: Elizabeth (3)
married Benjamin Harrison, president 1
of the COVinClV; Nathaniel (,;() was.
member of the House of Burgesses: I
Lucy (31 married Edmund Berkeley, ?
of "Barn Kims," member of tho Coun- I
eil: Martha married Henry Armlrtead,I
and Jamos mariied Mary Armistcad.
With one of these girls Governor
Francis Nicholson fell in love, and
her dlsmlssul of his oult so frenzied
him that he .-.wore that "If ever she j
married any one else ho would culi
tho throat of the bridegroom, tho
minister and tho justice who Issued j
the license." Some chroniclers ac?
cord this honor to Joanna and others
lo Mavthn. Nicholson was so intense
in his expressions and conduct re?
garding this Burwcll girl that he was
removed from office.
After the death of Abigail Smith. ;
who. by the way, w?s the heiress of |
President Bacon, the second Lewis
Burwcll married Martha Loar, by
whom he had eight children, only a !
r.on and two daughters survived him. '
The daughters dlsappoor. und Lewis
(.1). the son, built tho famous man- 1
sion. "King's Mill," near WilllamB
burg. lie is tho forefather of tho
Catlotts. of "Timber Neck," tho Oar
lands, and tho Burwells, of North
Nathaniel (3>. 'the son'of the see- ,
ond Lewis, inherit..-.! "Carter's Creek." ',
He married Judith, King Carter's
daughter, und had Lewis (4>, who In?
herited the. place, Cnrter (4). who
va-iilty made him b-lleve that he w-ai
a grra*. military gen tu?; that hta prop
br plain was al the head of an army,
ami not In the executive department
He wan also jealous of the success of
others, especially of military leaders,
It Is not. generally known, but It Is nev
erthless a fa<*?, thnt he was secretly
('?jIoub of Dee; that ?h"lr relations
were strained, and that !/??< was al?
ways on his guard In dealing with tho
President. The world knows ?hat. the
President's attitude toward Johnston
and Beauregard was that of suspicion,
opposition, and obstruction. He did
not venture to antagonise Bee?thnt of?
ficer's prestige was too great: besides
there wao no other nrm on which to
lean. He did not like Stonewall Jack?
son and called him cranky.
"He stuck to his medico re favorites
with surprising tenacity. At tho very
outset ho took It for granted that such
men as Albert Sidney Johnston, Pem
, berton, Bragg, and others, without
I large experience, were Napoleons, lie
! could not brook criticism of his views
nor of his favorites. I fell under his
displeasure for saying that Bragij had
j failed to achieve adequate results of
I ter Chlekamauga. He ought to have
forced Bosecrans out of Chattanoocra.
I This wan at an all-day conference be?
tween us on .Vis don Bldge. where the
President had oome after the battle.
"President Davis was not great. At
one time and another ho had exas?
perated and alienated moat of the gen?
erals "In tho service. It was lack of
statesmanship that, beat us, not lack |
of military resources: not liw:k of mili?
tary success. We had them In equal
ratio with tho North, remaining care?
fully on tho defensive. 1 do not admit
that we were outclassed by the North.
With Tfowel! Oobb or some other good
man at the >head. our ehances would
certainly havo been largely Increased
"The President was very unpopular
throughout tho South In the last days.
It was clearly perceived that his Im?
politic, administration of affairs wns
the chiof cause of our disasters. Hut
afterward the South proudly made him
tho martyr of tho cause; before tho
victor they would not discredit even
the man who had caused their defeat.
All hearts went baok to him when they
saw htm a prisoner and In bonds. Nev?
ertheless, tho Southern people know
now as they know then full well tho
truth of what I say about the Presi?
(Tho atiove Is reprinted by request
of B. J. Rogers, of Smith's battery,
Mahone's division, A. P. Hill's corps, A.
N. V.. now of the Soldlera' Home)
?> built "Tho Grove." another famous
I mansion, near Wllllamsburg. and had
Colonel Nathaniel (5), who went to
Clnrka county, built the splendid man?
sion, "Carter Hall," and Is tho ances?
tor of the Clarice Burwells; Elizabeth
(41, who married William Wilson, and
Is the ancestress of the majority of
the Nelsons, and Robert Carter (4).
who remove^ to Isle of Wight and es?
tablished that branch -f Burwells.
Lewis (4), the elder son, married
Mary Willis, and had Lewis (C), Anne
(5), who married Llghtfoot, and Re?
becca (5), who married Jacqulln Am?
Lewis (5) was probably the last Bur
well who owned "White Marsh." His
son, Nathaniel (G), might have owned
lit, but this Is not plain. The fau lly
I was getting poor In Gloucester.
I This Is not a Burwell genealogy, hut
merely a genealogical prefien to ex?
plain the Burwell tombs. Nathaniel (Gl
died in the early part of tlie nineteenth
century, and it is certain no Rurwcll
owned Carter's Creek after him. Prem
that time onward It passed Into Hie
hands of people who had no antiquar?
ian Instinct, or If they hud this rare
characteristic, they had n) money to
indulge it.
Tn tho Impressionable day3 of child?
hood I lived near Carter's Creek, at
Berkeley, it wss my privilege to walk
cross tic-Ids and a busy brook to tho
old mansion?to stand In the huge hall
j room and gaze at tho marble mantel?
piece, most magnificent in design and
carving, to wonder at the reredos of
1 the fireplace., which was of wood wond
I erfully carved. Especially beautiful was
a female head carved at the Intersec
I lion of wooden curtains, which were
[drawn back with exquisite grnce. mi
J of the paneling was gone hut this, and
this went too long before the house
I was burned. It was my privilege to
j coddle In the great window seats and
I think of the Burwells, especially of tho
stately young lovern who married so
well, of Joanna or Martha who scorned
a title and a Governor for love. 1 wn*
qnltn sure, that the young ladle9 of
j Carter's Creek would only marry for
lovo. H was very sad, oven long, long
ago at the graveyard. All the slahs
were broken and scattered, and from
that day to this I minded to mend
them. How t did not know, but t
should do It nooner or later. God will?
In the spring of l?lO T had a letter
from Mrs. Richard P. Tallaferro. of
Gloucester, telling me that tho tombs
were In sueh a condition that if some?
thing was not done soon, they would
he altogether destroyed and offering
her assistance, Her daughter. Anne
Powell Byrd, was a descendant of lie?
bere? Burwell. who married Jacquetln
Ambler, and she felt a personal Inter?
est In the tombs.
On June J2, 1310, I announced In Tho
Tlines-Dlspatoh that "there is a cry
from Carter's Creek. Come and help
IIS!" I explained the poor broken
fragments, and the fact that largo
pieces of the tombs had been taken
sway. I helped In person, and I
wrolo many letters?many letters. If
every descendant of the Burwells Who
read The Tltnes-Dlspatcli had given me
$1, tho tombs could have been restored;
If each ono had given me $.". they could
have been restored In marble. However,
the Burwells. of Carter's Creek, had a
f?w loyal descendants, and I received
contributions from a few sufficient t<
restore the tombs. Lewis Burwell does
very well to take one into tho Dames,
or to mention casually as an ancestor,
hut he Is not worth a dollar lo all of
hla descendants- Every known ob?
stacle has beset the wAy of restoration.
Teams, "hnnds" and the usual neces?
sities of removal wcra difficult, but 3.
Henry Brown, of Richmond, contracted
for the removal, and h? ha;; accomplish?
ed It In the most scientific, substantial!
and beautiful manner.
Neither William'G. Stanard nor Sam?
uel IL Tonga arc descendants from the
Lewis Burwells?-Attorney Wllllumi
Slnnard comes from Luck Higginson byi
another marriage?hut to them Is due,
acknowledgement of most painstaking
care and surveillance. Mr. Tonga sug-'
gosted ways and moans, and Mr. Stan?
ard spent a week in Gloucester per?
sonally attending to the removal. He
tenderly handled tho sucred remains,
patched out the inscriptions and saw
that tho work was well done, just for'
love of Virginia. Tho Burwell tombs
uro a part of Virginia history mid they
arc restored. It would havo been use.
.less to rcttoro them at Curler's Creek,,
1 where vandalism was Increasing. uo|
I the consent of the next of kin. th<??
I ownera of the place. th?- vestry of At?? .:
' Ingdon Church, etc., wnn secured, ami
I to.day these splendid memorials otand \
I In tho churchyard an ob.t?-c'. lesson to)
all who pass by.
Those who ansr,''t?'l toy appeal, and
to whom ts accorded my personnt
i thanks, are Judge. Armlsted Burwell*
I Charlotte. N. C; Miss Burwell Boycc,
' Clarke county, Va.; William R. Burwell/
Charlotte, N. C ; Mrs. Bencham Carney ',
iron. Raleigh, N. C : Mri. Thomas NeU .
son Cat-tor. Blchmond: SpolsWood Gar
I land. Wilmington. Del ; Mr?. Nathaniel -
' Burwell Johnston. Greenville. Mis.*.;
Mrs. Horace Wellford ,lones. BIcTi*
j mond. Va.: Mrs. Maryus Jones, New-i
port News, Vs.; Mrs. Kelllhu, Seattle?
I Wash.: Mrs. K. C. Laird, Richmond*
! Va.; Mrs. Feler Mayo, Richmond. Va.;
Mrs. Warner Moore. Richmond, Va.;
Mrs. B. Powel Page Boyce, Clarko
county, Vi\ ; Mrs. William T. Beed,
Richmond, Va.; Mrs. pn Mooro Rob?
inson. Russell Bohlnsoii Lelpu Mooro
Boblnson. Bowling Green. V*.; Mrs.
Richard Talluferro, Gloucester county;
j William G. stanard. Rlei,mond; Sam
I ucl II. Vonge, Richmond.
Only twej^y.ono of an Immense)
clan wore sumcleiitly interested to,'
contribute to tho work, but It is done,
land done wolj. There are somo minor
details which would be nice; and If,
anybody is willing to msko a contrl
I billion lo thla It will bo thunkfully,
j received.
I There are other tombs In Virginia
1 notably the Pages, which should cor?
j talnly bo attended to. As tor me my*.
solt. I am sufficiently amused, hut peri
I haps there, aro others who would un
. dertako tho work. Certainly It in that!
the greatest piece of religious untt
! quartan work In Virginia next to thd
excavation nt Jamestown ha3 beou
I done In Gloucester during tho last two;
weeks. .
But to return to tho tombs'. The*
Burwells have not owped the Carter's]
Creek plantation for 100 years cer?
tainly, and perhaps n-t for a larger
period. In the absence of any onrt
personally Interested In the preserva?
tion of the tombs, nothing was done!
to repair any damages done. When!
Bishop Meado wrote more than fifty;
years ago one tomb at least, that o?
.Martha Lear Burwell, was so broken
that only a part o( It could bo fouiul?
Since that time dilapidation has rap?
idly continued, partly from tho effects
of time, partly from the growth oC
trees and roota. partly perhaps frura
lightning and certainly in part front
human vandalism. There seems never;
to have been but eight tombs, and
these were situated at ono end of tho
family graveyard. which coutulnn
many trees, and Is overgrown wit a,
bushes und brlara. At tho time tho
tombs and remains were removed the)
graveyard looked Is If It might have
been tho sccno of an earthquake. Not
ono slab was In place. Pour of tho
' slabs hud been broken, two of them
having only fragments left, nnd of all
I the massive supporta only one corner,
and a part of ono aide were in their
' original position. Several aide and end
pleccH had been carrlod away to vari?
ous partB of tho county (these were
promptly and willingly given up by
the persona who were using them for
doorsteps), and It wns evident that atj
Horn.; time nn attempt had been mad?
to enter at least one grave. Many oC
i the parts of the '.ombs, and even a
j whole top slab were buried 111 thot
I ground.
I Since tho destruction by fire of tho
' Carter's Creek ma si on some yours ago
the graveyard has been move unpro?
tected than ever, und it was evident?
ly a question of not many years when
the remains of tho tonibs would bo
beyond recovery. To have rebuilt tho
tombs In this romote. und unprotected
field would have been throwing away,
tho money It would cost
Ran.tnu and removing the fragments
of tomba wus begun on Monday. Octo?
ber L'3. und tho work waa done wltti
the greatest care. As the work pro?
gressed It was found to tho great grat?
ification of thoac in cTinrgc that a,
large number of aide and end pieces,
of carved corners and ornamented baso
courses could bo recovered, and t.hnt
although there wero a number pC
? broken and missing pieces, yet /it
se*inod probablo that with some pt-Jn
Ing and patci. ng most of the tombs
could bo rebuilt or restored to their
original position.
Every piece of stone und many
bricks were removed to Ahlngdou
church yard, and It Is gratifying to
state that not ono was hroken In
handling, though some wore very
heavy. Tho inscription slab on tho
tomb of Lewis Burwell '.:?* weighed
2,1*00 pounds.
The inscription slaba which worn
found complete wore those, from the
tomb of the Hon. Lewis Burwell (dieit.
1710), Nathaniel Burwell (died 1721).
Lewis Burwell. etc.. children (died
IK7G) and Mary Burwell, a child of
one year.
Tho Inscription slab of Mrs. Abigail
Burwell (a very Immonso piece of
stotio) was broken In two, but It is
believed that only the bottom of onn
lino of lottors and the lop of another
is missing. The tomb of Major Lewis
Burwell, tho emigrant, is in several
pieces, hut almost alt of the. inscrip?
tion remains. Fortunately the upper
portion, with the arms of Burwell and
Itlgglnson Impaled, is Intact.
Tho tombs ol' Lucy (Iligglnson)
Burwell and Martha (I.ear) Burwell
aro in numerous pieces and many
parts of each could not bo found. The
best that could be done with those two
was lo build a brick platform about
ten Inches high and lay the frag?
ments in a bed of cement. This cement
Is darkened and mailo to resemble tho
color of tho htono so that It will be
possible to cut tho missing words and
letters of these two Inscriptions In the
cement. II may bo staled here that
Bishop Meade's copyist could find so
fow fragments of the inscription of
Mr?. Martha Burwell that he could
give only a very Imperfect rendering.
During the recent removal other
fragments were found, and a com?
parison of these, with Meade's copy
made possible the supplying for the
first lime a full copy of this epi?
taph. Tho tombs, when taken to;
Ablngdon church, were placed a short
distance to tho right of the walk be?
tween tho entrance gut?- of the church
yard and the door of Hie church. First
come the four massive altar tombs
of Bowls Burwell 1st. Lewis Burwell
Cd. Abigail Smith nnd Nathaniel Bur-r
well 3d, with their can cd base
courses, paneled sides and end?, orna?
mental corner pieces an,t heavy top .
slabs. These tombs stand about fou(
feet high and constitute as stately and
Impressive a group of old monument
as can bo found In Virginia. Next to
them Come the two tombs to the mem?
ory of tho children referred to lboii
These ur'c smaller marble slab*, 'bul
they have also been rebuilt. At the
end arc th? fragments of tho tombs of !
Lucy and Martha Burwell resting o>1.
low brick platforms The two last
shattered tombs retain only some ol
the scroll work at one side of tin.
coats of arms, but the. four tombs first
in Uno havo weU-j?reservd ?Mi ut
Iho Burwell. Iligglnson. Bacon an I
Smith families'.
n :,..,tin,>?.? to No*t Sunday)

xml | txt