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Workers on Panama Canal Are Best Paid Mem ?f All the World
Cuict.ra. Canal Zon?, Panama. HIS letter Is about the biggest ?arrny of workmen ever gotten * together. 1 refer to the men who aro now digging the canal down her? at Panama. They' nuinlbcr about 85,000. When old Cheops bull.t the pyramids h0 had 20,'ji)u laborers, and when the gireat church of Santa .Sophia was erected at Conslantlno-plo the workmen were Just half that number. But In both of th.^se cas:n the li..'oor wa? more or less forced, arid tne pyra? mid fellahln worked like the Israelites under .the lash of ihe taskmaster. The laborers hero are frei agents. They can lay off if they please, and they are only kept on the job toy get ling the highest wages and best irei.tme.it of any men of their k.nd upon -arth. The man In charge of this army is the chief quartermaster at Panama. His name Is Colonel C. A. Devol, and he |? an officer of th? regular army. He haa not only recniMod and hired ttit lo.bor. but he rcovides th'-lr houses end quart.?rs and eives them their wages. Ue Is also :n charge of -all materials and supplies on the Isthumus, having eighty-o'.cht warehouses, which If Joined together would cover an acre? age bigger than fhat of a good-sized farm. He has charge of the draft ani? mals and h<? does the delivering and toting about of almost <? 1 eryt ? :'.ng and everybody except that done 'by the cars. t'ncle Sam's ttlK i.nhfir Foree. Colonel Devol flls mo that the lobor" problem has been one of the most dif? ficult of any connccu-d With Che canal, e.nd ihi.t .: has worried every company which 'has done business down here on thelsthumus. When th>- Penatna railroad xas first built the contractors aent to China for laborers, and they died like (lies. Later on so many other workmen w-re burled tha,t U is said the road cost a man fop every tie laid In Its tracks. The Ilrst French canal company scratched the world to find diggers, and they burled a large part of those whom they found. The men would not stay and th.'y were always recruiting. Uncle Sam .-..i* had good labor ever aln^e he Vs^n his construction and the Job has become so popular, that he can now have all the m*n he needs without advertis? ing. Durir.s the past four years the average number employed haa been 85,030, alt'nough at Ihnes it haa run es high as 88,0 ?r.d m^re. This Is an enormous fore- 'o be used In any undertaking outside those connected with the army and navy, but it ll handled like ono vast machine. You have all heard of'the silver and gold men of the Isthmus of Panama. It |a under those two r.ynti th.it the m"n ar cla*s!Red. The silver man !s the common every-day l;fter-of earth, hewer-of-wood and drawcr-of water. He has a mighty small %.ra!n and sells only h!-< muscle. He |s usually a white Spaniard or an Italian, or a black man from one c/f the West Indian islands. He ts h'.r-M by the e uthoritles here on the Isthumus. and has hem recruited by agents e^nt to different ports of trie world. During the past four years Wg have had on the average of 25,003 of these in the shape of West Indian ti*g.roec-. and about 5,000 more as laborers from Europe. The gold men are the skilled em? ployes, those -who act as superinten? dent?, foremen, civil englnoera and mechanics. They manage the big machinery, run the trains and do al! the skilled work. They are hired through the bureau kit Washington and many of them are subject to civil service examinations. The silver man gets from f,n cents to 81.SO a day for hia rrne "hours work. The gold man receives on the average at least 8150 per morlh. ond. !n addition, a six I live and (.old Men. COI.OXfcJL V. A. DEVOL, ?hr rbl>f qunrlc,,??N,cr. ?H|. Mr. ? orpcnlrr nt ?h,. loft. Tbl, raon hlrvn and hniiKr<i Uncle Snm'M luliitr army. AT TUB PAY CAR. week* vacation, with a month of sick learve and one of injury leave, which Iri?g! his pay very much higher. He j hat also extr.i advantages in the way of quarters and housing, and he is in short about the b*-st treated work? man of ail those who sell thokr brains and mu.-clo, to the industrial world, v Talk With Col. Devol. But It will be more Interesting to let Colonel Devol, tne quartermaster in charge of th?9n force?, teli you about [ them. I have spent an afternoon with him here at Culebra and have asktd him many questions as to the nun and their work. "One was as to the trouble of get? ting the laborers together." said Col. Devol "The on ganization of f.ie canal force was not an easy one. When we took hold. Tana ma had ? bad r..~.me and I it was difficult to get men. November This is the Sale You've Been Looking For! Just like the instant fulfilment for your wish rnme; this sale. You may complete your wardrobe of footwear with S5. S6 ami S7 creation??exquisite Slippers of fashion's latest designs?at $2.98 per pair. 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Our Specialty: Shoes for Children With Weak Ankles, Richmond's Most Complete Showing of ? White Shoes in Every Conceivable Model, Size and Price . JAMAICA XKGKOKS AT WOIIK ON IHK NEW PANAMA RAIL.ltOAD. SILVER LABORERS FROM NORTH SPAIN. I 1, 1304, the total force wa? 3.500, of I whom only 600 were Americans. We ha|tl considerable sbskntfes and tills force was not permanent, although it steadily grew in numbers. It was made up largely of men who would stay only a few months and then go away, Nevertheless, jt steadily grew. We found a large amount of recruiting was necessary, and within the next year or so we brought in over 43.00.) silver men. Of these more than li.OO.'i came from Europe, about 19.0)0 from Barbadoea and the balance from the other islands of the West Indies and Columbia." "We had labor agents at Paris who j did the recruiting from Spain, getting about 50o laborers at a time and send I ing them over. WP had to advance ! the money and It actually cost US JtO ' per man for every Spaniard, although I that sum was returned to the tavern I ment in the flrs; two wage payments. "It cost ua $7.2,1 per head for the laborers from the West Indies. This sum was not paid back, but was charged to the expense account. When I arrived here in 190S we still had recruiting agencies in Barhadoes, Trin? idad, Ktrance and the United State?. But we need norhlng of this character now. Indeed, we are offered more labor than we can use and we are sending men back home rather than bringing them here." "How ab>ut Central and South Ameri a? Have those countries fur? nished much labor to the canal?" I asked, "No." replied Coi'onel Devol. "We recently ! rought In forty or fifty Peru? vians and paid fhotn 20 rents an hour. But OS ?"? rule our lalior his come from the sources I have mentioned." The Spnnlnrd vs. the Went Indian Xrgni. Here the QU4?tlon arose as to the efficiency of European rh-tiri labor in comparison with the West Indian labor, and Colonel Devol said: "We are. you know, paying the Span? iards more than the West Indians. We fixed Che wages at th? beginning of the work, estimating the Spanish labor as worth two and r half Cmes that I of the Jamaican. We then established n I rate of 20 cents gold per hour lor the ? Spaniards, and 10 cents per hour for the Jamaicans. As the work lias prog? ressed the most of the men on the canal believe that the Spaniard has only stood pat. while the negro has steadily gained in efficiency, and It in my r,wn belief that the negro Is I now about as good as |he Spaniard, 'although he still receives leg? pay.' , Indeed, my respect for this negnro labor ' has risen during every yeitr of my stay. The West Indians are teachable and | anxious to learn. I use many of (hem j as mule drivers, and although th.-y j were at first very poor, they are now I a^ good nr any in the eour.trv." The Wliltr Mnn nnil the Tropica. But cannot the negTors stnnd the ? sun of the tropics better than the white men?" 'i think not The white t..an can ' work here quite as well as the col i ored man. The Americans are per? fectly healthy, and I see no reason . why they should not woi it. here all ! their lives It Is different In tho - Philippines. The hent there Is more : Intense and more enervating When il went to those Islands I weighed ISO i pounds, and I lost something like eighteen pounds during my stay. Here I I find It difficult to keep my weight , down, and my health is excellent " '?There has been much lillsappre i henslon ns to the unhealth of the ' tropics and the ^ro. 'cal he-it." con? tinued Colonel Devol. "Th's is so as to both animals and men. When we took possession of the Philippines we tried to acclimate oor mules. At first I kopt them under canvas during the hent of the day for feor 'the sun would hurt them. I soon found thSj UF.elcfK, and after - short time put them to work as soon .'is they come off ithe boats. I distributed thousands of them throughout the islands, and they throve there quite as well us at home. "As to the Americans on the Isth? mus, you will not find a healthier class of workmen anywhere else. Their death rale Is exceedingly low, and far lower than that of the Unit? ed States. Even Including Ihe col? ored labor. WO tlnd that our death and Health rates are quite as low as those lot most other parts of the world." I The rVowxopK nod the Whites, j "How about order? Do you have much trouble- in keeping the colored men In check?" "So, I doubt whether yon will Und a j more qu'et body of workmen any? where else on the face of the globe. We have more than 30,il0u colored men on our rolls, and we have had no serious labor trouble since we began. There are no brawls and no drunken? ness to speak of, and the men are universally polite and respectful to the ..merlcans. Nearly every silver man you meet takes off his hat. and It Is a common expression among the West Indians that this Is a white man's country." "But are our white women safe on the Isthumus?" "As far as the West Indian negroes I are concerned they are absolutely ? safe. They cull go about as freely as j In any part of tlie United States. My j own daughters have been here every summer. They ride all over the [country without an escort, nnd they h. Vo never had any trouble of any kind. Indeed, 1 have not known'of u S'tsKlc case down here where a negro has molested a white woman." "How do the wages of the silver inen compare with those they receive at home?" "They are much higher. The Ja- i mal cans and Barbadians get three times as much as at home. They have also free quaiteih and their food Is l urn shed at the rule of :i cents a meal. The Spaniard gels more than twice what he can make In Spain, and h' i meals coat him only 40 cents per day. We have good quarters for housing the Spaniards, and we have barracks for the negroes with canvas be is which can be raised and low ered. These beds are kept clean and are steamed every few days. "We tlnd that ih?! Jamaicans prefer to have huts of their even, und many Of them have drifted out into the brush. They have knocked up shacks Of poles Olid such boards as they can] I Und and have brought their 'females'! I as they call them, fr.?m Jamaica to! live with them. A year or so agul we hud 25,000 negroes In our bnr-| racks, but we have now onl> 7,000, ami the number growH less every day." "How about the Spaniards? Do they hold to their quarters?' "Yes. and the same Is true of the Italians." | Americana nt I'nnnmn. "Are the Americans on the Isthumus satisfied with their jobs'" i "1 think there Is no doubt of that.| I You will rind kickers everywhere, but! [the most of the Americans are con-' ? tented, nnd their only tegrcl Is that! ! the job is coming to an end. Indeed.! I they ought to be satisfied. They get] the biggest wages of their kind and; receive on the average from 25 to ;,ii; per cent, more Hihu they could get In the States. Every man of them has' six weeks' vacation, ar.d those who need It thirty days' sice leave. They! are hard workers. but they have] plenty of recreation, including tourna-1 mentl and games and a system Of 1 Clubhouses which la free. They have! ja reduced rate of living through the I commissary store?, where goods are1 Isold nt ns near cost rid possible; and Uncle S.im pays their iiou.se rent and gives them.their quarters. The gold men work only eight hours a -lay, anil those i\ ho are married have. In addi? tion, what amounts to $10 a month outside their salary. The bachelors have what is an equivalent of about J I ."? per month. Whnt Cnnnl Employee fiet for Nothing. "1 do not understand just what you mean by these allowances, Culonci Devol." "1 mean the things that the ._na! employe gets for nothing, which. If he were in the United .States, he would have to pay for. We give every man free quarters and frc- fuel, light, water and medical attendance. The married man receives more than the single man. and he costs more. He lives In a hou.se which costs us at least ll.SIO to build and furnish, and lie saves at least 120 in the rent of thai house. He gets about $7.50 worth of free medical attendance. $1 In free transportation over the railroad, more than $"i in free light, and more than $lt worth of fuel. We take care of his grounds and carry away his garbage. We do not charge him for Janitor service, and altogether $40 is a low estimate of what he has In addition to his salary, in the same way the bachelor receives $11 or $13 in addition to his pay." Uncle Sam's Homes for Employe*. "Von have charge of the homes of the employes?" "Yes; that Is, under the quartermas? ter's department. Our houses, ns you know, are all modern and up-to-date. They are screened from mosquitoes and , furnished with modern plumbing and 'bath rooms, and each house has Its kitchen, parlor, bed rooms and living room. .Men who get leva than $200 per month live in four-family houses. Those who have between that and $." 10 have bungalows and cottages, and those who have from $?>oo to $ioo a month have two-story houses. "The barrack buildings of the silver employes each accommodate seventy two men. Their s r:\angements nre modeled after those of the United States transports, and they are each under charge of a janitor, who keeps them clean The door? are scrubbed twice a week and the hunks are taken out and boiled in an iron lank to kill the bugs and other vermin." "Have you been able io use man.v of the old French buildings?" I asked "VcS, there were t.TOO of them, and we took them at n valuation of $2,00.1,- j 003. They ranged 'n size from two- ' story cottages up to the big De LOsseps home at Cristobal. A great many of theso buildings are ;n use 16-day. They i gave us h?rne? at the start, which was a very important consideration to our work." Onr Men Enrn Their Wngei. The conversation hrrf. turned to the p->V of the men, and Colonel Devol showed me the beaks by which he keeps track of the lo.bor of these 3;>.noo employes. The system is a complete one. Including llmchooks for odd days end etatsBsdays, .? r. thru the men in the office can check off the time and still have the time bonks in US*. Everything Is done by system, and it Js impossible for a man to get more | than he earns. The paying is through i pay checks by means of pay oars, wh'ch go from sta:.on to station and I hand out the money It takes twelve days to pay all the men on the canal. I A pay car starts out about the first of the month, and It I* not until the 12th that all the men have been paid. : The amount of .-liver used every month Is more than one mil a half million dollars, or. If j were loaded upon two. horse wagons much as eighty horses could haul o ? ? a country road. The ftnm-Shor Men. 1 asked Colonel De.vol If any steal? ing Or graft bnd been discovered In connection with such payments. He. renllcd: "No. This Is the cleanest joh that I'ncle Sam has ever undertaken. We have had scandals In the Philippines. I In Cuba and more or less in the nd minlstratlon of almost every one of j our home cities. I know of none hero I on the Canal Zone, and our system of supervision Is so complete that It Is; almost Impossible, for anything* of that nature to escape being caught at its' very beginning. 'Take, for Instance, padding the. rolls, such as has been done In many! big Jobs. There is none of that here* We have line inspectors called gum? shoe men. who go about through th& various divisions In ordinary clothing. No one knows them, and they have the right to ask the foremen for thair time-books and verify them as to the men employed and the hours that they I work. Any discrepancy Is Immedi? ately reported. These men are every? where, and the/ foremen know that a dishonest report is sure to be dls ' covered." 'Copyright, 1*12, by Frank G. Car? penter. ) WINCHESTER [Special to The Tlmep-D spatchj Winchester. Va.. June 29.?Cards have been received here announcing tile marriage of Miss Love Fry. daugh? ter of Mrs. Nannie V. Fry, formerly ! of Mddleway, Jefferson county. W. Va., to Dr. John Daniel, also Of that doun i ty, which was solemnized on June -? at the home uf the ...de.'s mother, [No. 1300 Fairmont Street. Washing? ton. D. C. Mrs. Samuel P. Latane left this week to spend some time at Old Point ' Comfort, and will also visit her sis | tcrs. Mrs. K. W. HudgtrTs and Mr?. .1. Wilton Hope, both of Hampton, be-' I fore returning to the hcrtue of her I parents, Dr. and Mrs, William S. ? Love. Dr. s. N. Applehy, who hats been vis- ', Itlnc at the Jiome of Mr. and Mrs.' j John W. I'.ice on North Braddock.' Street, has returned to Baltimore. ! Midshipman Richard Evelyn Byrd. i Jr.. of the Lulled States Navy, who is spending hie vacation at the borne or Ills parents. Mr .and Mrs. R. E. Byrd. In this city, has been spending tho\ week In Baltimore with friends. D. B. Conrad left a few days ago to spend some time In Baltimore. Mr. and Mrs. F.rnest Sprigg, who have been visiting relatives in town, j have returned to Cumberland. Md. Mrs. Mary J. Bowers has gone on a visit to relatives at Redlngton. W. Va. Announcement was made a few days ago of the marriage, of Miss I Vlrglo Chapman, daughjtor of Charles [Chapman, of Berryvllie, Clark county, to R. R. Rumbarger. of Grottoes, which took place last Sunday at i..e J home of the bride's father, the cere? mony being performer) by Rev. 8. A. l'arker. pastor of the Methodist Epis? copal Church, South. The young cou? ple will live at Grottoes. Miss Eva Livers, who has been vis? iting at the home of her brother-in law and sister. Mr. and Mrs. Fred S. Anderson, on North Main Street, has returned to Grottoes. Mrs. Rachel Bean and her daughter, . Mise t.ottle Bean, of McPherson. Kas.. are visiting the family of the for? mer's brother-l..-law, Joseph F. Bean, In this city. Mrs. Ci. Casper Fries and her daughter-in-law. Mis. Charles Fries, huvc gone to Berkeley Springs, W. Va., where they will spend eonin lime. Mr. and Mrs. D. C. Sands, of Mid dleburg, have been Visiting friends in town this week. Mr. and Mrs T. J. Sc.utt, of Wash? ington, who have been on a motoring trip In the Virginia Valley, were the guesis of friends In this city early In the week. Mr. and Mrs J. E. Patncll. of In? diana, Pa., came this week on a visit to friends. Mr. nnd Mrs. Del Dragoo. of Red key. Ind., have been visiting at the home of the latter's mother. Mrs. An? nie Serielle, In this city. Mr. Dragoo being one of the assistant sergeants at-arms of the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore this week. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Glass and Dr. Robert McC. Glnss have been spend? ing the past week in Baltimore nnd Washington as the guesis of Soija tor and Mrs. Henry L. Myers and their daughter. Miss Myers, of Montana. Miss Anna Dickinson has gone to Richmond, after visiting at the homo Of her brother-in-law and sister, Dr. and Mrs. J. H. Lacy. In this city. Dr. and Mrs. A. A. Westrater. of Martinsburg, W. Va.. have been vis , Itlng tile latter's parents. Dr. and Mrs. ! E. B. Smoke. In Frederick county. Mr. and Mrs. John Shoemaker, of Greensburg, Pa., who have Been visit? ing Mr. and Mrs. Rosh M. Swlmley. i have gone to Berkeley Springs, W. Va. Mrs. James W. Qaver, who has been \isltlng relatives in town, has j returned to her home at Berryvllle. Miss Clara Weems left this ?eck j to visit friends in Baltimore. Mrs. Sarati Brooks has gone on a i visit ,if several weeks to relatives In Washington. Miss Maude Brown Is vllsting friends in Baltimore. Mrs. D. L. Clayton, who has been visiting relatives here for several weeks, has returned to her home in ! Cumberland. Md. CUMBERLAND [Special to The Tlmes-DIspatch.] Cumberland, Va., June '.'9.?Mis? Re? becca Vaughan Is taking a summer course ai the University of Virginia. Mrs. G. Gllmor Minor, of Richmond, will spend the summer months with her parents. .Mr. and Mr?. Philip Flip pen, on Colonial Avenue. Mr?. Henry Lester, of Sheffield, Ala , and Mrs Sue YV. Jolly, of Birming? ham, Ala. are guests of Mr?. Alan Mc Rae. Miss Constance Anderson, of Rich mond. lias returned home, after a ten days' visit to Mrs. Chas, Plggs. Mi?* Mittie Rattan. Of Smllhlield. Is the guest of Miss Itessle Stuart. Mlsi Eleanor Ford Digg? has been ! spending s-ome weeks In Richmond. Mr, and Mrs. Andrew J, Gray, of Richmond, were the week-end guests Of Mr. and Mrs Wm. Gay. of "North Held " t Misses Elise and Marjorle Flippen, of Farmvllle, are visiting Mrs. Oliver O. Flippen. Frank Hill Carpenter has returned to his borne in Madison, after some month? spent here. The Misse? Snead. of Fork Union, are visiting Mrs. J, Raleigh Godsey. nr. Richard Jefferrtes Is staying at the ' Red Rose Inn." After Shaving AIR-FLOAT Talcum re? moves the shiny redneis and cives that smooth, natural, wholesome effect that men covet. TALCUM PUFf CO. jHurrinntiJUn'ifactari'rt. BuihTtrmlrnl StallSIng Brooklyn, K, Y.