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Leading Physicians and
Surgeons of the World Report a Surprising Number of Cases of Cancerous Growths x * Cured, Stomach and Liver Trouble Relieved, and Even Arterial Hardening Checked A WREN radium was originally discovered public Interest was greatly excite by the merely curious properties of this substance -Its power of emitting In visible rays which penetrated solid substances, of rendering various bodies phosphorescent, taking photo graphs In the dark, of expending en ergy without apparent loss and so forth. Then came the discovery that ra dium possessed certain curative powers. The first results were not very convincing.' and popular inter est waned. Now, we learn suddenly, that physicians and scientists have for several years been patiently con ducting experiments which finally prove that in radium we possess the most wonderful curative agent In disease ever discovered. Radium has cqred many malignant growths which''were hitherto hope less. It has brought back destroyed body cells to life, It has exercised a beneficial effect in diseases of the liver and lntestlner?. nnd It Is now even said to <be n cure for that bafillng disease, hardening of the ar teries'. In the early days of radium the effects of treatment were very con* tradlctory. Sometimes a marked aggravation of the disease was ob cerved, sometimes the radium pro duced serious Injury on healthy tis sue. But in many cases there was a surprising and unaccountable cure of a malignant gTowth. The reasons of this uncertainty are now understood. Radium emits three kinds of rays," which have very different properties. It also emits emanations, but that is another story. The three kinds of rays arS called alpha, bets and gamma rays, after the first three letters of the Greek alphabet. The most distinguished scientists In the world, including Madame Curie, the discoverer of radium, Sir William Crookes, Sir William Ram say, Professors Soddy and Ruther ford as well as many physicians and surgeons have been absorbed in the task of studying these three kinds of rays and establishing the differ ences between them. The alpha rays are the shortest, having a length of about an -Inch! They have a destructive effect on healthy tissue. That -was why, In early experiments, radium often caused such Injury. The beta ravs came next in length. They are about an inch nnd a half long. They have a stimulating effect on cell growth. They are, therefore, very dangerous when applied to cancers and abnor mal growths, but they are useful in other ways. The gamma rays are the longer, having a length of three Inches or over. These are the rays that have effected marvellous cures of can cerous growths. They check the de velopment of abnormal cells and gradually re-establish a normal cell balance. The alpha rays are stopped by glass, aluminum and other metals. The beta rays are stopped by lead, hut tho gamma rays penetrate lead. A thin sheet of lead will, therefore, protect the tissues against tho in jurious alpha and beta rays. These rays are also eliminated by holding the radium at rbout two inches. Fil tration through lead requires many more applications than distance fil tration, aB the lead cauEes a loss e\en of much of the gamma rays. Radium also produces a kind of gns, known as an emanation, which fills a receptacle In which the metal 9 kept. This gas causes bodies with which It comes in contact to become radio-active for a limited time. This f 11 rnishes a basis for another kind medical treatment. The radio may be Induced In water, hich is then drunk and exercises a valuable curative effect in many in tractable internal diseases. The radio-activity may also be trans erred to solid substances and used In the treatment of abnormal Srowth As fhe usg of the . costly radium is minimized by this method it becomes an important economy in treatment The alpha rays are charged with particles of positive electrlcitv, the u-hn/A?'6 W,th negative electrlcitv charged'af\TamenPrr?ntly DOt radium ray. thro? flc"B^hrgrMwh"0 ^ ith an Instrument called tho The" bnamhC0He U 13 posslb,e to watch the bombardment of countless t n fhp?S produced b>" radium. When these are put under the influence of let thrJS-m*finet, U 18 ')0sslbhe ?> j.i?V.hi'^bZ tPriHdaai1Pbaartr|nVf hah6 a 8tr?D^ haC" lenciaai action when thev ar? ir*"?"? contact with disease germs. This is why radium "hen held too near, destrovs healthv "SnshS 3'hYhen a th,n sheet of it eld hetween the radium and appeal1'th6 bacterlc,dal action dis cutrat,Vfi effect of radium on ^ gnafi growths is not due to its ThteHth or eerm-killing power. Thhl the opinion of Dr. Robert 0tuer hlgh authorities. In teHrin/i ?a"&nant growths the bac tericidal action of the alpha ravs rp?fit bS *!ln?inafed lo secure good Their curative value la at tributed to some Imperfectly under stood power of restoring the bal ance of normal cell growth. The gamma rays have a decided effect in checking life. When mea> worms were radlurnized they went on living as meal worms indefinitely, veritable Methuselahs," while their sisters and brothers, unradiumized, progressed for generations, complet ing cycles of beetles, eggs and meal worms over and over again. There are many ways of applying radium. One method, shown in the large illustration at the head of this P^fu' c?nsists in preparing a paste with radium bromide and spreading it upon a metal plate having a long handle. The operator, wearing a rubber glave. applies this to the tumor. The alpha and beta rays may be eliminated by keeping this at a distance of about two inches or by interposing a sheet of lead. The length of application varies witn the case. Dr. Abbe speaks of a case where he applted radium for thirty minutes to a malignant growth and it began to retrograde in ten days. In another case he applied It for twenty-four horn's. Two other methods of application consist in placing the radium in a leaden tube, open at one end. and In spreading it on a cloth which is at tached to the surface ro ne treated. Sulfate of radium injected into th? Scientist in the Radium Institute, London, the Chief Centre of Radium Therapy, Using a Scale to Weigh the Millionth Part of a Gram of Radium. veins increases blood production, im proves the digestive functions, stim ulates the liver and strengthens the nervous system. Radiuinized water has a similar effect. A piece of radium placed against the head of a blind person, or the head of an ordinary person in the dark, will i-ause him to see light in which solid objects may be distin guished. It is from Ix>ndon th.".t the definite announcement of the efficiency of radium in curing malignant growths has come, although Americans have had a large share in the achievement. Sir Frederick Treves, the noted 6urgeon, who made his reputation by treating the late King Edward, announced recently at the Radium Institute in Ixmdon that the emana tions of radium could be used in place of the original substance. The Radium Institute is a philanthropic institution founded by Sir Ernest Casael for treatment with this ma terial. It possesses more radium than auy other institution. "Radium gives off this emanation constantly," said Sir F. Treves. "The amount of the emanation de pends on the amount of radium used. The emanation practically never weakens. The radio-activity of the piece of radium from which it exudes is inextinguishable." As a matter of fact, It has been estimated that an atom of radium sheds one-half its radio-activity in 2,500 years. The emanation prob ably lasts for something approximat ing that time, although its duration l'j.a3 not yet been calculated. Radium emanations contained in sealed metal applicators are now sent out to doctors tnroughout Eng land for_patlents who cannot obtain radium or go to the Institute. A gram of radium costs $100,000, but the emanation is given almost for nothing. At the Radium Institute many cureB of inoperable cancers or ma lignant tumors "were announced. One woman had an enormous sar coma of tho collarbone. She had been informed by surgeons that tho only remedy was removal of the en tire right arm and shoulder. A tube containing 116 milligrams of radium was imbedded In the tumor for twelve hours on two cojisecutlve days. "Within a month alf signs of tho growth had disappeared. Now, after tho lapse of six months, there is no recurrence. A school teacher, aged thirty-five, Copyright. 1913, How Radium Is Used in the Treatment of a Malignant Tumor. The Radium Bromide Is Spread Upon the Metal Disc Which Is Held by the Surgeon with a Rubber Glove. The Alpha Rays (Indicated by the G-reek Letter for "A") in Lighter Circle Around the Disc, Reach an Inch and Would Do Harm if They Touched the Tissues. The Beta Rays (Indicated by the Greek Letter for "B"), Shown in the Lighter and Darker Circles, Would Be Equally Harmful, as They Stimijlate Growth.* The Gamma Rays (Indicated by the Greek Letter for "G") Shown in Both Circles and Beyond, with a Range of Three Inches or More, Have a Destructive Effect on the Tumor, and Must Alone Be Permitted to Reach It. The Distinctive Signs of These Three Kinds of Rays Are the First Three Letters of the Greek Alphabet. radium. The tube is placed in., a porcelain receptacle containing a gallon of water, which becomes ra diumlzed. The patient takes three glasses of this water a day. At the Middlesex Hospital, in Lon don, a great institution for the treat ment of cancer patients, reports show twenty-five cases of cancer cured by radium. Sir Alfred Pearce Gould, senior surgeon of this hos Dital, says: "By the use of gamma rays in cancer of the breast 1 have seen foul ulcers cleaned; some ulcers have healed up entirely; I have repeated ly seen small secondary nodules in the skin and fascia disappear; I have had several cases where larger and deeper secondary growths in volving muscles?, ribs, rib cartilages or sternum have disappeared, and in other cases such growths have re mained qtiiescen! and stationary for such long periods that I could only think the radiations bad at least an inhibitory effect on the growth." Dr. Robert Abbe, seuior surgeon of St. Luke's Hospital, New York, one of the most noted operators of the metropolis, before the recent Inter national Congress of Medicine in London described an amazing series of cures of malignant growths by means of radium. "During ten years," said Dr. Abbe, Diagram of a Cancer Treated by Dr. Robert Abbe, of New York, with Radium. The White Dots on Black Ground Show the Cancer Cells Degenerated Under the Influence of Radium. From the Medical Ilecord, Xerr York. had an inoperable cuycmoma of the thyroid gland of the neck. After three series of treatments with ra dium the enlargement and hardening of the thyroid disappeared. The pa tient has now returned to work. Most striking results have been obtained from drinking radiumized water. Out of 100 per cont of ad vanced rheumatism cases -10 per cent showed marked improvement, 30 per cent derived benefit, and the remaining 30 per cent remained un changed. Walter A. Brady, the seventy-year old clerk of Part V, Supreme Court of New York, reports that he has been cured of, a hopeless case of hardening of the arteries by ra diumized water. He was told that there was no prospect of a cure. Threo months ago he began tak ing a preparation of radiumized water put up by a Berlin physician. "The results havo been amazing." says Mr. Brady. "From an artei lal pressure of 230 pounds, which is a terrible one, my pressure has been reduccd to 150 pounds, not far above normal, and I feel twenty years younger. My regular physician has been keeping my chart, and ho is as enthusiastic as I am." The apparatus used consists of a tiny tube containing a particle of "I have been able to study the effi ciency of these specimens of Madame Curie's radium on more than 75ft in dividual cases in private, including 250 epitheliomas of all parts; 180 carcinomas of the tongue, throat, oesophagus, breasr, intestines and other visceral organs; aO sarcomas of the skin, parotid gland, bones, etc.. besides goitres, tumors of the liver and mediastinum and a variety of naevi, moles, papilloma, etc." In all cases where he ha/l not ob tained beneficial results "Dr. Abbo said it. was due to error in using the radium. There were three types of results (1) destruction of tissues too closely in contuct (2) stimulation and harmful results, and (3) effi cient retrograde degeneration of malignant growths, with lasting benefits amounting at times to a sur gical cure. Since he had understood that the gamma rays were the cause of the degeneration of tumors Dr. Abbe said he had never failed to .obtain beneficial results. Here is an example of one ot Dr. Abbe's many ca.ses: "A young man had the upper three inches of the right humerus entirely replaced by a myeloid tumor ex panding in lemon shape. Under co caine anaesthesia a portion removed by the Star Company. Groat Britain Rights Reserved. showed mixed giant-cell and spindle cei! sarcoma. I embedded in the mass four tubes of radium (total 150 milligrams) for three days, so as to irrad-ra-te and cross-fire It. During the eight weeks following gritty bone began to form in the soft tumors, and then a bony shell formed. Dur ing six months a marked increase in bone and simultaneous shrinkage has occurred. Notwithstanding some central necrosis of the soft tissue, it bids fair to recover Its bone solidity and strength." So wonderful was the regrowth of normal tissue previously destroyed by a tumor that Dr. Abbe put for ward a theory that radium has the power of restoring the balance of life forces: "In what does the beneficent ac tion of radium reside? .This ques tlon, with many others, still awaits solution. ? We know only that we have a subtle force, which, as far as we discern, is a stream of rays charged with negative electricity with intense penetrating power, capable of traversing stone, human flesh, or solid steel with facility, which plays upon the vital cells (animal or vegetable) and alters their rate of growth or kills them altogether. "What the vlt^l spark is in a liv ing thing no one knows. It has been surmised that life itself may only be an embodiment of electric force. It has been supposed by some that a living cell continues its normal ca reer owing to a balance established within it between positive and nega tive eleqtric force, and that an ag gregate mass of colls in the body, such as constitutes a tumor, may result from their erratic growth owing to a loss of balance of elec tric equilibrium. May it not be rea sonable to suppose that a mild ap plication of radium emitting its dis tinctive rays is thereby capable of restoring the electric equilibrium, while on the other hand a prolonged and intense application carries the balance to a destructive terminal tion? ?"Consider for a moment that re markable case you have seen of the tumor of the eyelid. It had displaced the normal skin and mucous mem brane, and grown In bulk many times the size of tissues that had been lost in It. There was no sem blance of an eyelid in the. mass whose tuberous growth rose in heaped-up masses on the skin, and within, and on the edge. . "A cross section would have shown no vestige of former tissues which were destroyed or lost in the mass. Yet, when retrograde was fin ished under radium action, behold the normal skin structure, the nor mal glands and eyelashes! The orig inal cells were not destroyed. There was a reassembling out of the con glomerate diseased mass. Whence, then, came the diseased cells? This can be answered only by the as sumption that an intercellular Invis ible and ultramicroscopic system of particles had existed with a life of their own, constituting a network holding the visible cells together. This system, then, had itself taken on an erratic growth and become a sarcoma mass, engulfing the regu lar occupants of the ground." Dr. Joseph Mulr, of New York, has elucidated a theory held by many physicians now that the curative properties of natoi'al waters, hith erto attributed to the minerals they contained, are really due to their radio-active qualities. Whenever these spring waters have been examined, they have been found to be radio active. Where Livers Are Seats of Virtue, and They Build Monuments to Liars HE Sen Dyak, that strange race found in the Island of Borneo, has no idea of clear thinking; logic rinds no placf in his brain, and the most contradictory opinions seem to dwell together in perfect harmony in the turbid stream of his mind. The liver, strange to relate, is regarded by the Dyak as the seat of various praiseworthy qualities and emotions. Bravery Is considered the highest of virtues, and when they wish to describe the great courage of a man they siiy he has a "bravo liver." Intelligence nlso re sides in the liver, and a man of knowledge is one possessing an "en lightened liver." Kindness is the quality of the man who hn-s a "large liver," and perseverance that of one ?who has a "hard liver." A weak, undecided man is spoken of as one who has a "soft liver." The Dyak Is truthful and honest, and tlicM> qualities are rather un usual in Eastern races. Families are often away from their homes for weeks at a time. living In 1 It to huts 011 their farms, and though no one Is left iu charge of their rooms in the long village house in the jungle, things are seldom lost. After an experience of nearly twenty years in Borneo, a writer states that he knew of only two in stances of theft. One was the theft of rice. The woman who lost the rice most solemnly and t publicly cursed the thief, whoever .( might he. The next night the rice was left at her door. The other was a theft ?>f money. In this case, too, the thief was cursed. The greater part of the money was afterward returned to the box from which it had been abstracted. Both those incidents show the great dread which the Dyaks have of a curse. Even an undeserved curiae is con sidered n terrible thing, and, ac cord hip: to Dynk law, to curse a per son for no reason at all is a finable offence. As regards their truthfulness, it-, is paid of the Dyaks that so disgraceful do they consider the deceiving of others by an untruth, that such con duct is handed down to posterity by a curious custom. They heap up a pile of branches of trees in mem ory of the man who has uttered a great lie, so that future generations may know of his wickedness and taki* warning from it. The persons deceived start the tugong bula? "the liar's monument"?by heaping up a large number of branches iu some conspicuous spot by the side of the path leading from one village to another. Every passer-by contrib utes to it, and at the same time curses the man in memory of whom it is. The Dyaks consider the adding to any. tugong bula they may pass a sacred duty, the omission of which will meet with supernatural punish ment. and so, however pressed for time a Dyak may be, he stops to throw on the pile some branch or twig. Believing, as the Dyaks do. In the efficacy of curses, it is easy to understand how a Dyak would dread the accumulation of curses that would necessarily accompany the for mation of a tugong bula. From an Eastern point of view, the morals of the Dyaks are good. Divorce is very uncommon after the birth of a child, but where there ar? 110 children, for such reasons as in compatibility of temper or idleness, divorce is obtainable by either hus band or wife on payment of. a small fine.