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A Distinguished American Judge
Says That the Lash, as Used in Dela ware and England, Is the Only Way to Stop Atrocious Assaults and Crimes Against Women and Children IN this day of enlightenment and tender care for the defective and erring members of tjhe com munity there are still Intelligent men and women who say thnt we should revive tbe whlpplug post for certain crimes. England still uses the cat-o'-nlno tallB as a punishment for atrocious offences against the person, and has recently made It applicable to the hideous crimes of the white slavers. In our country, the flne old State of Delaware has always employed the cat as a punishment for thieves, wlfe-booters and other criminals. A statement on this pnge by the Gov ernor of Delaware lndicutes that the State Ik well satisfied with the pun ishment and intends to stick to It. Nevertheless It Is probably true that the majority of Americans re gard flogging as barbarous. The ten dency Is In the other direction. The movement to abolish capital punish ment nltogebher is very strong. Re cently the State of Colorado, In Its eoli-Mtiide for the murderer, has of' fercd him a choice between shooting, poisoning and electrocution?all hu mane formB of death. In connection with these humani tarian tendencies we must note that atrocious crimes against women and children, murders, burglurles and crimes of violence are Increasing. Judge Lewis L. Fawcett, a Brook lyn judge who has become noted for hl3 severe dealing with burglars and other violent criminals, has Just declared sharply In favor of reviv ing flogging throughout this country. "The lash." said Judge Fawcett, "has done more to reduce crime In Kngland than anything else. . . . What we need here for gangsters, white slavers and Black Handers is just that sort of punishment. A good lashing and a little salt In the wound will tame the most ferocious criminals. "Cnder the Kngllsh system, when t he wounds from the lashes have henle<l the surgeons open the wounds and apply salt. This operation Is performed several times before the six months have expired. Conse quent ly he becomes a turned citizen." The argument of Judge Fawcett and others who think like him Is that the agony and humiliation of thi' lash is the only punishment that can reach the sensibilities of the brutes who commit atrocious crimes against women and children. It Is a barbarous punishment for a bar barous nature. Imprisonment means nothing to those brutes, and even the death penalty often fails to ter rify them. Strange to say, experience has Bhown that they have a certain kind of self-respect, which is wounded ?when they are publicly flogged. Most of thern are powerful brutes physically, and the humiliation of being whipped is more than they can bear. The suggestion to revive flogging in New York has been severely criticised by persons interested in Sold Out. "And bo suro to bring back a bottlo of sea-water with you. They say as bow It's so good for the rheumatics." remarked old Mrs. Giles, by way of final exhortation. Then, a moment later, the excurmon train steamed out of the station on f tourney to lh0 coast, bearing us human freight the ugeu ton" of Thomas Giles. a true son of th?,f??ftt tbe seaside, although amazi-l the vastness of the ocean, he did . VnrKct himself so far as to neglec: Llfes behest. So. observing two -inrra standing on the sands, ho lna frhod them, and Inquired of one ofPthem the v*rlcc o? a boUle oi Soa" Wft.\e,A,.nrter a hottlc. ilr." replied th? "vllh a knowing wink toward k1 r* \C full y? T h o m a a paid his quarter. Chcorfuni |q Hefi tho s,ehts thc" food. Some two hours later. ? examined the church, tho having museum, aiul a local ft<*tlr S house, he returned again to inspect i^h?and behold, where the sea TkL.n now stretched miles of sand. had able to believe his eyes. Thomas hastened to his old sailor George! You've had a busy ? hi- cried enthusiastically. "Sold day- ,jV' Well, well, welll" out already. ; He Knew the Answer. A man making a visit to his home ?.nB invited to address the Sun town da.^j m?^reminded." he said, "of tha of a hoy who was once no farcer than some of you little fel. J . He played truant when he was \b' to school, went fishing every " I?v ran away from home when t'U vvas'ten years old. learne<l to drink. ice tobacco and play cards. He B ? into bad company, spent his time g? tAbies and saloons, finally bacamj ??rkpocUet. then a forger, and one 11 ^ whUe in a state of Intoxication. I! committed murder. Children." he iced In ftn lmPreaslvn tone- "where y0u think that man Is now," ?gillie rose to his feet and Quickly shouted; "He stands beforo us!" the treatment of criminals. Dr. Beverley Robinson, discussing the subject, wrote: "It brutalizos both prisoners and keepers. It is revolting to our senses. It is barbarous, unfeeling and worthless. It should be tol erated in no civilized community. It is to me a disgrace for any 8tate or people to tolerate it." In England flogging has always been regarded as a valuable means of punishment, discipline and edu cation. Until a generation ago sol diers and sailors were flogged al most to death with the cat-o'-nine tails for the most trifling offences against discipline. In the law courts a severe flogging was the accom paniment of nearly every sentence. Between 1880 and 1870 there was a movement against excessive flog ging, but many influential English men have never ceased to uphold it. About that time a law was passed that flogging should only be ordered in cases of atrocious assault. For these offences the punishment has always been freely Inflicted. The tendency recently has been to in flict it more frequently. JudgeB have availed themselves more often of their power of ordering it. Now the law has been amended, making it permissible to order the lash for criminals convicted of traffic in "white slavery." The Judges may order as much as one hundred lashes with the cat-o'-nine-talls. Thus the punishment is extended beyond Apparatus Used in Flogging "White Slavers" at Newgate Prison, London. the cases of atrocious assault. It was argued that the other punish ments inflicted had failed to produce any terrifying effects on those en gaged in this hideous traffic. The devotion of Delaware to tho whipping post is a particularly in teresting chapter of American his tory. it is favored by every member of the State judiciary, by the police and officials. They point to the sig nificant fact that not for the past ten years has a single "crook" of a dangerous class been caught in Delaware. Tho reason has been ex plained by the "crooks" themselves. Theyawould feel degraded beyond expression at having to receive a flogging with the cat-o'-nine-tails at the hands of a Delaware jail warden. Men like tho late "Jimmy" Hope, the notorious bank burglar, would a dozen times have preferred to take chances with the combined police and detective forces of New York or Chicago than the small police force of a city like Wilmington, Del., be cause capture would have meant "hugging old Susan," as the whip ping post is called. While the horror of the post keeps tho professional thief outside the boundaries of the State, the petty thief continues to take his chances with Delaware justice just the same. In a great many cases thieves are whipped time and time again, until their backs appear to become hard ened to*the rawhide thongs, and whatever self respect they may have had has boen destroyed. The law whereby wife-beaters are punished at the post has been ro cently revived. It was in force dur ing Colonial days, but after tho Civil War it was discovered that a woman desiring to get rid of a husband would not hesitate to go upon the witness stand and swear that ho had beaten her. As the man once whipped is disfranchised for life, the law was for a time repealed. Then aggravated cases of wife-beat ing became numerous, and so the punishment was revived. The whipping post in Delaware has been a meuns of punishing law breakers since its early history. In the chronicles of Diedrich Knicker bocker is a referencs to it. In 1056, the punishment was administered at the pleasure of the Governor, there being no regular laws. The first official whipping occurred in 1679, when Agnita Hendricks, a depraved woman, was whipped with twenty seven lashes. Witnir a few months, she repeated her offense, was whip ped with thirty-one lashos and waB banished from the State. The first code of laws for the punishment of criminals was passed in 1717 by a General Assembly com posed of delegate^ from "the coun ties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex upon the Delaware and the Province of Pennsylvania." It provided that the punishments should be the same as then in force in England. Thiev ing and various other crimes w.ero punishable by flogging in Great Britain, and consequently they be came so in the colonies. In addition to the whipping post, the pillory and tho stocks were introduced. They continued in force until 1789, Until Recently the Whipping Post Was Combined with t"he Pillory in Delaware. I when a particularly severe, punish ment was inflicted upon a negro con victed of attacking a woman. Ho was compelled to stand four hours ! In the pillory with his ears nailed i to it, and when he was taken down, ? his ears were severed close to his , head. Afterward he was banished, i Tho punishment of criminals as i late as 1830 was not confined to the state courts, but was administered ; by. the justices of the peace, and ? old records show that offenders were sentenced by a 'squire.' taken out J side of the building and flogged by i the constable. In Wilmington the whippings took ! place in the city hall park, the lash being handled by the chief of police. > then known as the "high constable." ' The law providing for the whip ping of women remained in force : until 1S52, when it was stricken from the statute books as barbarous. Practically all of the whippings in Delaware at the present time take plao& at the New Castle County workhouse. Arrangements have been made by the officials of other coun ties, by which their long-term pris oners are boarded at the workhouse, and consequently they are flogged there. In the past the methods of whip ping were different in each of tho three counties. In New Castle County the post was two stories In height. Planted In the centre of the old jail yard at New Castlo (TTtfw torn down) was a twelve-Inch post about twenty feet high. Ten feet from the ground was a platform upon which the prisoner stood when in the pillory. The pillory Itself consisted of two side arms to the post, the arms being bo split that the upper half raised on a hinge. In the arms were two small holes at either end and a larger hole In the centre. In these the prisoner placed his head and hands, the upper part was lowered, locked with a clasp How the Lash Is Given to Thieves and Wife-Beaters in Delaware To-day. ind ho "was securely fastened as If leld In u vise. Fastened to the post, below the )latform and about three feet from he ground, were two iron seml-clr ?ular bands. When a prisoner was o be flogged, he was made to put iIb hands through these manacles, vhich were fastened with a clasp and he was hold firmly. In Kent and Sussex counties the post con tested merely of a rough log stuck In the ground. The present post employed at the New Castle County workhouse Is not the Imposing structure of the past, because the pillory has been abol ished, but It Is just as effective. Delaware Devoted to Whipping By Governor Charles R. Miller, of Delaware, in an Interview. WHILE the State of Delaware has been held up to criti cism throughout the coun try for the continuation of this mode af punishment, it Is, to my mind, jne of the most effective barriers to vicious criminals in their acts that we have on the statute books to-day. The City of Wilmington, which contains about half the population of tho State of Delaware, is on a direct line of communication be tween four of our largest Eastern cities, namely, New York, Philadel phia, Baltimore and Washington. There are three trunk line railroads running through the City of Wilming ton. Tho situation of Wilmington makes It. therefore, a very fertile field for the professional crook or criminal in his movements to and fro between these large cities. A professional criminal or crook has a groater degree of Intelligence than most people give him credit for, and accompanied with this intelli gence la generally great nerve. The sentenco of a public whipping is more than the pride of such men can stand, and It is not the jail sen tence, but It is the whipping post that makes this State, ami particu larly the City of Wilmington free from depredations I have mentioned above. Crime Is at a minimum In the State of Delaware, and I attribute this largely to the fear and public disgrace of the whipping post. The whipping post Is also used for wife benters, and I think every one will agroo with me that this Is a most deserved punishment for men who have this strain within them. We are not menaced by the so called white slave traffic in Dela ware. but 1 have always thought that If the whipping post was provided for the people engaged in this species of crime It would be an ef fective punishment for thiB nefarious practice. VLfS f v f> 1 f C n ijy mrs- frank learned, Manners or Young reople at bummer Kesorts-iu,horofNew VERYWHERE at this season of the year there is Joy in open air amusements and recrea tions. J Golf, polo, tennis, bathing, motor-boating, sailing and canoeing are among the varied pleasures which fill the days at country clubs or seashore, or mountain and lake resorts. Athletics and out-door sports of every description form an important part of the life of the young men and girls of the present day. Ease and grace, well-developed muscles and a good constitution are gained by these sports. An important con sideration is not to become so ab sorbed in sports or in the cultiva tion of physical perfection as to for get the relative value of things. Out-door sports may be an educa tion in many ways. When games are played collectively they help to teach good manners, self-control, obedience to a leader, or the yield ing to an umpire. Courteous ac quiescence to what may seem an unfavorable or an unjust decision from an umpire Is a test of temper. Rules for referees and polo players nre that decisions are given de cisively and no discussion or re mark by the players is allowable. Strict compliance with the rule for players is therefore quite a training in manners. Although all the world does not play polo, this hint of the etiquette of the game points to the fact that good manners should be practised on a tennis court, or a baseball field, as well as 011 a polo ground. In out-door contests of skill, girls and young men may learn to under stand something of each other's characters. Discoveries of the quali ties of good temper, generosity to ?/ard an adversary, forbearance to ward others, courage In defeat may he made; or the undesirable quali ties of selfishness, ill-temper, vanity or meanness may be unveiled. It is a pleasure to observe that, as a gen eral rule, fine characteristics come to the front in sport. A frank, pleasant, ?wholesome In tercourse may be developed between girls and young men in out-door pastimes. There is Joy in the com radeship which brings them to gether in the recreations of Summer time. There may not be a thought of sentiment, but, even in the mod ern craze for being a "good sport." young people are young people, and will wander, as Tennyson tells us. in the "new world which Is the old." The only note of warning is in not becoming interested too suddenly in new and untried friendships. Some times there is a rude awakening. It is well to be a trifle reticent and re served. There Is something to be said as to the fitness of things in Summer amusements. The 86nB<? of freedom from restraint tempts girls and young men to go to extremes in what they call having a "good time." Some people think they are not hav ing a "good time" unless they are inal 'eg a noise. They forget that this is an indlcatlou of crudeness. Enthusiasm does not mean loud ness. No one admires a hoyden and a man wearies of a noisy comrade. A girl may bo very blithe and gay without losing the womanly attri butes of gentleness and dignity. She has herself to blame if she is lightly spoken of or placed in the category of "Summer girls." The word is ob jectionable. It eonveys what It In tends?the suggestion of a flashy, flippant girl, loud in dress and man ner, whose aim is to attract atten tion. If she makes chance acquaint ances with men, or carries on fool ish, sentimental affairs on the plea that It is only a bit of Summer fun, she is lowering not only the best standards of manners, but of woman hood. Perhaps her parents may be at fault for not guarding her from be ing forward, reckless, lacking in the fine graces of life. Parents get the credit of being very ignorant or very negligent. G?rls geL the reputation of being in tolerant and rebellious about any sort of restraint. Very annoying and distressing complications might be avoided if parents and the young people themselves would recognizo that theie are certain conventionali ties of society which are intended to guard girls from having even the appearance of being in a false posi tion. The world does not judge kindly when these laws are disre garded. In regard to evening pastimes, for instance, it is not the custom in the best social life for girls to go alone with men to evening parties, thea tres, restaurants or public places. In 'small towns, or places where social rules are modltied, at least there may always be a regard for propriety and a mother can be care ful that her daughter is under proper protection. It Is best that a girl should be with a party of friends and that an older woman should ac company young people when going to public places. Free-and-easy manners In girls are never admired by men. A man may like to amuse himself with the "jolly" girl, or the "free-and-easy" girl, but in his innermost heart he likes the modest girl, one who is too reserved in hnr womanliness to in dulge in tindignilied behavior any where. The "free-and-easy" girl who has lavished attentions, notes, gifts and telephone messages upon him is sometimes astonished to find that he is seriously charmed away by the reserved, almost demure girl, whom she never suspected to be a rival. Common sense as well as dignity should guard a girl from the wrong intluence of those who say that present-day objectionable manners or customs may be followed, and that because others do certain things which are bold, or verging on im propriety, there is no harm in doing the same. Wherever there is a questionable thing it is best to keep on the safe side of reserve. To fol low an exaggerated or an Immodest fashion, or to take conspicuous romping steps in dancing is to lower one's standard. The standard that a girl sets will always govern a man's manner to ward her. If he is lacking in re spect, she has herself to blame. He will never take a liberty, nor will he make a rude jest or tell a doubtful story if she shows that she does not allow freedom of action or speech. Free-and-easy manners on a bath ing beach are very objectionable. It is certainly very far from good form for girls and young men to lounge on a beach in bathing suits, or to race and romp up and down a beach In bathing uttire, shouting and at tracting attention. If men fail to observe the cour tesies it Is from associating with girls and women who are Indifferent about high standards, who care noth ing for deference and allow rude noss to go unrebuked. Chivalry exists in men to-day as much as over and can always be called forth. A man should be as chivalrous in his conduct toward the girls he meets as he wishes other men to be toward his sister. It is noticeable that a young man is very careful about his sister's be havior and very crit.'cal about her men friends. Respect for woman is a trait of nobility in true manliness. Much of a young man's education of charac tor depends on his association with women who have high standards. Too great freedom and laxity in manners is a dangerous character-! lstic of the present time. Much de pends on the women and young girls to maintain a higher tone if they! would preserve the purity and sim plicity of manners. The wpll-bred; girl or young mnn will be as well* behaved on a golf course or on * beach as in a drawing-room. The, occasion is different but the iaher* cnt refinement will not be lost.