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The Head of the National Baby Bureau, Miss // 1 Julia C. Lathrop, Is the Woman Who "Cleaned / f Up" the Crooked Charities of Illinois I r~f~llil: government .having decided on its 1 children's bureau?people promptly began to call it the baby bureau?had pretty well made up its mind as to the woman ?ulio should be at the head of it. There tvere other women already pos? sessed of creditable records in that field; but the one woman whose broad experience and very active participation in public affairs made it evident that she ought to be the directing spirit tvas identified with the work of Hull House, in Chicago. She is Miss Julia C. Lathrop, who has proved herself one of those indefatigable spirits in charity administration and reform that never fail to leave a trail behind them of good works and clean, very clean, man agemenl. She is far from being the child specialist only. While her labors have hem long and intimate in thai special field, she Ims com? manded the respectful admiration of all Illi? nois for her courageous and incisive efforts for mitigating the brutalities of treatment ac? corded the insane, and she has made studies of conditions abroad that enable her to discern readjustments needed at home with an insight few, if any, other women possess. Her character, her career and her views gain, of course, an unusual importance because it is to her that the I Hi ted States government has chosen to intrust the formation of this new, vitally valuable branch of its supervision over the welfare of the future men and women who shall constitute the American na? tion. But in themselves, without any cn hanccment of position or prestige, they read like the adventures and the views of a fem? inine Bayard. LIKE many among the newer generation of so einl workers. Miss Lathrop is a college woman ?Vassar, for hers. She came of n parentage that afforded her some home Insight at leaet Into the tortuous tuer.es of polities, for she Is tho daughter of Congressman William Lathrop; and a congressman's daughter shouldn't stund In the awe of politicians or the Ignorance of politics that dis? may other glria, and college girl? at that. Her type ly that of the Intensely devoted mother, such as can he seen any day among either the rich or the peer a writer dealing with the reformation Of condition? In Chicago once , lasse.I her among live maiden aunts the town rejoiced to he bossed by That was a paraphrase of a? remark by a prominent Chlcagoan who was a good denl of a boss himself; ko much of a boss that he hnd felt most painfully the energetic campaign of the quintet of maiden aunts In- was specifying. Tho way he put it. Chl ? .mo. whatever annoyances Its proper bosses and contractors might feel, was In big luck to have such a.ints refraining from their natural office of mother? hood and letting their Instincts keep them busy toddling Chicago sore throats with flannel bandages. They Included Miss Lathrop, .lane Addams, Jr., Cornelia Pc Rev, Miss Margaret A. Haley und Miss Mary MoDj&well?-none of them a boss In any sense of the jjiorsj. -air" of them looked upon by the real political bosses- with that feeling of mingled appre? hension and wrath which distinguishes your true boss In the presence of a boss-breaker. More pronotinc6dly than in the avocations to which her zeal for humanity has led her, Miss Lathrop haa been identified with Miss Addams and that famous woman's work Iri Hull House. She lives there, and Is one of Miss Addams' closest friends. Now Miss Addams has there, passing in constant review, all the types of a great city, from hlgh-browed pro? fessors nnd solid Industrial magnates to poor but Independent working girls and poorer, less Inde? pendent Immigrants. Some of them?the young working women?are there as regular visitors, for Hull House is their clubhouse; the others come and go, as the. varied activities of Hull House call them or Interest them. Those activities hnve been tho regu? lar home atmosphere 61 .Miss Addams' friend and co-operator. Miss Lathrop, for so long that they aru like tho breath of her life. And so, too, is the pet work of Miss Addams. the care of the children. From babyhood, when the pas? teurized milk won for them by Miss Addams has helped them over the rocky road of "Infantile dis? eases," and in their nchool days the children are now under care such as was not hoped for In Chicago before the advent of these women and the advent of the juvenile court. And afterward the child labor laws they fought for furnish additional saleguards until boys and girls emerge Into young manhood and womanhood, aide to care for themselves. A MILITANT WORKER Miss Lathrop's activities have, however, been more militant and at the same tune more concerned with tho misfortunes of the poor?the direst misfortunes In Which helplessness Wus made torture through tho greed and brutality of men. Politics used to control Illinois- almshousos Insane asylums and ofllclnl hospitals; the consequences oh the inmates were as terrible as hnvi been the con sc(|Uences of such systems everywhere else Miss Lathrop. her girlish soul startled Into horror at some Intimations she heard regarding iho conditions that prevailed, suspected that sotnc honest, sincere Investi? gation would reveal many truths which had been long and systematically ignored sh,. i.. cm,,, one ..f the earliest muckrakors, for she did a lot e.f raking and there was a lot of muck She, did It herself, too She wont Into those institution!-, slept there, at. the food the patients got, saw and heard bow they w. re treated Hut one thing h!k* didn't do: she refrained from Hy? ing to capture the notoriety ..f h.-r investigations She possessed the rare gift of doing lor good by stealth?something almost impossible to accomplish in scandals, where ?h<? ver* ess, to-,, of reform lies in tho authentication of the charges brought. Yet the suc? ceeded in large measure by employing the very .^,nt which most promotes notoriety?the press fir course it was her only weapon, her one ally, sn.- had to get the facts before the public and the newspapers were ihe sole means of presenting them There was that In her personality. In her sincere disclaimers of any dcslro for fame or credit and m her exceptional cleverness In handling men which fairly compelled editors, no matter b'.w keenly they gauged the value of an article that should tell about her,' to accept her facts and forego mention of th? fact-finder, But in American life no one e an perform s task which in Itself Is sensational--and the abuses Ol i f Illinois state charities proved highly sensational? without Incurring some prominence. Miss Lathrop was forced Into public view under the alternative .Of having her facts denle-1 and r.e r labors frustrated The result was her membership In the state board of char: tie*. Illinois supposed that with euch a protector of Its poor right on the board of control there would be no more political tricks pl?yed with them. The delu sion lasted until the state administration tried to pull off one of the familiar political Jobs against which Miss Lathrop had fought so hard. She felt that Fhe could not mtister the authority to stop it. hut she knew she could refuse to participate In It. That meant her resignation from a hoard that was powerlers against political aggression. Kesign she did; but not silently. She resigned with a letter thnt rasped off the Indurated hides of the place seekers and self-seekers who would roh a pauper of his food and a lunatic of his sleep. That letter, like a hurst of sunlight In the dark corners of every state charitable Institution, revealed all the neglect and abuse thnt had been practiced on the helpless by the greedy. It made the state wards the Issue of a state campaign. It brought a real and decisive victory for the cause of the Indigent and the insane, and the vic? tory brought Miss Lathrop back to the board of chari? ties. Willie she was giving herself to the welfare of the poor, the subject of the care of the American child had b.-cn developing Into a national problem, with ramifications In every state and with direct interest for every parent. Miss Lathrop bad been one of the most earnest and effective advocates of the Juvenllo court law in Illinois, and she has been a very energetic, vice president for the Juvenile Protective Association. Pn she was not only in constant touch with Miss Addams' work, hut she was, next to hor, probably the most Influential factor in the protection of the young in her native state. Both Miss Lathrop and Miss Addams, early as they have heen in the tleld r,f child protection, represent the Strictly modern stage In the evolution of a great na? tional Idea, horn in tie- last century in Massachusetts, the first of the commonwealth to give some form of "state aid" to children, yet itself, while leading the movement, largely Influenced by the growing sentiment of the neighh"!ins New England communities. Kor a long time the state's initiative In protecting the child by active agencies was rated, elsewhere In the country, as one of those advanced "New Kngland ideas," to be taken pretty cautiously, The Massachusetts tendency, at the beginning, was to he encourasint: rath': than disciplinary?to aid In education in means of self-support and In direct protec? tion of the child against the dangers arising in every? day life?neglect by parents, abuse, overwork, what? ever invades the child's inherent right to health, edu? cation and moial development. Hut experience revealed deeper ramifications of :he subject. Child direction m Itself assumed the Importance of a se'.enee; and populations, growing and changing under the Induenci ?.: successive tides of Immigration, were raising the child, throughout the entire east, to a i?\ ol ot Importance unparalleled In earlier history. Penn? sylvania and New York were seeking to meet one .ispert of the problem through societies to protect children from cruelty, through advanced methods in public schools and through vatl'Uis private Institutions and "rgnnlrn tlons. they alined to centred the other, that of child discipline, by means of reformatories and cotjipuls-jt y education. Th'- New Kngland communities meanwhile were progressing ?long line:- steadily broadening In scope and results. Women ilkc Clara Temple Leonard. Elizabeth C Putnam and Adelaide A. Calkins, In Massachusetts, were promoting much-needed Industrial schools. In the ?-..tith the nursMori ?>f child Inbor. when the general movement had been fairly defined, grew i.-.to one of the Issues Of the times. Tho whole country was nwakening to the slgntfl ranee of tho old saying. "The hoy Is father to the man"; It war adding tho corollary, "The gtrl Is mother t? the woman' , il was realizing that the children of tho present are the nation of the future. Nut the establishment "f the nntionai children's bureau, long needed, long advocated, presented one grave difficulty?the problem of securing the right per? son to meet the diverse anil delicate questions which must arise In such an all-embracing department. It was here that Miss Lathrop? varied experience, her practical knowledge of the bearings of the law and her conspicuous courage, together with her excep? tional tact, combined to make her precisely the woman for the place. Her views on many aspects of our American life, which have bearing more or less direct on the well being of children all over the country, afford a val? uable insight Into the character of the woman who is lo carry such weighty responsibilities, and such novel ones. When she reviewed the probation eystem of Chi? cago sbe was generous In her examples from actual life: she was just in her attribution of probation's origin In Massachusetts: she was thorough in her analysis of conditions as they are. and s:-,e was fear? less in her suggestions for the future. *Tt might be said." she observed, "that It U too soon to begin to muddle our minds with superficial statistics of results. We con hold fust to tho sound principle which substitutes human lntorast and pre? serving care over Individuals, for the costly and un? productive system of fine and Imprisonment. A gen? eration hence may be able to trnco n lino of genuine, constructive effectiveness. In detail, perhaps, the mechanism could be strengthened by such means as the following: "The enforcing or the doctrine of adult responsibility. "The assumption by the proper civic unit of the cost and control of all the oflloers of tho court and of the Cetentlon home: always with adequate guarantee against political Interference. "Extension of the age under which rases could be considered. "Formal discharges by the court when justified. The provision of a fund by private benevolence to board out children, temporarily, under probation ofllcers, and to supplement In other ways tho officers' efforts when required." Here war a practical criticism of the probation system r*s It obtained In Chicago when she wrote her study of its workings, which was based on num bcrless cases of children that comn under her own (yev. It was not theorizing; It was lntensoiy prac? tical It has proved so practical that, In various cities of the United States, a- the probation system spread, one or more of her siiKg'.nions have been put Into prn' I ice. STUDIED IN EUROPE Her attitude toward the poor?and her new work will have much to do with children whose elrcum H tan ties make them ob.'eits of some care, direct or Indirect, on the part of the national government?is significant. In the course of her investigations on the treatment of the Insane she made studies in Europe, ami SO brought back with her a vast array of informa lion applying to conditions of the poor abroad. This valuable knowledge now comes to the bcrvico of tho government and the children of the United States; but what Is of even a higher worth Is the pcrfoctly open, unbiased mind which Its possessor brings to beor upon any subject she applies herself to. In her European studies- ihcy embraced Glasgow, Copenhagen! Munich and Florence- she seemed to bo moved neither by misleading patriotism for her own land nor by the prejudice which It would be natural to feel nfter her shocking discoveries In her own stale. She la Just fair to all, Thus, she says of the European atlltudo toward the Insane: "Th" manner In which an Individual believed to be ln?a:,o Is flr.-t taken rare of by the authorities and srnt to the proper hospital 1.? much alike In these three very unlike towns?Copenhagen, Munich and Florence. It Is Of Interest to ua because It shows practical expedients for treating the Insane from tho beginning as sick people who are 13 be put in charge of dortors and nurses, without unnecessary police In? tervention and without detention in police stations or Jails. The system Is nowhere perfect, nor even t? good as we might have with a little effort: but It is far better than the system wo have In most American towns The significant fentnrci of these plans are that the insane are treated as patients from the start, with na little police Intervention as possible; and that In ea- li one of these cities there It .? special hospital for receiv? ing lnsa:." patients Nowhere In Europe, I believe, la the a'tunl nursing care of patients better than III tho?o AmeHcan hospitals which have put trained nurses In charge. Personally, t have seen no hospital, save the one In Ciror.haHen. which teemed to a non-profession j! eye to approxltn.ii?? our best hospitals In this regard "It is In the critical moment of commitment, of with? drawing from the patient?often reluctant or suspicious or violent?hla moat precious possession, his own right of self-direction, that we need most of all to emphasize the dortor and the nurr-e and to substitute Instantly the hospital for the prison. Here our Amertcsn methods can be Improved, and by the use of the public health officials In both city and country we can eliminate en? tirely the. need of even such employment of the police as still prevail?. The new law of the state of New York, placing health officers in charge of commitment of the insane, is n splendid beginning." The children of the Insane may prove to be but a minor feature of the work of the new children's bureau at Washington?may not occupy any conspicuous place In its duties at all Hut the open and frank Intelligence which enable,1 Miss T.nthrop to discern the merits and shortcomings of commitment systems here and abroad win be of untold service when applied to the doubtful questions of practice an 1 expediency which must con? tinually arise in such a government work, with the mass of them coming at the very outset. It was for that very openness and freedom from prejudice that Miss Lathrop became the Inevitable appointee. The "Poor Alan> Cow" for the Hieb YOU take the- hungry littlr- mite, swathed against any whiff of air that may give the dreaded chill, with both your hands under it, run supporting the head and the other aided l>y tho forearm in carrying the body. Then you slip it tinder tho nanny, in position so that 1110 mouth comes just whore nanny's ki<l would expect to find its natural meal. And how the baby will draw on that refreshing fount of life! It- infantile brain may be too young to make comparisons, but there is some sort of an instinct in palate und stomach which promptly con? vinces tho human baby thai a nanny goat wet nurse beats the nipplcd bottle all hollow. This country, following Kurope's lead, has been going on tho fool principle that tho milch goat, be cause it needn't cost much, i-- the poor man's c?w; mid it has had that tool notion in its national head over since tho government imported sixty-eight Maltese goats seven years ago and turned them over to the Connecticut Agricultural State College, at Storrs, Conn., for breeding and experiment. The idea was promulgated then that the- milch goal was the poor man's natural horn cow; nnd it stuck lor a hniK lime. Hut the rich have bcon learning so much about hones! nanny, from tlx- doctors and from experi? ence "f the Sanatoriums in Europe, where milk cures are a*specialty, that they've rebelled ni last. They ?>?l)"t sec why the poor should have all the advantages "f goat's milk while they put up with pedigreed cows. TUP. governments of the world aar devoting more attention to nanny than ever before. It Is a case of discovering a prize that was always within arm's reach. The peasantries of the various lands of Europe" have known toe goat as their familiar and well beloved friend; but the governments, of late have beer, elevating her to the dignity of statistics. Asia. at lensi iiiii extensive territory of It controlled by tho Turks, has cherished t lies goat from the time of Father Abraham down to the present. Ami nobody has yet found faithful nanny untrue to her high ofllce. About the large and eoplous cow the contrpfor slet ?f transml; . ihorcutoala mlcht rape, until ooth rows and babies i.erlflhed; but they never affected the goal Perhaps it Is possible to Infect a goat with tuberculosis but there are no eases known where Koats had th. disease or where they could POSSlbly have I lltedlt. Frnnee h*?; babies on record whoso food was goat's milk; and only n few showed syrhptoma of consumption, so few1 that il uns apparent the disease was contracted from some ?ither sources and then encountered snb tects rendered almost Immune by the diet they had ^hrtven on. Germany-, which had 3,000.000 goats twenty years ngo, ir. bcliei'ed to hnVe 1,000,000 now. with the total value of goats and products amounting to $05,000,000. There, every village and hamlet Inn Its goal common, frenuentcd by the go'ai population during Hie hours when they arc not on ditty in their respective homes. The Ocrmnn nanny Is often trained t.me ii the house several limes a day and take her stand ;it n place convenient for the baby. Hard to do? Why, it |p as n foster mother that ;;<-ntle nanny :'!illics. She'll adopt anything. She's not discriminating or proud. She'll condescend to a human Infant with the same maternal Interest she shows for any baby pig. which Is Infinitely more dexterous In milking her. and does the Job thor? oughly- no minor consideration to a lady goat who knows wb.at comforl Is England has devoted considerable experiment to the -production, of good milkers; nnd this country is lust beginning to comprehend thai the once maligned goat Is fit to be the foster mother of the nation. The Swiss goats are, perhaps, the bept known breeds of Europe; the hill-poster goat?meaning the back-lot goat thai dines on ballet girls?Is about the only one popularly known here. Between those extremes lies- health, wealth and all the virtues one can Imagine from a foster mother who must be the. tesult of careful breeding in the future. The famous Sannen und tho Toggenburg breeds, best known of tho Swiss varieties, have already a foothold In tho United State?: there Is a goat breeders" association; there are now even milk dealers who make a specialty of goat's milk. The wealthy fanciers of the new dairy queen are, of courae, indulging themselves and their heirs In only the tincst strain; and some, on their countrv places, erect special goat houses that are designed to be the acme of beauty and comfort. Hot ninny loesn't need bo much coddling. Nat? urally, ?|ii> is rustler of the rustlers. She enjoys a diet of bushes and reels In a feast of weeds. Alfalfa and oats make pretty nearly an Ideal diet for her. from the point of view of the scientific feeder: and. now that we are beholding wealth and fashion ready to save sickly, Ill-nourished heirs through tho medium r.f the poor man's cow. the market for extra good milch goats should transform into a science tho breeding and feeding, which, commonly, have been matters of chance and hard scratching. The merits presented by the goat as 8 milk giver are numerous; i>ui none of them equals in Importance the characteristic smallness of fho fat globules, They are so fine that their admixture with the watery . ontent of the liquid is all but absolute, and thus, in mechanical texture, goat's milk is the nearest to a perfect substitute for mother's milk that a child can trink. The large fat globules In cow s milk, which so readily form cream and then butter, make that fond far more difficult for the weak child stomach to assimilate. In goafs milk the ere.nil Just won't rise, that's all. MORE EASILY DIGESTED The fat in cow's milk averages about 3 per cent. Tests show that goat's milk runs from 4.6 to 6.9 per cent of fat. and that the much Higher quantity Is more easily digested. The yield per day of n nanny that Is rated serv? iceable is not less than two quarts. Many do better than that. German records show large numbers of milch goats that give three ami four quarts per day. Those amounts, when the slxo of the animal and the relutivelv small volume of food .Mimed are studied, make the goat vastly more prolitablo than the cow. With all these virtues, nanny has the merit of providing milk for coffee and cooking that makes the cow's brand look cheap. A few drops go as far as a spoonful of cream, and the flavor is rarely rieh and smooth. The old Idea that the milk can't help smelling "strong" was long ago exploded by tho simple discovery that Its very richness and delicacy make It highly susceptible to odors. So first the bucks wore excluded from the milking places of the does, snd next a rule of Impeccable cleanliness was adopted for all goat dairies. The outcome Is. of course, that goat's milk Is far more clean when It reaches the consumer than cow's milk, unless the cows have been lodged In model dairies and have been handWdj with the most scientific cara.