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The times dispatch. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1903-1914, March 15, 1914, Image 56

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Does Killing
the GERMS in
MILK is the most widely used of all foods, and it
is also the one regarded with the most suspi
cion by science. Unless the greatest care is
used inilk becomes the medium through which all uorts
of deadly disease germs find their way into tho human
These disea. c germs can be killed by subjecting the
milk to the process known us pasteurization, but many
I'ocd experts object 10 this and other sterilizing meas
ures on the ground that they devitalize the milk, spoil
it- liavur and decrease its nutritive value. Another ar
gument nov. Ik ing made against pasteurization is that
this process lends to encourage careless, filthy habits
on the part of dairymen and dealers, aud makes it diffi
cult lor the consumer to tell whether his milk is lull ot
? Dr. Uric ITitchard, an eminent English physician, is
one of the scientists who do not share the^sc views, hi
explaining why he thinks it wise for ali milk to bo
pasteurized, he says;
"After reviewing the arguments for and against the
sterilization or pasteurization of milk, 1 came to the
general conclusion that, except in one comparatively
unimportant and easily remedied particular, these pro
cedures in no way impaired the digestibility or the nu
tritive properties of the raw product. On the other
hand, 1 adduced evidence to show that the risk of in
fection with diseases of both human and bovine origin
in real and serious if milk is consumed in the raw
state. As further emphasizing the danger of milk iu
fection, 1 would now add that during the years 11)07-11
there wen live serious milk epidemics in the city ot
Hoston. involving ri.-ks to the lives of 4,no,"> persons.
These epidemics took the forms of diphtheria, scarict
lever, enteric fever and sore throat.
"An examination of the epidemic records of many
English towns proves that in this country equally seri
ous indictments can bo urged against the use of raw
milk. -No precautions short of killing all disease germs,
Pasteurization Destroys the Disease Microbes but Makes It Less Easy to Detect Filthv
Methods on the Part of Dairymen and Dealers
The milk is sprayed into a chamber where steam brings it to a tem
perature of 135 degrees. As soon as it reaches that point it is forced into
a refrigerating tank and quickly cooled. The machine can be easily,
cleaned by forcing hot water through it before the milk is introduced.
should such be present, by heat or other means, can
make raw milk perfectly safe. Further, no man can
guarantee that any particular sample of milk has not
been thus exposed; indeed, quite a serious outbreak of
scarlet fever occurred some little time ago in America
among persons who consumed certified milk of the
highest quality, obtained from a seemingly unimpeach
able source. On the other hand, as la" a?; I am aware,
no case of infective disease, much less an epidemic, has
ever been traced to the use of pasteurized milk.
"If the heating or pasteurization of milk can thus en
sure immunity from the dangers duo t.o its accidental
contamination with tho germs of disease, it may well Un
asked why should not all milk bo so treated before con
sumption. One of the arguments is that this procedure
can effectively cloak dirty production and careless dis
tribution. Dirty milk is always teeming with bacteria,
and within limits the number is proportional to the age
of the milk, the temperature at which it has been kept
and the amount, of dirt present. The more numerous
the bacteria the sootier does milk become sour; but
when milk has been pasteurized it does not readily
turn, and tho public thereby may be deprived 01 a
useful and practical criterion of the extent of the con
"Tho same argument, however, could be advanced
against the practice of refrigerating milk immediately
after it lias been drawn from the cow. This danger,
namely, that the pasteurization of milk may cloak con
tained dirt, is more theoretical than real, for stale and
dirty milk, in spite of pasteurization, would betray it
self to the palate, ami would easily reveal itself in a
laboratory examination by the number of moulds and
liqueliers, and by other evidences of contamination
present in the sample.
"Without being aware of the fact. Londoner? consume
a o o n snioraan?
quantity milk
which lias been
pasteurized. per
haps m<?ro ih.ni
omo. ami. a!
thouirh pns>lh!y
there is no valid
objection to this
troatinont as f;ir
as the Viihi.*
of I In* mil!; is
concerned. in nil
justice, the con
sumer omrhl i>?
he inforniAd of
iho fact. for raw
milk inisonvoii is
:i higher jzrad-;
product than pas
teurized in i 1 k.
pears to lji> fresh.
"It must he remembered. how over,
that efficient pasteurization greatly
increases the cost ??f production. espe
oitillv to the small dairyman with a
limite<l business. The? host tnoiern
plant is very expensive, while in
<? reaped stftlniin? cost- for rent. rat^
taxes. hihor. fuel. power, refrljrcratiot:
sinci a Rreatiy increased eiuirKc for
bottles necessarily make pasteuriza
(ion a very cosily procedure. Il is
the apprehension of these facts ilia'
make* the average dairyman oppose
the practise of pasteurization. If the
pasteurization of milk mines Into
general voirue ii v.il! inevitably ne
cessitate the concentration of th''
ilairy business into a few hands, and
this would dualities.- he to the henetlt
of the public. for the cleanly produc
tion of milk must entail constant su
pervision and inspection."
Most persons will he ready t < be
lieve that the centralization of steril
Suing plants under scientific management would mini
mize the dangers of dirt getting into the product. A new
process recently invented by Dr. Lobeek. of Leipsle, ap
pears to limit the dirt bucbenr. while preserving tin' nat
ural qualities of the niilk treated.
The ordinary method of pasteurization consists in
heating the milk to a temperature of from 144 to J45)
degrees. The new method consists of a more sudden
heating to about 13& degrees, followed by an imme
diate cooling, the theory being that harmful bacteria
are instantly destroyed by the right temperature, while
a chunge in the flavor and other qualities of the milk
requires longer time to effect.
The apparatus consists of two cylinders, one inside
the other. The milk enters the inner cylinder through
n blast-pipe in the form of a spray. The space between
the two cylinders serves as a heating chamber into
which steam enters by lateral tubes and heats the milk
to the desired temperature. The two compartments
are closed by tightly tilting lids or caps. The acces
sory parts are u force-pump, a pressure, reservoir and
a refrigerating apparatus. This last is provided with
si hood to prevent infection from outside and contact of
the air with the cooling surfaces.
The force-pump draws the milk, and throws it into
the reservoir, where it finds a pressure of three or four
atmospheres. A regulator prevents this degree of pres
sure l;eing exceeded and pushes all excess of milk to
ward the reservoir.
An excellent feature of the machine is the case with
which it is cleansed and sterilized. This is accom
plished by the simple method of operating it for ten
minutes with very hot water instead of milk. The
sterilizer can then be set to work and will run for
hours without interruption anil without attention.
A convenient way of testing miik to determine its
proportion of dirt is to strain a given quantity- -ay a
pint?through a disc of cotton cloth. The amount of
dirt remaining on the surface of the cloth disc will
enable you to calculate the proportion. The best of
the dairy products called "nursery" milk will leave
hardly any stain upon the disc through which it is
strained, while ordinary milk supplied by New York,
t'iiicago and London dairies will leave a palpable lump
of dark colored sediment.
Investigation lias shown that the quantity of tllrt
which finds its way into milk between tin* time of
milking and tho time of consumption is considerable.
It has been estimated that Chicago annually consumes'
twenty-iive tons of dirt in Us milk supply. A few
years ago Professor Delepine calculated that Inf.
pounds of dirt was contained in every 40,000 gallons
of milk supplied to the city of Manchester. Knglatid.
Of the grading and handling of milk for consumption
in large cities. Dr. Prltchard writes:
"Tho sooner the public learn that milk must he
graded the better will it ho for all persons concerned:
jit is quito impossible that the sale of milk can remain
much longer exempt from the influence of ordinary
commercial laws. In all otiier business transactions
there i.s a relationship between quality and pried: 111
the milk trade no such relationship is acknowledged.
In the grading of milk there is, and probably always
will be, a considerable difllculty; the same difficulty
presents itself in arranging a sliding -eale of charge'
to correspond with the varying qualities of 'he millc
"Rut if cleau, properly pasteurised milk is delivered
in efliciently washed and sterilized glun- jars tie re
can be no question of the superiority of .such ;t method
of delivery over that now customary m this country
As the delivery of milk In this manner i only now
coming slowly into vogue it would be a great, gain i!
proper requirements in this connection wen- 'o be Im
mediately formulated before their enforcement could
be opposed as a hardship.
"Although I think I could state fairly accurately .lie
number of bottles of milk of the quality of 'certified
milk' sold in London daily. 1 refrain from doing so for
very shame. Milk of a slightly inferior grade to 'certi
fied milk' is sold in America under the designation of
'inspected milk' at a considerably lower price Such
milk must be derived from non-tube rcu'.ou- cows, show
a count of not more than 100,000 bacteria per cubic
centimetre and be produced under approved conditions.
Milk of lower Krade than this is sold as 'market milk."
or 'pasteurized milk.' In its raw state .such milk
should not contain more than 1,00",noo bactcria pet
cubic centimetre (New York), 500.000 per cubic
centimetre (Boston), 100,000 per cubic centimetre
I Rochester}
\ spreading a thin coal of oil
over the surface of the rivers
which surround it, the city of
Lyons, in France, has abolished fog.
it was found that out of every year,
an average 01' sixty-two days were
sufficiently foggy to cause trouble
to traffic, and the loss to business
was consequently large.
The hindrance to trade resulting
from foggy weather on one sixth of
tiie business days is estimated at
about $50.00u a year. The cost of
spreading oil on the rivers has been
found to be $-!* a day. which, for
sixty-two days, equals $l,7f'S for the
year. The saving to the city, there
fore. is over SIS,000 per year.
For a considerable time the city
of Lynn h:is been experimenting
with the abolition of fogs. Owing to
log problem is due to (he location
of the city at the point where two
rivers unite. High liilIs on every
side prevent the escape of the con
densed moisture."
the location of the town, at the
union of two navigable rivers,* the
Rhone and the Saone. the fop1- of
Lyous are local. They arc due to
the evaporation of the rivers and to
the high land surrounding Lyons on
every side, which prevent the escape
of the condensed moisture. It. is
not ;i smoke-infested city, though
having many manufacturing indus
tries, but the health of its half a
million population suffers greatly
from the prevalence of mists.
Ureat blowing machines wore, es
tablished upon the heights to keep
a steady current of air blowing dur
ing misty days, hut the power re
quired for this was so costly as to
render the continuance of the
project inadvisable.
It is estimated tiiat. a gallon of oil
is sufficient to cover J50 acre*, of
water. In spite of the greater
cheapness of mineral oil, it is ex
pected that either an animal or veg
etable oil will be used, as these
possess greater tenacity, and v ill not
break on the surface of the water,
no matter how thin the film may be.
I a a well-reasoned analysis of the causes of
suicidal depression. Dr. !I. Kaiiane, of Vien
na, advances .substantial proof to show that
there is 110 such thing as a man committing sui
cide because of an unfortunate iove affair, and
that the cases in which women have done so are
extremely rare. Dr. Kahane opposes the mod
ern idea that love is an Important element in
conditions of henltis and illness, and remarks
that "in man the flame soon dies down, and the
comfort of ;he family table, regular habits and
the; warm, quiet home are all consciously or
sub-constiously blended in the love passion."
So far as women are concerned, he declares
that, consciously or unconsciously, the average
woman is aware that she has to depend for her
food and shelter, for her living, in fact, on at
tracting n man to provide for 'her through love.
Coiis0<iue'nly lie asserts that to a woman love
is largely a side issue of the general instinct for
It is for this reason that l)r. Kahane regards
suicides as being almost invariably evidences of
lacK of material success, rather than the result
of an over-ardent passion. He declares that the
love-impulse in the soul is no greater than it is
in the body. It i: only momentary in the latter,
and lias comparatively little effect on one's gen
eral health, lie believes this holds true of the
soul as well, and that mental disturbances of
any sort can seldom, if ever, be traced to the
In analyzing a large number of suicides, both
in Europe and America, it is shown that of
those in which men worn deemed to have been
the victims of love melancholy, nrvarly 80 per
cent "were in iinuncial difficulties, having either
lost a job shortly before or having been unfor
tunate in some speculation. This leaves but 20
per cent to be considered. All cases of feeble
mindedness were, of course, eliminated. Of this
remainder more than half were drug fiends or
users of alcohol, leaving but a lew doubtful
cases which could be classified as love suicides.
Careful investigation Into the families of each
of theso showed an essential constitutional
weakness, or a high degree of nervous irritabili
ty. A man suicide-for-love, a broken heart and
snakes in Ireland, according to Dr. Kahane, all
belong to the same group of myths.
Where women are concerned it is impossible
to securo conclusions as definite. Dr. Kahane
duggests that since winning a man's love is
woman's principal business, failing to do so must
be classed as a business failure. From an Amer
ican point of view this would hardly meet g.*n
era! agreement, although it contain*- a germ of
The Vienna specialist seem- to touch a more
probable point when he suggests that many o<
the women suicides for love take tin ir own
lives because they have built upon the idea of
their lover the whole fabric of their existence.
When this iove goes, ;h<-ir t i rr- universe
seems to fall. That it doesn't fall is evidenced
by the fact that a number of the would Ix sui
eides whom Dr. Kahane has argued out of their
suicidal intention- married someone el.-f f|>s
gaily within a few months or a coupk* of vers,
at most.
None the less many women vastly ov.fotnpha
size the importance of love in daily life, and
herein there is danger. With t.hern an unfortu
nate love affair often proves tin* spark v ! :< !i
ignite.s a train formed by other eircunistMif o
which the victim gives an exaggerated inpor
THERE was a time hardly a dozen years ago when
doctors made. numerous mistakes about typhoid
fever iind tuberculosis. Indeed it was no uncom
mon error lor a doctor To treat as typhoid fever mallg
tjitn i cases of tuberculosis.
Although Koch discovered the bacillus of tubercu
losis thirty.four yoar.s ago. and Widal, (Iruubaum,
Pfeiffer ami others discovered but a short time after
ward the fact that the blood serum of typhoid sufferers
v% ill clot and kill fresh mixtures of typhoid germs, it
n ally remained for additional tests and a new genera
tion of doctors to make a clear distinction between
;-:oim- types ol consumption and typhoid.
Professor W. T. Sedgcwick, of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, and Dr. Charles 10. Woodruff,
working independently, have just brought to light proof
that the methods used to stamp out typhoid fever art;
at the same time n body blow to the tuberculosis mon
When Hrutus is sick, it is not daring the "vile con
tagion of the night" which has made him so, for night
air is safe and pure, despite widespread belief to the
contrary. When Brutus drinks untiltered water?there's
the ruh. Timon of Athens could have given his guests
no sorer punishment than to serve them with the vile,
nntiltered water on which too many American cities
till have to depend.
Dr. Hazcit, another hygienist, says that for every
typhoid fever death prevented by filtered or boiled
water, two or three lives are saved from tuberculosis
and other maladies. Statistics prove that waters in
ITTING in front o? an open fire,
"beside a radiator or in thn
vicinity of a hot-air register
is ail very veil, >??11 many of uarc
bcK-nnio." to rvalue this is only a
' make4>elie^o" way of getting warm.
We think we ought to get warm,
and so, to ( certain extent, wo do.
)n this ri-Si". ct the open lire i:- espe
cially grateful, for the glow of the
rod coal and the iittlc Haines leaping
in the grate are highly Suggestive of
v armth.
Tiie elec'ricai department of St.
RartholorniMvV, one of tiie largest
hospitals in London, points out that
al' such forms o! increasing our
bodily com for! arc ineffective. Sueli
warmth. like beauty. goes onl> kin
deep. In order to gel thoroughly
"warmed through and through re
course must be had to elect rlcitv
and. accordingly. an apparatus ha.
been devised which will warm all
the inner tissues of the body as well
the .skin.
Heated pad. or hot-water bottles
have proved of ureat value where
comfort only i? required, but where,
for medical purposes, it is thought
wlso to pump heat into the body
means have heretofore been lackim
Now, with the new diathermy ap
paratus, every portion of the body
can br warmed through, Inside, and
on?, and brought up to anv desired
temperature. 1
Although the electro-motive force '
mailable for tlio patient is but >'00
volts, less than is used in the ordi
nary high frequency machine, an
unount of heat equivalent, to i!00
watts or more i.- continuously poured
into (tie patient's tissues during the
time ?>1 application. an amount of en
orgy sufficient to maintain t< n lamps
of thirty wans (one cantilepower) ?it
full ucamiesceuec.
Iti various forms of neuralgia and
neuritis the treatment has be?ii a
groat factor in relieving pain, and in
certain forms of rheumatism it is
also of the greatest service.
WHILE cou due ting certain experiments in at
moipberic electricity, E?r. It. Uoernsteln has
in ?dc the int' r' f-tlng discovery that the earth
breathes. \ continual exchange of air.s between earth
and atino.-ph'TC tak< :? piaci. just as a human being dis
charges vitiated a r with our ireath and inhales new air
with the next.
To ascertain mote abo.it the earth's respiration. Dr.
Kocric-Jtein f-.ank a r?r into the earth to the depth of
one yard and connected tliu uith a mercury barometer
?n the cellar ol the house in which tbe experiment wat
eondueted. He found that from 7 a. jn. tint 1 "> or ?*> p. in.
t.'ie pre^-nr- <?: air coming ftom the earth is greater
?haii the pre>Mjr< of the surrounding atmosphere seek
ing to 1 nter the earth, while at night the reverse the
\ * hi
Thi- riiftvrt nro in pres-rure is probably due to the fact
thai in the dayt me the atmo.-pheii' entering the earth
i1-. subjected to the pr?'ssim of lie it, which jhtrtoll, Max
well und Uoltzmann proved tiioretiial!> lo 1m an actual
factor among cosmic force.-- Infinitesimal as i.- the.
pressure of light, there i no doubt u>nt a substance so
light as air would be noticeably affected by it.
S\<-lite Arrhenlus, the (unions astronomer. beIie\eH
tiiat the pre.HKiire of light is the motive power which
propel! the pore i containing life meruit from one planot
to another. !)r. Arrlionius figures out that, nlthough
barely visible to tiie naked eye, these spores are largo
enough to r? -ist being attracted by tho gravity of the
sun and to in propelled into interplanetary space by the
pressure of light which, in the atmosphere of the sun,
Is prodigious .. ompared quantitatively with the pros
hare oi llsht elsewhere.
fected with dust ami human refuse increase tho death
rate from tuberculosis ami purified drinking water
lowers it.
Dr. Woodruft' ha- definitely found that tuberculosis
follows typhoid fever far more frequently than doctors
have even suspected, lie cites the fact that tubercu
losis is not inherited, but that babies begin to acquire
the disease: a.-; soon as they begin to crawl around and
pick up its bacilli from the ground and floor.
A startling claim made by Dr. Woodruff is this: He
says there is no undisputed evidence that any adult
ever acquires tuberculosis. It was all caught in child
hood. When grown-ups develop active tuberculosis it
is not a new infection. It is only bringing into action
germs which they have had from childhood. Drinking
impure water is one of the chief ways of bringing about
this uuhappy result.
One in every eight person- dies of tuberculosis.
Seven in every eight have tuberculosis. Persons like
the Indians who are used to an outdoor life are less in*
*'eeted at first, hut when they no become housed up
and are brought into contact with these microbes they
have no immunity with which to fight them, so they
die like Hies.
Tuberculosis never became a human affliction. Dr.
Woodruff avers, until long after man began to cluster
together in confined shelters, in monasteries, in tene
ments, in dusty cities, where water and milk had to bo
hauled great distances and became contaminated on
the way.
Findins How OLD Your BRAIN IS
WHAT is your mental age'.' It makes no
difference what your actual ago is, you
have what is now known an a mental
age?somewhere between six months and twen
ty-live years or thereabouts.
Among school children it has Ioiik been no
tired that some, much older than others iri
point of yearn. were a cood distance hMiinri
them mentally. The idea was evolved
that it' children, imbeciles and criminals
could be given simple tests to determine
exactly how far advanced they were men
tally, a good deal of trouble could be
baved?in children by placing them in the
proper grade at school, in imbeciles to de
termine exactly what would be best for
their welfare, and in criminals to deter
mine the responsibility in a moral way for
their crimes.
Thus if a criminal were found to be only
eight years old mentally, then the proper
way to treat him, no matter what his ac
tual ago happened to be, would be the way
^ a boy eight years old committing the same
> crime would be treated.
Tests applicable to different normal
ages were worked out by patient psycholo
? gists and others. By experience with
various elas^e* of Mibjeet* tlu--f h.tv n \
been i/olled rl??\vii to .simple :iti? i <??? i*t;tir? ?>f
mentality by menus of whir'u .1 1 ?ti in;t> ??
ticketed with hi-- proper mental :siI tt?-?I
Binet bus a Rood many i"St < that havr. been
modified by experience into wiu?t :?r?- known
generally as the Ulnet test;. Thuy run all the
way troin recognizing a hand waved in tront of
the eyes for a tiny infant to remembering se
quences of numbers and describing tli various
articles seen In a picture but for a moment, (or
older ones.
It is the endeavor of some humane societies
to have a law passed to test all criminals, and
that, if found of small mental a ye. they ^iiall
not he punished in the ordinary way. it has
also been suggested that our own civil -ervico
use these tests instead of the oftentimes ab
surd examinations now used.
Results from testing criminals have been
startling and peculiar. In a great many cat>es
grown men and women have not cone higher
than ten or twelve years in mental as:e. in
the case of children the tents ha*e indicated
other things besides their mental. age?they
have indicated the general vocation \f>r which
the child is best adapted.
HOSE who are troubled with restless
ncss and loss of sleep caused by nerv
ousness. should know of the value of
celery seeds 10 th?> system.
A few seeds paten tbre# ?r four times si
day will do much toward cinieting our nerves,
and if taken a half hour before retiring, they
will cause more restful slumber.
A tablespoon full of celery seeds boiled for
from three to five minutes in ;t pint of water
and a half of a teacup of this liquid taken
prior to meals, or before retiring, will <-irt
like a charm on the nerves, and will give the
person the needed rest The liquid may b?
flavored If the celery t;i.-te K not desir:?wp.
Celery oil made from crushed relery seed*
and applied to the spine is an excellent tonic
for the nerves. It reaches the spinal cord,
and is very soothing.
MANY human mothers could learn a valu
able, lesson in !!)<? proper can* of their
babies by studying the pain, taking at
l en lion which some of the lower animals give
their young.
Lonj^ before the little ont'> are born the cure
of tile eggs becomes a matter of great concern
to marly every species ol the lower animal?.
The infinite pains that are taken in hatching and
hiding them arc surprising, it Is not always
the lemale who Is most solicitous?sometimes it
Is tile male who hutches the egge nnd nurses
tin little ones until they ore able to shift for
One pecie> of spider rolls her eggs up in ?*
hail and lugs thorn along afier her wherever she
gue... rionie tisli build real nests in the water,
in which the oggs are deposited. In this ease
it ij the male who builds the nest in which a
number of females lay their eggs. The Chinese
MaWropden also builds nests in the water, and
it Is the male that keeps watch over t.hem.
Sarasln says of the Ceylonoso snake that the
female encircles the eggs that she has laid in
A Female Frog-Fish Carrying Her Y
in Snug Little Pouches on the
Under Side of Iicr llody.
the damp earth with her own body until the
young emerge into the world.
The most interesting feature of care for
arid young is tiie carrying around of either or
both. Among the worms there are a lirge mini
ber which carry their eggs and young on the
under side of their bodies. Somo .starfish have
sacks on their breasts, in which the young grow
for a time. Many ?of these are found in Arctic
or Antarctic waters, where cold lias brought
about the necessity for this special can. Man>
species of crabs 'have these breast sacks lor tin
young. Certain water insects have pouches for
the eggs, either on tin; breast or town nit t h?
There are many kinds of vertebrates which
carry their eggs or young. The frog fi.sh. ot
Surinam, carries its eggs on the under side ot
its body, holding them on by special blood ves
self. Here it is the female that carries the eggs
Certain species of shad carry the eggs in tin
month and around the gills, which are great l\
expanded for the purpose. Here it is the male
who does the carrying, in the sea needle and
sea horse the male has a brood pouch o'.i the
under side of the body,
CotiTis'iit, 1011, by tho Star Company.' Great Rritain Rights Reeerv?<L

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