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br VOL XX. NO ri. A IjMA. MICH.. KKI DAY. FKliR UAHY l!tifl. WHOLE NO. KM. VARKSTBITOKT. 'orrei-lel fb. .'. ': V i.h, h'te v Nai, ri UfO.. Ofn.oMcHr iirn. 8hHle IsuaTWi lIKWhCHI lU'AOA A i ttU'0 tirr hu , 1 3-? tX' 7. iMorer fcee1 4X0 o 4 pft Uattfr KiS ... ' iloacy rAfn Hide tiw r. iresei I'orfc :J-'.? U VP fork - ;Vr I ironed flcf Miittoa, rrnil ' ,' I.lto Mutton Lint ''Mr ens I I r Chlckrn ' Lire Turkeys Live Duck UroOeese r Veal. Live Veal, drewMxl "b W. 3. Trnrii. Alma. A. w". WHir.nr. Alma. 1). 8. Wr.i. Alma. J. H. Sbvm. Itha . ComrrilM: th Wm, . Turck & (5 BANKERS r,. d. WARD. F.taUiho(l ELY imr.WBAKF.K S'if. ty tVpoeit lk.x' for- I:'dt. QR. W. KELLY.. . cDENTlSTI m y nost 1 com, sx.uw. SG 00 and SS.00 por Sot. Killiug and Preserving the Natural Teeth. , . ,A Crown and Bridge Work a specialty. OFFICE IN OPtRA HOUSC BtOCKALMA. MJCM H. J. Hyde 0( Son. SUCCESSORS TO J. R. PETERS. Liven; Feed and v., . it on id .... New Horses and all llig refurnished throughout. Special Attention to the Commercial Trade. Owen at all Times. Nlht or all Times. Day. Remember Quality and not Price is oar motto. We defy competi tion IN WAGON AND CARRIAGE REPAIRING. ALSO Horseshoeing and General Blacksmithin. Second-hand one horse wagon. hCtfy and cart for sale cheap. W, 8. PJrmort DENTIST- In the new Pollasky niock. ..SMOKE.. X7LJY use oil tliat smokes your VV il 1 chimneys and fills yonr house with a suffocating odor? Dean's Red Star Oil i?ive a vthitc light and does not char the wick, and omits no odor or moke while burning. . Costs two cents more per gallon than other oil that does all these other things. Try it and you will ne no other. . )e.an & (o. HAVE 'YOU ANY . v 1WQK-B1KI)IN(4 fouiant ilinA? tf AcnmQi) nee w An a Mrd of work and ' guarantee iatlnf net lor. Magazine, Blank Books . and Roblndlng a Specialty. ' Vim take anj oM booi. clin It. patch It up and bind it to tt loou Ilk tew. ' ' ' ' . CALL AND &CC 113. tteCOM BOOK Bindery, TATE... Farmers' Institute. 00 iiiiiiixiiiiiiiitiiiiniiiiiiiiitjfAiiiiiiiiijf " i v i vv V v V V V u V i) V V l1 m k' V i v v y) y V kivVVk'JviV ) rv v j; ; v H i TITSUAY Af TPKN'OON. Unusually cold weather kept lown the attendance on the first day of the State Farmev'a Institute, although over 'Ji0 braved tho elemonts to be riwardod j witli a mot profit allt aftornoon. j proairiont Allfn introdneod Conductor . .tason Woodman of Van Bnrorj county who had chosen the pnhjort. "BuiMinjj nn an Exhausted Farm " Mr. vVoo-1. man's e.poriem-t had convinced him that 1h active fertility of land, with reasonable care, will lnt, in rich noil, alont !" vearn, after which radical mearm are needed to brinir out the re serve fertility. Clover. "Thf Haek-hone of Michigan Apnenltnre," is tlie i.0Pt ant for tliin work but similar reaults may be obtained by stock feeding if the i manure i used intelligently. A ma- j nure hed, to prevent the manure from washing away, is a most profitable in- . vestment. Straw or cornraiK. npreuo .ii over a field are worth (.m) per ton in the resulting crop. The mammoth clover i the bet variety and orchard grass i far preferable t alfalfa for pasturage, as the latter grows to pigweed II y no means leave a field uncovered. Shaded land grows rich and measure should be taken to rover soil during all part of the season. Bean?, stubble and green manure are nsefnl for this purpose. One of the questions asked the speaker elicited a warm commendation for the utility of rap?, the statement being made that T.o hogs could be kept all summer on one acre of this vegetable, it being more profitable than clover for that purpose. Silas Moody wa present but grip pre vented hi giving his paper on "Stock Feeding." Prof. Clinton D. Smith of the Agricultural college was on hand although not announced on the pro gram, and gave one of tho most inter esting talk of the entire institute on the culture of sugar beet. One of the most pleasing featnros of the eilort wa its entire informality. Questions were freely aked ami always met satisfac tory replies. "Any soil in Gratiot county except wet muck land and very stiff clay," said the Professor, "will raise good sugar beets." The dilliculty with the muck is that the beets grow too large'and too high, while the hard clay is too difficult to cultivate. A me dium sized beef is the best for sugar production. "Great car rnut be exercised in the selection of peed. The seed of the sugar beet is raised by special process and come almost entirely from Germany. A test of beet from home grown seed registers lower than 6 per cent, sugar, but American ingenuity is bound to revolutionize methods of Wt culture and nnch may be expected in the near future." "Investigation shows that days are teqnired for the thinning out of one acre of beets by one person. To do this for each aero miles must be traversed on hands and knees and it is here that the need of cheap labor is felt. The importance of such a supply can not fail to be felt and ha proven a serious obta clein some localities where' foreigners can not be obtained. Harvesting should bo done directly after a dry spell a warmth and moisture have a pernicious effect aftor the bent's maturity. Freez ing doon no harm if the beets are not allowed to thaw again, in which case thoy are ruined. The beet is no more exhautive to the soil than the ordinary crop and the personal experience of the Bay county farmer Is that, bew culture has increased the value of their farms $20.00 per acre. The cost of drawing to thej factory i entirely conditional on the roads. With ordinary highways 2J to 3 miles is the greatest profitable distance Wts can te nanted to either railroad, or factory. If transportation by rail is employed a rato of 125.00 for anything less than 20 miles should he secured. Plant the same time as corn and mix a little tnrnip seed with that of the beet; the result will be that the rows will be marked by the turnip plants and weed can be eradicate 1 Iff or 3 the teets are tip." - At the close of Professor Smith's talk many questions' were asked, one of them eliciting the information that a factory ronld par a good prieo for beets, elllcff their product at four rnti a pound without any bouofy. Good Attendance. Cacatle Speakers and Ceneral Enthusiasm in Evidence all through the Session. Retort of Every Meeting in this Issue. n rrY evknino. Great disappointment was lVlt by Con ductor Woodman on account of the small attendance on the Tuesdav even- inj sinn. Sooretary L. C. .Srorr( of thf Stnto Hoard of Cliarifir wa pr.'-iit Imr v:t forrcl t't ra(i hi-? maforlv al- dn-s to rathtT 1sm tliari lx) pH..pl. 1 il1 fiddre-s which wan jeceeded by two wHl rt'-eivel select ions from thi C'.llev mandolin club, wan on the -ub- jeer, "Our Frion System " The Uiard of whieii Mr torrn Is retiiry.lia-i control over all the charitable ill-l II 111 II III". 1 II I lit." MJUl , 1 IK I ll I I II . priS- fii9 and reform:itoriei. Jackson prison j now contain l.V)ii pr;i4onjr and thei working of this institution and the re-1 fnrmatory at Ionia were thoroughly ex- ( plained as well us tho parole system recently inaugurated. Three grades are now recognizee ar Jackson,. the iint containing convicts who have broken no rule for a year or more; the necond grade conijwwd of newcomers and those who have committed minor infractions, I i uiim ihh mini oi ujo.-o wno nave at- tempted to escape. All the convicts work on the contract system and the labor nearly pay the running expenses of the prison. Promiscuous visitation was condemned. In conclusion the speaker congratulated tho people of the state on their interest in their state in stitutions. The extreme cold in the hall necessi tated an adjournment at this point, Mr. Woodman's paper being postponed till later on in the institute. WF.DNKSKW HU:. U. After the usual opening of the ques tion box George W. Abbott of Alma read a paper on "Potatoes." Mr. Ab bott Wlieved that if tho potato crop could bo planted and dug by horse power, and handled from the first dig ging in crates, reasonable care would insure profitable results. Fight fhe beetle as soon a it appears. Mr. Abbott had conducted careful experiment with 10 varities of potatots, new and old, and hnd demonstrated to hi complete satis faction that, the late "Beauty of Hebron" and the "Rural New Yorker" were the most suitable for Gratiot couuty. Charts were exhibited showing this to be true and also demonstrating that $U per acre, the speaker's carefully eti mated profit, was more than double the profit from any other crop off from a similar acerage. The paper was fnlly discussed, several upholding the claims of wheat and corn although all united in giving preference to the sugar Wet over any other crop. C. P. Goodrich of Wisconsin next spoke on "Th Best Method of Caring for and Usirig Corn Fodder." The key note of the entire address wa it first sentence. "The Best Method for Pre pe rat ion of Corn Fodder is f) pnt it Green info a Silo." There ii as much nutrition in the stalk and leaves of the corn a there is in tho ears. The com mon method of throwing weatherbeaten corn stalks into the barnyard to be trampled and but partly eaten, is fast going the way of any other obsolete process. Cut it up in a feed cutter and use the hard stalks that the cattle refuse to eat, for bedding. Many farmers now use a shredder and thus dispense with a silo, but the product of a shredder is far inferior to ensilage. A silo will pay for itself in two year. and ensilage is the best cattle food yet discovered a it stimulates the flow of milk and is placed in a silo at less expense than the corn could be placed on the market. The discussion revealed th fact that ilos did not reveal quite such rosy con ditions in Gratiot county although all recognized the great value of ensilage. There were about 10 fanners and wive9 in. attendance on this session. 'WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON. When President Allen called the in stit'ute to order for the afternoon session fully 200 persons were present which nnrntar was increased within an hour to .Too and over. Silas Moody of Forest Mil gave a most interesting and instructive talk on "Stock Feeding," "Methods of raising stock have been greatly improved since the days of Jacob, who wss the best known ancient stock feeder. . For beef t attle it is best to allow the calvea to run with the cows till they are six months old. Too much itflpcn."' enn net bo given good food m Bonafide S Beginning Friday, January 27th, and urday, February 4th will )ld at -2 Hit regular ivtail one can se. what they are. Must, make room for our Spring of a lifetime. Our sali es are all ,1 M M (! M ft fl, ,1 U H M 1 M M uiiirfiiffifffviffmiiffif 5 I Stone P IT itWood ! FOR CASH QR TRADE. New Patterns in Black v4itaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiixiAiJiiu Dress Goods. ; j i ( v j v j v ii v J h m j v n i v nu v J. L. K9ILLER & SON. in' large quantities both for cattle and medley by the Indies' chorus was espec pigs." In this connection Mr. Moody j ially appreciated. gave hi experience with the sugar bee, , George Long of Pompei next read his He had obtained a carload of pulp two ( experience iu itemizing accounts on week ago from Bay Citv and had been j raising l." acres of torn. The result experimenting with it ever since. All the stock seem to eat it with avidity ; milch cows, calves, pig and cvpii horses ap- pear to enjoy it intensely. It i not c v.,, ia nrr xt tmilder of hurd hiKriuu "'u" " ". - - jlosn Variety of fool i a quUity often n-g- leeted. Cattle should not bo fed one staple all the time but should have rota- tiou. Cl'vof hay, pea and especially corn anhusked are valuable for this pur- j cheap labor and a large yield had en 009. The secret of raising go xl young abled him to accomplish this, although. horse i feed, feed, feed. The ever present sugar beet had an- nh..r inning rhmnirh the naoer of H.I M. Davennort of St. Louis on "Sugar Beet." While the paper wa or neces sity somewhat of a repetition of the previous production on the subject, Mr. Davenport's personal experience with the crop in Gratiot county was particu larly interesting. His beets tested well, over 10 per cent., and have proved a most profitable cattle food. Several veres of very appropriate and amusing petry cloed the paper which received merited applause. "The Profitable Cow" was the subject for C. P. Goodrich's second paper. Mr Goodrich believed in the survival of the fittest as appointed to cattle raising. Man can do wonders towards shaping cattle for his own purpose. Threo gen eral divisions were made ; cattle were bred for speed and toughness, for leef and for milk and it was with the latter that the speaker was experienced. The ideal form of dairy cow has a broad fore head, a mild eye, muscular jaw, thin neck, retreating bnsket; she should be deep througtTthe dody, lean on the back, with large udder and milk veins, thin, curved thighs and a long tail. Milch cattle should never be allowed to retain their calves in the stall after birth. Mother's milk should be fed at first and the calf gradually accustomed to solid food. A large charcoal drawing was exhibited of Brown Bosy, tie champion milch cow at the world's fair. Mr. Goodrich admitted that he' had a sentimental attachment for this animal and carried her photograph with that of hit wife. The address was replete, with wit and humor and was one' of the best efforts of the institution. Pupils from the Aim Union School at this point rendered, two vocal selec tions in a mes rrMttabb tnnnr.er. The ae pi ire. The price are all marked in plain figures, so anv Lsonlndc and menn liitt Yours for the trade, Pettplin OHEKA HOUSE BLOCK. ALMA. MICH. M ;i viimft rrv j was that the cost per bushel amounted i to eight cents. Every day's work or item of expenditure had been tabulated, and fhe account was most plain and : conclusive A rather acrimonious dis- i j cussiou enuj(l bringing on the state- i merit of S-vretary Mey that he had . raised corn last year for two cents a j bushel. Although quite closely assailed i Mr. Mey stood hi ground.claiming that for the present year, his expeubes had been as hih a any of the others. woman' MF.eiinu. Th woman's section of the institute was held this afternoon in the M. E. church and was largely attended, abour one hundred and forty being present. Those in charge of the meeting were not able to carry out the program in full, owing to the absence of several who were expected to take part, but those present were highly entertained by au address on, "A Mother's Greatest Need," by Mrs. Mayo of Battle Creek aud music furnished by Misses McLaren and Whiting. Before the meeting closed an expression as to the benefit to lo derived from these meetings wa taken and was unaminous in favor of their continuance. WEIi.NRSDAV EVlJNIM.. "Conductor Woodman iutroduced a the first sjtoaker, Mr. Geo. Handels of Alum College, who sjxAe on "The Farmer a a Thinking Man." The farmer of today knows work and its benefit; he doos not trust to luck. The love of work with him is hereditary, but snould city life attract him he is fascinated at the )oard of trade with the thought that money can be gotten without work. His sous fol low and the farm has lost the entire family. Farm life lead to elevated thoughts and a broad nature. Professor H. S. Oarhnrt of Ann Arbor followed. "Tho object of a lightning rod is to protect a building from - a steady stress of electricity, which may create a tlash and do great damage. A well c"iisfi ucted lightning rod may be made from seven stand of galvanized steel wire twited into a cable one fourth of an inch thick. This firmly attached to the building by wooden deafs and grounded iti a mixture of eh foal -wid 'Tip Iron, A one-half 000 Ending Sat- Ml Stuck. Here is an opportunity whnt thnv IN CLEANING UP inch iron rod, sharpened at the top, should be soldered to tho upper end of the cable and elevated to the highest part of the building. Mrs. Mary A. Mayo of Battle Creek next spoke on "The Unappreciated side of Farm Life." Discontent and lack of work are the besetting troubles of all classes. The farmer may be discontent ed but is always employed. Head work is the very best relief for bodily fatigue. When a man's soul is in his work his labors are light. The farmer is begin ning to appreciate his social advantages as never before. People should culti vate themselves as well as their farms. Iustitutes, the Grange, the farmers' clubs, excursions to tho city, which are Incoming more and more frequent, all are tending in this direction. Farmers are now the best educated clas9 of laborers in the world and American farmers lead. Music by the college mandolin club aud two vocal selections by Mr. Mc Landress at appropriate places on tht program, were very well received. An attendance of nearly -loo was pre ent. 1I11'KDAV VOKKNOON. "Oats," by William Ching of Ithaca, was substituted for Mr. Lewis' paper on "Sheep Husbandry," Mr. Lewis being unable to attend. Mr. Ching believed that the common oat was the best and did better than any fancy variety. He himself .was able to clear a profit of 5:U.0u off a seven acre field. Mr. Ohing paid an eloquent tribute to the many faces no longer present at the meetings of the institute, whose places were now filled by a younger generation. Discussion revealed the fact that a gncd quantity of boiling water soaked into oat seed will absolutely prevent every trace of smut iu a field. J. D. Tower of the Agricultural College was booked to speak on "Wheat" but at the request of the in stitute, changed to a general explana tion of the experiment station of which do i the head. Tho eupport of the sta ion comes from an aunual appropri ation of tl,0t.K) from the natioual bureau of agriculture, although all buildings aro furuisnod by the state. The range of experiment is very wide, embracing agriculture, horticulture, veterinary surgeon, botany and many other branches of the application of science to practical farming. Every state has its appropriation and no two make a liko use of it. Seaboard ft Co.'s Store. great Slighter ODDS D ENDS.