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Cold Storage lor Furs and fine Clothing Is safest and best. Phone Madison 262. MERCHANTS' COLD STORAGE AND ICE MFG. CO., Sixth and Canal Sts., ^Richmond, - - - Virginia. ^ 9KB - "-? Protect Your Homes and Reduce Your Insurance By Installing my system of Lightning Rods on your homes, stores and other buildings. Safe and give protection, fcstrl me a postal for information. W. A-ROBERTSON, . 1 Crcwo, Veu rinting C Our prices arc consistent with the prade of work ?6 produce, from the highc3t class of booklets to the sim? ple job, to all of which wo rjvc our best efforts Whittet CSi> Sheppcrson 11-15 N, Elehth St ., Richmond. "Paints That Stay Painted" John L. Branch & Co. Mad. 164. 1319 East Main, Richmond, Va. All sizes and descriptions. General Farms and Fruit l.ind. Excellent in? vestments. Catalog on request \V. A. C. PETTIT, Fredericks Hall. - - - Virginia J. S. Darling & Son, PLANTERS AND PACK ICRS OP Hampton Bar Oysters, Capacity of Oar Plant, lo.ooo Gallons Per Week. HAMPTON. - - VIHOINIA. US a Planters Bank Of Furmv?le Capital und Snrplu?, - - siuo.oOu.no Deposits by mall Invited. WALKER SCOTT. Cashier. The Bank that wants you? Business If the one that come.- right oat and says so THAT'S US. The GreensviUe Bank CMPOKIA, PA. Capital oiid Surplus, KIMi,Oph.tMl. Depositorr for ILi Mate ol Virginia. ?1 Per t cut. Pold ...i Time ii' posits. W. SAM'I. GOODWYN, President U. W. WVCrtK, Vice-president. W. T. HARDINO, Cn*hl?r. B W WTCIIK, .ir. Xsst, Cashier Emporia Machine Co. Manufacturers of plows, casTirvos \xn PAinii.vci ISIPl.n.MKXTS. I^ocnmollve Repair Work a Specialty, iLGutfiness (Dpportuniticfi. patent l-rc? report us io Patantablllty.! KJtilds IK ik. n'ew L.i?i IfiVuntlom WarjUd and i . .. i offered for Invention* neat fr?t. Victor^rEvaus & Co. wVt^' Richmond bag to., Inc. All kinds Second-Hand Bags bought and sold. Burlap. Barrel Covers and Twines. Write for prices. 1110 East Cary Street,. Richmond, Va. Southern Steel Products Co. Bars, Sheets, Plates Reinforcing Steel. 230 Mutual Bldg., - Richmond. Va. CHASE CITY World's Greatest Waters ana Ale. Mecklenburg Mineral Chloride of Calcium Sparkling luithia Uthia Ginger Ale. Mecklenburg Mineral Sprlugs Co. Chase City, Va. MINERALS IN THE TIDEWATER LANDS (Continued from First Pace.) In America. Copper deposits of com? paratively Small commercial value arc found her: and there along the crest of the Blue Ridge, und to a slight i extent on the western slope, but chief? ly on Its eastern Hank. The minerals Of chief economic Importance nr? those which occur where the western foot? hills of the Rhu Ridge rise above the level of the Shenandoah Vallsy. The rocks hero are broken and folded, atull os a result, iron and manganese de- j posits have accumulated and arc work- ' e<i with prollt at a number of places along the Norfolk and Western Kail way, which parallels the contact be? tween the rising slopes ot the Blue Rldgo and the undulating surface of th's threat valley. Considered broadly, the valley region, which lies between the Blue Ridge on the cast and the Appalachian -Moun? tains on the west. Is composed of a sarlcs of narrow valleys anil linear ridges, arranged in more or less com? plex relations. The principal rock types Indue limestone, shale and sandstone. The last I.? suitable for building material, :is Is also the llme stoni, hut the chief industrial value] of the limestone consists In the fact' that It may bo profitably omployed in | the manufacture "f lime and, together With the shale, for making Portland cement. Iron Ores nod Slate. Ths rocks of the Appalachian Moun? tains are all more or lens folded Into arches and basins, and while the same rock types as In the valley occur, they are geologically much younger. The I most Important mineral features ot ; this section are iron ores in Rich Patch Mountain, which supply ?? large per? centage of the furnaces of the St?io with raw materials, The llmcstono and , shale ar; also valuable for the manu- j factttrc of Portland cement. The larg- ? est cement plant In the Htatc Is lo- j cated In this section, at Fordwlck, Vai, on the Chesapeake and uhlo Railroad. ! Adjoining this Appalachian province on I the wesl is the region known as the | Cumberland plateau; which is under- j lain by rocks oven younger than those ! of the Appalachian, and aro so far re- i moved from the mountain-making I forces which uplifted and bent the j formation of th Appalachian |hiit thoy n^e nearly horizontal. It is In this last province that the great coal deposits ; of tho .State are found. The western boundary of Virginia, however. Is such that it only reaches out into this aria in the southwestern portion of the j K:ate. in that section there is a thriv? ing Iron Industry; but the ores uro ob- I titlncd from geological formations dlf- ] ("fni from those which occur in Rich Patch Mountain. The Piedmont plateau region lies be? tween the coastal plane and the Ap? palachian Mountains, it extends from i the eastern Blopes of the BIuo Ridge I to the western margin of the coastal ] plain. Us width Increases from about ! forty miles In the northern part, where j It Is traversed by the Potomac Rivir, j ! to nearly ITT. miles along the Virginia- j Carolina boundary. Most of the rocks I in this region are extremely old ami j have been Intensely folded. Home idea of the ace io the rocks In this region 1 may be indicated by stating that when' . they were originally folded they w <rc elevatd Into grot mountainous masses. The igenclcH .if nature, however, have .so cut them down and bevelled them that how they represent but the roots .,: lowering elevations its high, oi vyr'n iilghe- thai) the Hille Ridge. In the ??:ritiniK-iitK, or roots, of Ihsso ancient ii'.oiiiit: ins are found a greater variety ?I inin'ei'ttls ihm In any of the other Provinces "f ti\? Ktiito hi guiicral, the unlace of the 1'i timoni plnteati hat a Bflnt.r;:] ecjutlionr.twaid slop..- from an tiverage altitude of 1.000 feet uloug ihe west rn m ii gin to from 20rt to H>0 th . act. where the. plateau ? ' pass beneath the coastal plain : -"ii-..i ?!.:?? The topography of the pl.-ueau is thai of a more or less iini fit, broadly rolling, or undulating, upland o] moderate elevation, Into ?hii.ii ih slreaihs have cut rathei d'jcp . .. i.nel: There Is nothing now. therefore, about Its surface which In ?llcnles iIt vviih once a region ol ihori.. oi less . ???va: .1 mountain ranges. I'ittii ii was, however, once a region of mountain rang. ? Is shown h> tile vva> (lie k- in l.evellod arid folded, Anioiiir tli ! mom important mineral.' of l Pf IH section of the HI tile are the IJu.lt llighiwii-I'Mu vannii a yd other slate ?lls trlets, gonpntonn deposits, building stone-, and, to :i i.s.- extent, iron, cop? per and gold deposits, OS well as thv itluhniond coal basin, in this connec? tion I; should he added tfiat the ooaj . i ims occurring here nre IntersirntN lUd with rocks which arc very much yovnger gjolosleatjy than'!the typical Piedmont formations which thej Over He. . About tbe Constnl Plain. Tkt Virginia coastal plain, or Tlfla wster province. Is the moet easterly o: thi three ;.irg:-i physiographic di? visions mentioned. It comprises ap? proximately one-fourth of the total area op the State, differentiated from the higher-lying Piedmont plateau on the west by the charucVn of |i? rocks as well as by their manner of occur? rence and difference In the nature of tho surfao features of the two pro? vinces. Tho western limit of tho coas? tal plain Is defined by the belt of al? tered crystalline rocks characteristic of the Piedmont platjau, which ad? joins tho coastal plain at the fall lin? of the rivers. It Is because of the marked geolo? gical differences between tho two pro? vinces that the larger streams, and ; many of the smaller ones, are marked by falls, or rapids, where they leavo tin hard rocks of tho Piedmont to traverse the softer materials of tho coastal plain. From this transition point they always show, too. a very dcdlded decrease In the velocity of their currents eastward. It Is for this reason that the name "fall line" has been given to this boundady between the two provinces. Similarly, the coas? tal plain is known as tho Tidewater section for the reason that after leav? ing the I'lsdmoht, the gradients of tho streams are low. and In consvoucncQ their waters are. more or less affected by the tidal fluctuations of the ocean. The Tldewaur region of Virginia Is characterized by broud. level-top stretches of country of low relief. It gradually declines In slope from an elevation ot 200 to 30c feet on the west to sea-level on the oast. The min? eral deposits consist chiefly of uncon solldnled beds of sand, gravel, clay and marl, Which tuny be locally hardened cither by a cement of Iron oxide or carbonate '.of lime. These InduratiOT or hardened ledges In the vicinity of Aquin Creek nnd In places southward along the western margin, representing tli? oldest formation of the Tidewa? ter series, have afforded sandstone suitable for building- purposes. While these sandstone beds occur In and form part of the oldest formation of the coastal plain, yet tliey or; millions of years younger than the youngest of tin- various formations occurring In the Piedmont ami in the Appalachian provinces. The Piedmont section of the State was dry IfCTd nnd continued as such for millions of year's, while tho const of the ocean was marked by tho line which new separates these two provinces. Dr. Watson lins long leallsod that while Tidewater Virginia contains n<? ' such variety of mineral w;nlth as 6c-j curs In other sections of the Stale, I yet nevertheless Its mineral resources are important, and, if properly Utilized,I would add largely to ih? productivity! of the wealth of the State. Discussing the mineral resources of ; tills region in the .State survey offices j at the University of Virginia yestcr- j day. Dr. Watson sold: ' '"JChsr? occur within the coastal plain j region of Virginia numerous deposits : of very considerable economic value, j Some of these have been, and still be lug, utilized, while uthsrs have scarce-! ly commenced to be developed as yet. ' Not in a single instance, however, is the production of those materials, Which have been made us.- oi. In any ', wise commensurate with the posslblll- | tl.-s. Thi> deposits of i lay. sand and gravel, tllaloniaccons earth, lime and green Blind marls are very extensive, I ami are generally of good grade. The extensive deposits of the llnic or shell marls and clay, located dlrtttly oh ? deep tidewater, offer large possibili? ties in lite location of plants lor ilio manufnetudo of Portland cement.'- j I >r. Watson has discussed at length, tin- economic possibilities of developing i the numerous mineral deposits of tile Tidownter region In Virginia Geologl- j enl Survey Bulletin No. 4. Tills bill- ! letln. entitled "The Physiography and! <;-o|ogy nf the Coastal Plain Province of VIrgltllu," was prepared largely. Dr. ' Watson said, by Dr. W. B. Clark, of j tlie Maryland Survey, assisted by Dr. ! B. i.. Miller, ot Lehlgh University; and Mr. Edward \V. Berry, of Johns Hop? kins University. The chapter on peon- j omlc geology w as contrlbUtJd by Dr.) Watson. The bulletin contains an excellent' map of Tidewater Vlrglniu. showing In | colors the different matt-rials of econ- , omlc value found there. There an also a number of excellent half-tone Illustrations. A <opy may he had on application to the state Geologist If !>?; cents for postage be reinlH.'d. Dr. Waif,,ii, .-.peaking further ou tiiel subject, said: "Clays have a wide distribution oyarl the Virginia coastal plain region.! They are usually of an unconsolldaled ! character and almost every formation in tlie region contains a deposit of j ? ?lay suitable for tho manufacture of | common brick, while others ara adapt-j ed lo making the higher grades of I building brick, drain tile hollow-] ware and the cheaper grades of pot. j tery, The amount of clay suitable fot 1 making common brick throughout the coastal plain Is almost unlimited, and the distribution of d?poslta is such that brick sulllclent for local consump? tion can be made In almost every neighborhood It Is difficult to un? derstand why these clay deposits have not been more extensively mill/ d heretofore. H is even more surpris? ing that practically no attempt bus beep made at any point to mtiki iiso of th ? higher grade clays. "The sand and grave) dep...-.its are extensive. The sands are used for building, molding, a engine sand, and for the manufacture ot sand-linn- brick. The better grud .-s of sand have in ell locally used in great ouantitics for building purposes. Some of the sands are probably pure enough to be used in glass manufacture, although none has been devoted lo that purpose no ? far. Burk <o first Prlueiplrn. "Dlaloinaceous earth, also known aS I silica, Infusorial earth, or tripoll. Is j composed of minute shells of micro? scopic plants known, as diatoms. These organisms lived ifi th,- ox-nn and Secreted silica Just as oysters sterete calcium carbonate, which is the ma I terlnl thai limestone Is composed of. ', It Wa? lirst reported from th- vicinity j of Richmond, and for Uvt reason re ' > eivcd the num.; Richmond euith. 't is known, there-fore, by a variety <>< names and is widely distributed in tlie Caivert formation. It his ever ? another name. Bermuda earth, b>?ause I of its occurrence .<: Bermuda Hun Ired, on the .lern.? River. The first , bed ,,t this earth of any extent found !::: Aiiici'tcii was in tho Richmond ur:a ? 'I'lit-' Oed is known as the Richmond I bed. which extends from Herring Bay. : i on th. Chesapeake, Md., to Peters-1 I burg. Vs., and probably beyond. Il Is ! not I s- than thirty fecit thick In ', plocl ?<. (hough very Impure at times, j grading frequently Into layers of j clay. Tin. beds now out crop in groat J thickness in the embankments along tin- track.- of thi Richmond locomo? tive V.orks and along ths side of tho valley to the west. On iftcount of Its [ porosity and * compactness, dlatom.iee , ous e?rth Is used In water niters, and I as an absorbent of nltro-giycerlne In I the manufacture of dynamite, it is i readily riduced to a tine powder, the I hardness of this individual particles! and their sharp edg^s mnklng it. an I I excel I rut baao Cor polishing ioin- ? f nOOKWOHM VICTIM, iiooKwomi ixDEn mcnoscoiix pounds. Itn low hont conductivity mnkoa it n. valuable in;-.-cdicnt In the manufacture of packing for steam hollers and pipes, and 111 the construc? tion of fireproof safes. It has been! frequently used for the hitter pur-j pose. It has also been suggested that j it might bs used In certain branches, of the pottery manufacture, which re quire on the part of the materials a| high melting poln: and the nbsenco j of color. ? J ?'The green snml marls contain a consldednble amount <>f a dark gr.'en mineral, known as glauconlte, which la i essentially a hydrous silicate of Iron and potash. Where they occur with an admixture of shell marl they may be worked to advantage for tvte us, a fertiliser ?5tleh a marl contains two'. of the most Important constituents in : plant growth, namely, potash and Urne. I Most of the analyses show a small i percentage of phosphate of llnie, which' is even more benoltcal as a plnnt food. It Is for this reason that th : green sand marls have long been known ti? li.- of value as .-. natural fertiliser. The marl Improves both the chemical and physical conditions of the soil. From 60 to 100 hu-Oiels per acre should he us-d on sandy soil, and from 160 to 1100 bushels on clay soil. "Besides serving as a natural f?r tlllzer, green sand marl, which oc? curs in Tidewater Virginia in enorm? ous quantity, is now frequently useo is n linsc in the manufacture of arti llcal fertilizer. Moat'of the gr.-cn sand, marl now- dug In New Jersey and Vir-! glnia is being so used. For this pur? pose the marl is dried, pulverised and i then shipped to fertilizer plan's, vvhoril other Ingredients are ndded. Vi.w A? to Marl. "Probably me most Important, ma-j torlal included In the mineral re? sources of Tidewatjr Virginia is cal? careous, or shell marl. This !s com? poses In the main of shells of various sorts. They consist, as is Implied by !h" nnme. chiefly of calcium enrhon ctc. which, it will be remembered, is also th main constituent of lime? stone. Lipon i}:-.: ap:.:!:i>t:on of sufll etoiit hem. both shell marl and llmo Htono can be converted Into lime , However, owing to the physical con? dition of the shell marl, It Is not easi? ly burned and enn b> used for ferti? lizer purposes to better ndvr-ntage If It I..- ground to a powder to about tin fineness of Hour. The marl beds of Tidewater usually attain considerable thickness and th3 percentage of lime in them Is very high. Analyses of the marls generally show n small amount of potash anii* phosphoric acid. The percentage of lime In the beds do? pende largily upon the amount of sand nnd clay prjsent, forming the matrix of th' beds, as the shells aro composed almost entirely of calcium carbonate. Some of the marls contain as much ns 97 per cent, of cnlcarcotiK matter. The Virginia calcareous marls arc found chl flv in the mlocenc group of formations and In other places. They a:.- especially well exposed at Yorktown. The cave In which Corn wallls to.,!; refuge when he was bo Inp eornf-r-d at Yorktown by Wash? ington and l.ii Fnyetlc was cut Into ? in.- of these mar! iiciU. The largo arenl .-m. m and high lime content of lie shell marl beds rend ir them of (treat commercial value for use in ag ilciilture mid In the manufacture of Portland cenienti ' "The chlel use of marl for agrlcul I turnl purposes Is to grind It to a line powdsr and apply about forty or ' lifly bu&hola to the aOrc. Th.- effect I upon the soil Is three-fold. It pro , duces Important chemical changes by I breaking up many refractory minerals, I whose oUinents reunite to form oth-1 er compounds which are soluble und [servo as plant food: It changes the I physical property of soil by making those which are clayey and sticky, porous and permeable to water, and making those which ar-> loose more consolidated, and it is Itself used up 1 to a certain extent as a plant food. j Manufacturing 1'lnntn. j "One of the principal ways In which the shell marls of Tidewater Virginia ar? destined to he used Is In the man? ufacture of Portland cement. There Is ono plant already in operation ut j Norfolk. This plant, however, Is some distance removed from its source of j raw materials, which are convey-d to j the plant by barges front points near Smlthlleld, Va? whore the querrles al? located. Charters have been grant id 1 to two other companies. One of theai ! plans to build a plant at Vorktown and the other will erect Its plant on the .lames River. The plant at Nor folk Is th? only plant In the United ?States manufacturing cement from u mixture of Tidewater marls and clay j This plant, ns well i\s those which will bu located In the same Section, are snld to have a very considerable ud I vailing- over their competitors in the matter of cost .if quarrying the raw materials. In addition to this, they I can he so situated Ihat they will have available both witter nnd rail \ transportation facilities. Cement is a j bulky product and this Is obviously an Important desideratum. On tlie whole, therefore, the outlook for the development of a large Portland ce ; rncnt Industry In this section is in ; deed very promising. I "The other materials of the mineral resources, of Tldawalor Virginia which may lit- mentioned In this connection are ochres, suitable for mineral paint; Iron or.- ami building stone. Tho ochres and the Iron ore ore worked to I only it small sxtcnt. The deposits of : the former are generally more or less j impure, but a number are known whirl) : could be profitably worked on a small \ scale. The occurrences of iron ori I likewise are found In small quantities ' and under present conditions in the Iron ; Industry, could hardly be worked with i promt. Iron ore deposits of this seo i tlon. however, nri r,f great intercut ' historically, because the first Iron ore ! mined In America was won from the : lepostts In this section by the dames- ] , 'own colonists In 160'J. The successful I , extraction ot the metal from this ore ied to the erection of the first Iron I ?.?orks In the United States, on Fulling Creek, In Chesterfield county, about seven mlljs south of Richmond, from ! <filO and 1622. . i "The building stones of the coastal Main are of but little importance, both on aceeuint of their limited occurrence ind Inferior quality. In n region where practically nil the rocks nrti uncon solldatid. hardened or indurated beds, ; are pretty certain to be utilized local? ly, for the foundation of buildings and other purposes In which hardened, tompact stones are not demanded. In lurnted strata occur In itlinbst every lormatioii of the coastal plain of th ? State, and materials from these beds I iinvu be.-n employed for suc.h local pur- i poses." Established 1865 N. E. Cor. Main and 9th St. Richmond, Va. Capita! and Surpius Profits $1,900.000 ACCOUNTS OF FIRMS ? CORPORATIONS INDIVIDUALS, SOLICITED 3% ALLOWED IN SAVINGS DEPARTMENT Jffnancla! J?(nanclal John L Williams. John Skelton Williams, E. L Beroi?, Langbotime M. Williams ESTABLISHED 1874. John L. Williams & Sons, And Dealers in HIGH CLASS INVESTMENT SECURITIES Comer 8th and Main Sts. RichmondrVa , Members Richmond and Baltimore- Stock Exchan v>". NEGOTIATE ENTIRE ISSUES OF BONDS For States, Cities, Counties and Railroad Corporations and large Industrial Enterprises. BUY AND SELL ON COMMISSION Bonds, Stocks and other Public Securities in ilus jwtncipal markets in this country and abroad. DRAW BILLS OF EXCHANGE on Foreign Countries. FURNISH LETTERS OF CREDIT For Travelers' use, available in United States, Europe and Central and South America. CORRESPONDENCE INVITED. lammmmmBtkmmBmnmmmmmaammam ????? jess? II ACCOUNT with the First National Bank of Richmond gives financial standing to a young and growing concern. This hank lias a personal interest in the welfare of its cus? tomers, and offers them the servier of a lar^f and efficient organization. ' 1104 East Main Street, CAPITAL AND SURPLUS.$2-000.000 OUR REGARDS OA ST. PATRICK'S MY M THE AOR/vIAG Richmond Bank and Trust Company Northwest Corner Eleventh and Main Streets " Knmterseeus." mm And in Inter life to save and deposit -i part of your earn? ings regularly each week or month in our savings depart ment. For the present it will pay you ihrcc per cent, interest on every dollar so saved. l or the future it will pay you with the satisfaction of having a bank account suffi? cient for all necessities. Start an account at once. c F. P. McConnoIl.President W. L. Walters;. .Vice-President A. A. Adklns.. . .Vice-president T). C. Bntlstrd .Cashier W. i. Fisher.Asst. Cashier DIRECTORS, f. F. Rvhnd. J. P. Jones. W. I,. Waters, H. A. vVells, Dr. E. T. Ruckcr. A. A. Acikins, ]. P. Sadler F. P. McConnell, C. T. Walter R. II. Ilnicc, D. C. Rallard Richmond, Va., solicits your business. Our capital, surplus nutl profits Justify your account baths placed with us. Capital, .$300,000.00. Surplus and Profits, $1,350,000.00 WE WANT YOU TO OPEN* AM AC? COUNT WITH THIS BANK Bank of Commerce & Trusts Ninth and Main Streets E. A. BARBE.4, JR. Certified Pnbllr .Vcenuntniit. E. A. BARBER & CO. ACCOUNTING. AUDITING, I) n U A XI7.1N ?J. S V STF.M A TIKI N (i. 21 f. Mutual nuildlnfc. Phone Mad. 5831, Richmond, Vn. Branch, Cabeil &Co 1116 E. Main St Phone No. 48 Members New York Stock Exehang?^ and. Chicago Board of Trad*.