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The times dispatch. (Richmond, Va.) 1903-1914, June 22, 1913, Image 13

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85038615/1913-06-22/ed-1/seq-13/

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The Folds
THOUSANDS upon thouBanda of women have dis
covered to their great surprise and sorrow that
their Bilk skirts had cracked along the folds
while the garments were yet practically new.
Hut out of these thousands upon thousands of women
probably not a Bcore of them knew that the real reason
for this was that they were wearing more of a tin
skirt than a Bilk one. In other words, their handsome,
fiofr, rustling silk garments with the rich sheen were
made up of about 60 to 75 per cent tin, and the remain
der pure Bilk, or pure silk except for an ounce or two
to the pound of coloring matter.
Again many a woman, in fact probably nearly every
woman has bren surprised and angered because new
silk waists have become discolored and rotted under
the arms and about the neck. Again, it was the tin
that was to b!ami> for this. The saltB in the perspira
tion act upon th*> tin and other foreign matter in the
ei 1 k in a manner that not only discolors It, but causes
it to rot. and in Summer it is practically impossible to
avoid this unless one is certain of getting pure silk.
The woman who walks along the street in a handsome
pilk gown that rustles softly Is extremely proud of her
dreEc, but she does not know that every twelve ounces
or biik, pur? EliK. in ner dross, has been bo weighted
with pure tin that thlB original twelve ounces Is mado
to weigh sixty or seventy ounces, and there are In
stances, according to the very best of authorities, where
twelve ounces of pure silk is made to weigh aB much as
eighty ounces.
There 1b a simple method for finding out whether a
piece of silk goods has boen adulterated or weighted,
as the manufacturers call it, with tin, and that Is to
cut off a small sample and burn it. Pure silk is animal
matter, Just as feathers or hair, made, as every one
knows, by the silk worm. Now if pure silk is burned
It will1 Instantly curl up Into a crisp mass, Just as a
burnt hair or feather will do. But if the silk goods has
been adulterated with from 60 to 75 per cent of tin, it
will not do this. It will leave an ash In the semblance
of the fabric, much as a burned piece of newspaper will
leave an ash that still shows the printing. The harder
and more firm this ash, the more tin there was in the
Silk manufacturers claim that competition 1b so great
they cannot afford to produce pure silk goods. They
admit they do produce some, but it Is so expensive only
those with plenty of money can afford to buy it.
The pure silk goods, such as were manufactured at
the time our grandmothers and great-grandmothers
made their wedding dresses, wore and wore without any
filgns of splitting or cracking in the seams. Thin was
because It was pure silk, with no foreign matter In the
goods. No tin was put In those goods, and there are
probably thousands of women who have these old
dresses as heirlooms, and they find the silk apparently
as good as ever.
The great injustice of weighting silk with tin 16 that
there 1b nothing to Inform the public of this. Poor
women can afford to buy silk because some of It is so
cheap, but It very Boon wears out, and so they are really
worse off than before. It has been suggested that the
Many Manufacturers Make SILK 75 PER CENT. TIN to Give It Fakp Wpu?M
Nearly All Raw Silk for Fabrics Is Boiled in a Tin Solution to Give It
False Weight. This Causes Silk Skirts to Crack in the Folds,
Frequently Before They Have Been Worn ? Dozen Timei.
manufacturers be marie to plainly label all tlieir silks, with such explana
tions as the following. "Weighted with BO per cent tin." This should not
only be on the bilk labels, hut should be woven into thr selvage every
yard or two.
When the raw silk goes to the manufacturer It is Just as it came from
the silk worms, and it contains quite a lot of gummy matter that has to
bo boiled out. This boiling process, which removes all the impure matter
and all the animal matter, reduces the weight of the original raw silk
about four ounces to every pound.
"But," explains one big manufacturer of silk thronds, "this loss of
four ounces Is generally made up when the silk is dyed, so that there is
really no such thing as a four-ounce loss to every pound for the manu
"And when these manufacturers insist that weighting silk with so
much tin or other mineral substances does not lessen its resistance to
wear, they have little justification for such n claim," a representative o:
a well-known firm of silk manufacturers declared.
It 1b true that the pure silk goods will not crack at the senms, nor
discolor or rot readily by means of perspiration, and It is true that much
of the modern silk* skirts, and especially the silk petticoats worn a few
years ago, would crack along the seams and alons thr* creases in the
plaiting and flounces, frequently after a week's wear.
When the raw silk is put thrbugh the boiling process to remove the
gummy animal matter, and the dyes are added, this dye bath also contains
dissolved tin and other weight producers, making twelve ounces of pure
silk gain In weight, as already stated, from 60 to 75 and e\en So ounces.
Silk doctored to such a degree Is worthless, according to the best of
authorities. When it is exposed to tho air the liquid tin absorbed by the
fiber in the dye bath cry3talli7.es, and when the fabr^r, (called silk by
courtesy) Is put under strain, like that of wearing it made up tn garments,
these crystallized partlclps actually cut tho pure fibres and therefore
cause the cracks and ruin the cloth.
And bo It Is that If you buy a common grade silk dres3. the sort that ?
?women have regarded as "pure silk" for years, the little silk worm has
furnished about 25 per cent, of it and the brawny laborers in the Corn
wallls or other tin mines have furnished 75 per cent ol it.
HOW YOUR HEART Rests More Than It Works
OUR heart re6ts thirteen hours oat of the twenty
four in the normal adult. Its work is done dur
Ins; the systole or forcing out, and the diastole
or the relaxation lasts Just one-twelfth longer than the
working period, so that when the twenty-four hours
have elapsed the heart has had thirteen hourB reBt and
only eleven hours work. It is, therefore, a great mis
take to 5peak of the "unresting heart." If it did not
re st it could not stand the strain, in fact, if it is forced
to beat too rapidly, either by drugs or any disorganiza
tion of the ?y.str*m. it soon breaks down, for strong as
the muscles are they cannot work continuously, but
must have rest to regain power.
While it is true that the heart is the great motive
power which keeps the blood flowing through the
nrteries and veins, it is a mistake to regard it as a
force-pump, which drives the blood all the way it is to
go. But it must have rest between its muscular con
traction or it woars out very quickly.
If the work of the heart were to be compared with
the work of a man the necessity for sleep would soon
he clear. Almost any healthy man could walk a thou
sand miles in six weeks, walking a little over eight hourB
a day, at an easy pace, and resting for the remainder
of rarh day. Almost any one thinks that he could walk
a thousand miles ia a thousand hours, but It is no mean
feat, as was shown by an English soldier. Captain Bar
clay. Some few men have tried to outdo the captain
by walking a thousand miles In a thousand half-hours,
but few could perform this great task. The way Captain
Barclay and other athletic pedestrians accomplished this
task was to walk two miles at a time, the first mile at
the end of one hour or half-hour, and tho second at the
beginning of the next hour or half-hour, so as to get
as much unbroken sleep as possible. If he walks at
the rate of a mile in fifteen minutes. he pets an hour
and a half for sleep between every walk when walking
a thousand miles in a thousand hours, but hf> only gets
one-third as much sleep, namely, half-an-hour b^twe^n
his walkB when going a thousand miles in a thousand
half-hours. It Is plain that no living man could walk a
thousand miles in a thousand quarter hours, because ho
would get no rest at all, and if he increased his pace
so as to snatch a little rest the strain would be so great
that he could never finish.
This Is precisely what happens when the heart is
forced to do too much work, either by over-exertion or
by the strain of disease. If it is compelled to beat more
quickly than normally It is quickly exhausted, for nearly
the whole time needed for the diastole or rest is taken
up In labor, even though the systole be slightly
shortened. For this reason when the pulse Is very rapid
the physician bends every effort to decreasing the rate
of the heart's br-atinc by cold applications or by drugs,
which slow its action.
The natural question which arises is: What happens
to the system while the heart Is taking its necessary
rost. When the beat is over the valves to the aorta
close tightly and the heart is cut off from the circulatory
system. What force is it then which is carrying on the
circulation in the.-e resting intervals? The answer Is
a very simple one. In adults whose arteries are normal
the arteries are very elastic, and when the heart-force
pump drives the blood out they aro stretched greatly.
The moment the force stops the elasticity of the arteries
makes these vessels try to come back to their normal
Fize, and in this way the blood with which they are
gorged is forced forward by the energy stored in the
elastic walls. They might be compared to the watch
spring which is wound up every night and thus stores
the energy for running the wheels all day. The walls of
the arteries store the energy from the heart between
each beat and send the blood along its course. This
elasticity of the arteries also serves to regulate the flow
of the blood, so that, it does not shoot through them at
each beat of the heart, but is slowed down and dis
tributed gradually and in proper proportion to all parts
of the body. Thus it is plain that while the heart rests
the arteries do its pumping work, even more effectively
than it could do itself.
Why an Angry CHILD
Always STAMPS Its Feet
HERE are a few universal habits In
the human race which have strange
primitive origins, and there are some
which are universal because they have a
physiological stimulus, and one of these latter
is the habit that a little child often has of
stamping its feet when angry. Exactly the
same thing occurs when a man, when he la
angry, brines down his fist on the table.
In both cases It Is due to lack of nervous
The nervous system is a unit, and most of
the emotions of anger come from a sudden
thwarting of a calculated nervous plan. Thus,
if we are about to sit down on a chair and a
mischievous urchin yanks the chair away Just
as we have let the muscles of the thigh* r?
lax, the anger excited la out of all proportion
to the actual bruises that have resulted. If
a child wants a pot of jam and Is denied he is
Immediately angry, unless he has been taught
to control himself. The desire for the jam,
for example, has set in motion a nerve nlan.
and when this Is suddenly stopped there is
a flow of nervous energy which has to spend
itself in some way. In the case of the child,
he usually works this off by stamping his
feet and crying. In the case of the man, ho
usually goes through exactly the same proc
esses by thumping the table and swearing;
in the case of a hysterical woman, she beats
upon the floor with her heels and screams.
It is all the same thing.
Strange as it may seem, moreover, the
outflow of emotion is far bettor for an angry
>erson than it is> to bottle it up. Emotion
Is goinp to express itself in action some
where. and if the muscles are kept still the
brain cells will be exhausted instead. Emo
tional force has got to go somewhere?it
can't just stop and disappear. Too great a
suppression of the emotions leads to a grad
ual atrophy of them, and when the emotions
bepin to die out the person himself or her
self Is of comparatively little use to the
world. It Is for this reason that nothing
should ever be done to "break" a child's
temper, but only to guide it into right chan
nels. You can teach a child not to lose con
trol of his temper, but never, as you value
the child'B development, try to train him not
to be angry.
A New Relationship
to the Monkey
IN th* early davp cf Darwinism the question of the ev
olutlon of man wag constantly misrepresented, as
though It hnd been made to appear that man is
descended from a monkey. For fifty years zoologists
and biologists have been Industriously explaining that
the succession was not direct, but that man was descend
ed from the root stock of the primates, of which the apes
?were a distinct branch. Now, as soon as that more cor
rect -way of stating our ancestry comes to be fully un
derstood, there has been discovered a new relationship
between man and ape which bridges the gap and makes
the old popular idea seem nearer to the truth than the
scientific statement.
Like a great many modern discoveries, the factors ire
highly technical, but the broad outline aerve to reveal
In a general way the importance of the discovery. One
of the principal differences between man and the lower
animals has been in the actual cell processes that hap
pen in the building up of the body. These changes, or
metabolism, are really fundamental to life, and are
the evidence of life. So that, when a large difference
appears between man and the animals in the Important
basic fact of life, the diversity is really far greater than
in some outward appearance that would show far more.
In this particular case uric acid is the peculiar prod
uct considered. Uric acid is a product which is princi
pally peculiar to man?the breaking up of certain bases,
known as purins?producing in the other animals an
entirely different stage, known as allantoin. Even in
the common monkey the ruacacus?which is largely used
in laboratory experiments?'this difference exists, and
the same is true of the baboon. But a long Berles of
experiments, conducted in the most careful and scien
tific way by Dr. Wlechowski, of Prague, have resulted
in the proving of the fact that the chimpanzee, one of
the anthropoid apes, shares with man this power of pro
ducing uric acid. As this product is shrewdly suspect
ed to have eomo relationship to rheumatism?though
only in certain types of that disease?it. is doubtful
whether the chimpanzee is to be congratulated upon his
possessing this human characteristic, but it places him
in the highest group, even above his follow anthropoids,
the orang-outang and the gorilla.
It has for some years been known that the anthropoid
^pe? showed a close comparison with man In their
blood characteristics, especially in the preparation of
serum, for precipitins which have been prepared with
especial significance to man are equally available for
the anthropoid apes, though utterly unappllcable to the
monkey. 13ut tho discovery of a bridge over the gap
between man and ape In the important branch of meta
bolism is a missing, link of far more importance than a
primitive ape-human skeleton would be. It welds, oven
more tightly, the wonderful chain whereby all living
beings are drawn together in the eternal struggle
PPROFKSSOR Geheirmrath G. Magnus,
of the General Hospital of Munich,
Germajiy, has demonstrated that
sugar, when properly used, is the best thing
in the world for sick or ailing tissues. It
is, he says, a disinfectant superior to any of
the popular poisons, such as mercury, car
bolic acid, zinc, and the other numerous and
commonly used toxic dressings for wounds.
Professor Magnus has now used sugar in
the treatment of Injuries for five months
with the mot-t promising outcome. Instead
of inducing fermentation, infections and pu
trefactions, as has hitherto been asserted,
it really prevents such complications in
wounds, if the sugar has itself been first
thoroughly sterilized. Sugar applied to tho
sore spot not only dissolves any clots or
crusts present, but it particularly stimulates
the tissues to protect themselves from the
invasion of the germs that cause blood pois
Sugar induces fluids to form in the wound
?which aid materially in washing and rins
ing away the foreign and contagious matter.
It is favorable, also, for healing tlio injuries,
and deodorizes the spot better than any of
the well-known remedies.
Moreover, I>r. Magnus has discovered in
his experiments that the the human bedy
is able to not only enjoy, but tolerate, such
strong sugar solutions. Ho even went so
far as to offer himself for tests. He injected,
for example, a ten per cent, solution of sugar
in water into his own arm. At the same time
he gave his other arm an equal amount of
salt water. There was no unpleasant effect
whatsoever in either instance.
These investigations of the Munich physt
cian show that sugar is both harmless and
antiseptic. It confirms the researches of an
elder savant. Dr. Kuhn, who maintained
against great scepticism, as well as unjust
accusations of quackery, that sugar applied
in the treatment, of sue h inflammatory
troubles as ' peritonitis" will help materially
toward its cure.
Dr. Magnus applied sugar solutions and
dried sugar to ulcers of the legs, sores on
the hands nnd open wounds generally, and
during the several months of his rigid tests
he has been uniformly successful under its
influences in healing them all.
There must be an emphatic understanding
that the sugar be pure, clean nnd free from
dust, air. dirt nnd Invisible germs. This as
surance cannot, be had if the sugar is taken
from the table or from the grocer's and
dashed in a haphazard fashion upon the open
sore. The proper application of a sterilized
sugar can only be made by a physician or
surgeon who is aware of the importance of
'bacterial-free wound dressings.
With the inauguration of sugar as a means
to protect open injuries, to encotirage heal
ing and to aid in the body's upbuilding, there
will be smaller cost?for all the methods and
antiseptics now used are expensive?less
trouble and an ever-ready, handy method of
The Best PEARL Is the TOMB of a WORM
THE oyster makes a pearl to get rid of the annoy
ance of an enemy, generally a worm, that sneaks
inside his shell. But in doing this he comes
learer being "hoist by his own petard" than any other
thing known In the lower order of life.
While he gets rid of the troublesome worm or other
foreign matter by making a pearl around it, he makes
himself so much more valuable to man by this process
that his life is in ten times tho danger it was from the
object that caused his first annoyance.
Sometimes a pearl is the result of a grain of sand
getting inside the shell which the bivalve is unable to
ilslodge- But recent investigations have shown that
the pearls resulting from a grain of sand are by no
neans as valuable as those resulting from worms. And
;o It is that the really valuable pearls are nothing more
3r less than tombs for cestode or trematode worms. It
Is the cestode worms that seem to he responsible for
the best grade of pearls, with tho tromatode worms for
.ho second grades.
The manner In which the oyster makes the pparl Is
sxtremely simple. Every step of the process has not
been learned by naturalists. Tn the first place the for
eign matter, generally a worm, works Itself inside the
3hcll of the oyster. The oyster is unable to get rid of
It and It continues to annoy him.
Now the black line (A) represents the outer shell
of the oystor, with the lime next to that. (B) is the
The Text Describe* How the Blncl;
Spot (B) Which It Generally a
Worm, Is Entombed in
Shimmering Pearl by
tho Oy#fcef.
worm or other foreign matter. When the oyster finds
he cannot dislodge the worm he begins to deposit a
layer of mother-of-pearl (C) around It. The oyster :s
constantly building his shell by this means. When tho
foreign matter is covered with sufficient mother-of
pearl the oyster stretches his outer skin iD) until the
edges meet where they grow together and detach that
portion encircling the mother-of-pearl-covered worm.
In time the deposits begin to Increase until the layer
after layer of iridescent mother-of-pearl has formed
the actual valuable pearl. The outer skin now wears
away or dissolves and leaves the smooth round pearl.
In fact, it leaves the worm so entombed that It is per
fectly harmless
To be exact, a pearl is merely a lump of carbonate of
lime mixed with organic matter, which shows its won
derful colort only because of its layer after layer of tho
mother-of-pearl structure. Pearls are found in various
bivalves, although the oysters furnish most and gen
erally the best. Sometimes the color of the pearl de
pends upon the feeding beds which determine the tints
of the lime from which the oyster makes its shell. This
gives rose pearls or brown or so-called black pearls.
And so the beautiful woman whose throat is adorned
with a string of rare and almost priceless pearls Is
really wearing a string of insect-coffins around her neck.
Sometimes the oyster can cover the worm or grain
of sand with mother-of-pearl and entomb it against the
inner sido of the shell, leaving a little knot of pro
tuherance of real pearl. These are cut out for scarf
pins and buckles and are known to the trade as "half
pearls." Hut they are, like the round pearls, the tomb
of some unfortunate worm that dared venture Inside
the oyster's shell castle.
Why Stars Do Not
has made claims that, if nothing else, spoil our old
favorite poem of childhood days which begins:
"Twinkle, twinkle, little star." for the professor says
the stars do not twinkle at all. In fact he says the
twinkle Is all in our eyes, and he means it literally. Of
course, he doesn't say it in quite this manner. In fact
he Is rather technlcul aboul it, but he is a noted savant
and has made many ponderous reports to learned Brit
ish societies, so It Is to he expected. His claims are
interesting, nevertheless.
The "twinkling" of the (stars is not due to something
in interstellar space, nor to the earth's atmosphere,
says the professor, and to prove his point he rigged up
artificial stars in a dark laboratory, and also adduced
; as evidence the well-known phenomenon of "seeing
> stars'' when you are struck a blow on the head. He
placed a small light in a dark room. A bull's-eye lan
tern five and one-half inches in Ions diameter at one
thousand yards was equivalent to h'.s little llsht at
twenty feet distance. If this is looked at in a dark
room without moving the eye. the light will twinkle
exactly like a star.
In this experiment you will notice that pale, bluish
violet circles start at the outside and gradually contract
at the centre. On reaching the centre the light bright
ens. Another simple experiment lie used to show that
It is your sensitive retina and not the outside which
causes the "twinkling" was to open your eye as you
awake In the morning, then to look at the ceiling. At
first a star-shaped, Irregular black spot will appear On
closing the eye again a bluish-violet circle appears,
spreads, contracts, and then, after breaking up into a
star-shaped figure, it becomes brighter, disappears and
Is followed by another contracting circle.
If you open your eye as the star figure Is formed
In the centre, It will appear as <1 rose-colored star, much
brighter than any other part of the field of vision. If.
however, you wait until the star has broken up and dis
appeared before opening the eye, it will be found that
only a black spot Is seen In the centre. Many psycholo
gists confirm these discoveries of the British investiga
tor, and certainly there is no proof that star figures
appear in the outside world.
Indeed, we know that the distant stars, as well as
, the distant earthly lights, are round or globular, not star
<! shaped as they appear In the "twinkling of an eye."
i; Venus, the evening star, Ioo'ks "star-shaped" until It is
S enlarged by looking through a telescope. Then you
* become convinced that it is big and round.

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