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( . a n. <■ I /> 4 j / jA Cl?r«pared by the National Geographic So ciety, Washington. D. C.) Norway, where the nine hundredth anniversary of the establishment of etristianity is being celebrated this tnmer, gained its faith, strangely, through piracy; and the piracy of this virile people in the Dark ages came almost Inevitably from its geographic •Ituation, which forced the Norwegians Into a seafaring life. I Nowhere else in the world have the •Inhabitants of so northern a land had ‘the opportunity to utilize the sea the B’ear round. For Norway is in the latitude of northern Siberia, bleak La brador and Alaska. Though half of .Norway is above the Arctic circle, the land is in effect removed far south by the warm Gulf stream. Even the vjords which penetrate far into the jwestern side of Norway remain un frozen in winter save In their inner isnost reaches. Off the coasts are al most inexhaustible supplies of fish. In the great forests of the land is excellent timber for boat and ship building. Every factor seemed to in vite and urge the Norwegians sea ward, and they have been answering the call of the sea from the earliest times. !* The celebration of the Christianizing ©f Norway uncovers one of the most picturesque stories to be found in his tory of the wholesale changing of a (people’s ways of life by the wills of a few strong men. The Norwegians of the Ninth and Tenth centuries forsook fishing as their major sea activity and became pirates, going in great fleets of galleys to sack the coasts of more southerly Europe, where prosperity had reached considerable heights. 'They were heathens, sacrificing to TTbor and Woden, and propitiating the sun and natural forces. But through ■contact with the people of the south tlbose Norwegians who left home saw a superior culture and a higher religion, which shook somewhat their old be liefs. The sons of the greatest leaders in Norway all served their apprentice ship as warriors on the Viking ex peditions to the south. One of them, Olav Tryggvason, who was to be one of the greatest of Norwegian kings, grew up almost wholly away from home, taking part In one expedition after another against the coasts of Friesland, France, England and the smaller islands around Britain. A religious hermit, whom Olav is said to have met on one of the Stilly Is lands, converted him to Christiatiity and baptized him. Christians by Compulsion. Adopting the religion of the English did not prevent Olav from leading an expedition that almost captured Lon don In 994. The English king, Aethel red. Invited Olav to his palace to ne gotiate a treaty. When he went he was confirmed as a Christian by the bishop of Winchester and agreed never to attack England again. From this time Olav determined to gain the throne of a united Norway and give to his people the religion and culture that he admired in the •outh. His was the Introduction of Christianity into Norway, but his methods were largely colored by com pulsion so that the later date of the legal establishment of the faith Is that on which the present Norwegian cele bration Is based. An example of what this virile early Norwegian's methods were to be came on his journey to Norway when he stopped at the Faroe Islands. Like the Mohammedans propagating their faith by the sword, he forced the jarl of the islands to acknowledge his over lordship and he and his subjects to be baptized en masse. In Norway Olav was received with acclamation because of his military exploits, and crowned king. Imme diately he began proving himself an accomplished politician in achieving bls aims. Tn each community he bestowed gifts and lands on the local aristocrats In return for their accept ance of Christianity. After the lead ers adopted the faith their subjects osually followed. Olav banished ac tive opponents of the new regime. Into numerous communities, whose leaders were opposed to his innova tion. he marched with a strong force of soldiers, summoned the jarls before him and gave them the option of armed conflict or baptism. Soon Norway was nominally and su perficially Christian. But on Olav’s dent'. the kingdom was dis- Girls of the Hardanger District. membered and In most parts of she country paganism was revived. Another Olav -Olav Haralsson— also a product of southern raids and a Christian, reunited Norway under one king in 1016 and took up anew the task of making the country Christian. His methods were not so overbearing as the former Olav s, but force was not entirely lacking. From his accession until 1023 he reintroduced the faith into one region after another. Final ly, in 1024, he had drawn up and adopted a church code making the Christian faith official. It is the anni versary of this act which Norway Is now celebrating. Fishers and Sailors. , As In the past, so now, fishing Is one of the basic Industries of Norway, where millions of dollars’ worth of cod and herring are taken annually. Bergen with its great fish market tells eloquently of the Importance of fish to this nation. Before the Thirteenth century Bergen was supplying a great part of Christendom with the fish which It consumed on Fridays and oth er fast days. The Lofoten Islands, off the Norwegian coast just above the Arctic circle, form the fishing center of Norway. The waters are rough and the calling dangerous. Between two of these Islands surge the turbulent waters known around the world as forming the famous Maelstrom. i The Viking spirit of the old Nor wegians is not dead, but has been transmitted into a driving force for modern activities. The modern Viking does not raid his neighbor’s coasts; instead, he takes his cargo ships all over the earth and carries a large share of the world’s commerce. In 1913 Norway stood fourth In shipping among all the nations. Another way In which the Viking spirit manifests Itself today is in Nor wegian immigration. Thousands of Norway’s sons have left their old home during the past centuries, most of them going to America. More than a quarter as many men of Norwegian blood live in the United States as in Norway. Situated so far north, Norway might be thought Incapable of producing much of value In crops. But farming Is even more generally engaged In than fishing. The hardier grains are grown and potatoes flourish. Cattle and goat raising Is the most Important side of farming, for the pasture land is ex cellent and hay is produced in abun dance. The picturesque pasture plots, often a day’s journey or more from the farms, and in many cases perched far up on steep mountain slopes, are known as “saeters.” The late Nineteenth century and the Twentieth have seen the growth of lumbering In Norway’s extensive for ests and the development of industry. Hundreds of thousands of horse power are available from Norway’s many wa terfalls and these are steadily being harnessed to turn factory w’heels and operate electric power plants. Capital Beautifully Situated. The queen of Norway’s cities Is Christiania, the capital, situated around the southern nose of the penin sula, off the w r ater of the Skagerrack. By summer the weather Is balmy. A sail for 60 miles up the Island-studded Christiania fjord Is a fitting entry into the city which nestles In an amphi theater of green hills dotted with beautiful suburbs and country estates. The deep blues of hills and Islands, the warm colors of the houses and the fruits and flowers of the market places conspire to create an Illusion that one is In the Sunny South. In the winter the surrounding hills afford infinite opportunity for skiing and to bogenning, sports which are dear to the Norwegian heart. Norway Is modern politically, indus trially and In almost every other way. One admirer declares unequivocally that the Norwegians are “the most democratic people In the western world.” So progressive Is their con stitution that the Norwegian king has described himself as “a constitutional president for life.” Telephones and telegraphs are in use In all parts of the country, and In spite of great difficulties railways have been extend ed to many of the most rugged re gions of the peninsula, supplementing steamer lines that ply to all ports. Education Is compulsory. With Its vast water power and Its ample supp Mes of raw materials, Norway’s industrial future is particularly rosy. THE VILAS COUNTY NEWS, EAGLE RIVER, WIS. SONGS OF THE CIVIL AND THE WORLD WAR Refrains Differed in Charac ter, but Times Change, Representative Isaac R. Sherwood (Democrat) of Ohio, the oldest mem ber of the house of representatives, and probably the oldest living general of the Civil war, delivered a notable Memorial day address by request be fore the members just before the house resumed discussion of the agri cultural relief bill. It was different from most addresses of the day In that his topic was the songs of the Civil war. General Sherwood, who is eigh ty-eight years old, stated that the Civil war was almost the only war in his tory in which the men behind the guns, on both sides of the controversy, wrote the songs. He referred to “John Brown’s Body” and said it was written by Col. Fletcher Webster of the Twelfth Massachusetts regiment. An other old favorite was “The Vacant Chair.” “The Conquered Banner,” he said, written by Father Ryan, chaplain of a Mobile (Ala.) regiment, was the greatest dramatic poem of the South —the requiem of the Confederacy. “Tenting Tonight on she Old Camp Ground,” written by Arthur Kittridge of the Second New Hampshire infan try, and “Maryland, My Maryland,” the work of James R. Randall, a tutor in a Louisiana college, he praised as excellent poems. General Sherwood Is on firm ground, In the opinion of the Brooklyn Citizen, when he states that these songs re vealed the deep thoughts of the partici pants in the great struggle of 60 years ago. He contrasts them with the songs now in vogue, such as “Yes, We Have No Bananas,” “Take Us to the Land of Jazz” and “Hail, Hail, the Gang’s All Here.” “We are living in a utilitarian age,” he says, “and the spirit that actuated that great war ap pears to have gone.” But to be fair, the old veteran should contrast the Civil war songs, not with the songs of the present moment, but with those of the World war. If we had nothing like “Tenting Tonight” and “The Va cant Chair,” we at least had “Pack Up Your Troubles,” with its refrain, “Smile, Smile, Smile,” which animated our soldier boys and caused them to march away singing with light hearts; “Keep the Home Fires Burning,” which was sung everywhere here and abroad, and “There’s a Long, Long Trail,” the soldiers’ favorite, even though it was writteu a little while be fore the war broke out. But it is deeply regrettable that the seriousness, the high moral tone, which was felt so deeply not only through the Civil war but through the World war, has vanished. There is a spirit of levity apparent, as well as a condition of lawlessness which portends evil for the republic unless it is checked. Italy Gets Art Treasure The famous Byzantine crass which has been the subject of a law case in Glasgow, Scotland, has been returned to the church from which it has been missing in Italy. The cross, which is said to be worth thousands of dollars, has been In the possession of an ice cream salesman for some time, and was a few years ago offered for sale in the window of a shop in Glasgow. The cross having been recognized as the one missing from the parish church at Borgo-Colle fegato, in southern Italy, the church made a claim for its return, and an order was made for the cross to be restored. This was contested, but the Ice cream salesman has now lost the appeal, so that the cross will once more adorn the church. It Is a beautiful piece of work, and is said to have been found in the ruins oi a castle pfter the Messina earth quake. Selects Home Carefully When a youthful oyster that for an exciting period of two weeks or so has been swimming about looking for a home decides to settle down, the step is a serious one, says Science Service. For when he ties himself down to a rock or similar stationary object, the attachment is for life. This the oyster seems to appreciate. It has been found that before tying up to any definite location, the young mol lusca circle carefully around and test every part of th* object with their one and only foot. When they find just the place they were looking for, they fasten themselves to it with their foot, which, the need for traveling having ended, serves as an anchor for the rest of their lives. More Preparedness Seeing the family doctor passing, Mrs. Flubdub called him in and in quired : “Have you some medicine suit able for iapoplexy?” “Why, yes, I think so,” answered the doctor. “Kindly be seated,” said the woman. “But where is the case of apo plexy?” “It will happen in a minute.” ‘I don’t understand,” said the puz zled physician. “As soon as my husband conies in I am going to ask him for a little extra money.” Bookkeping a la Mode Business Man (to applicant)—l am Inclined to give you the position if you understand double-entry bookkeeping. Applicant—l do that. Why, at my last place I had to do a triple double entry—a set for the active partner, showing the real profits, a set for the sleeping partner, showing small profits, and a set for the Income tax return, showing no profits. Once Thriving Town Now but Memory On section 36, in township 21 and range 39. in Hamilton county leans an old building partly covered with tar paper, and slightly north stand a few dwarf trees. They are the only marks left of Federal City, one of the lost towns of Hamilton county. Federal City, the hope of its promoters and the despair of its investors, was locat ed on the Hamilton-Kearney county line 16 miles straight north of Ken dall. It was surveyed and divided into blocks and lots in the winter of 1885 and 1886, almost thirty-eight years ago. Among its promoters were Henry Al tenberg, S. J. Perring, Ben Hall, J. P. Francis and George Chilcote. A general store, blacksmith shop and a dugout made up the business section of the town. Settlers soon began to come in and before many months a large community centered around Fed eral City. The proprietor of the store, Mr. Smith, was also postmaster. The mail was carried out from Kendall. In a short time there were a Sunday school, a literary society and a ball team which furnished plenty of amuse ment for the community. Farming kept on the increase for a few years up to the year 1892, when the wheat produced from twenty to forty bushels to the acre. It was hauled to Ken dall and Syracuse, a distance of six teen to twenty-five miles, and sold for 40 cents a bushel. A large acreage was sown in the fall of 1892 and then came the drought and hot winds which burned up the wheat, the spring crops and the buffalo grass. Settlers became discouraged, loaded their household goods into wagons and departed—a few back East from whence they came, some further West> seeking new fields, and quite a num ber went to Oklahoma to participate in the opening of the Cherokee strip. In less than two years two-thirds of the settlers had drifted to other lands. With this migration the glory and splendor of Federal City began to fade, the smith cast aside his tools, the store closed for want of trade and the old tiugout soon began to fill in from all sides. Not long ago a former citi zen of Federal City visited the site and picked up pieces of broken pot tery and a few links of a chain. It was all there was left of Federal City. —Syracuse Correspondence, Hutchin son (Kans.) News. Early Bird Emulators The desire to conquer the air and emulate the birds is no modern fancy, but has agitated the minds of men mechanically inclined for ages. Rec ords of a meeting of the Royal so ciety, held in London, England, in 1679, give the information that “Mr. Hooke read a paper containing a de scription of the way of flying, invent ed and practiced by one Monsignor Besnier, a smith, the contrivance of which consisted in ordering four wings folding and shutting to be moved by his hands before and his legs behind, by which he was, it was said, able to fly from a high place across a river to a pretty distance.” One of the mem bers of the Royal society apparently cast some doubts upon the practicabil ity of the invention. “Mr. Henshawe conceived that by reason of the weak ness of a man’s arms for such kind of motions, it would be much more prob able to make a chdriot or such like machine with springs and wheels, that should serve to carry one or more men in it to act and guide It.” Culinary Heroism Once in a while we find a young wife, even in these days, who knows that the surest way to please a hus band is through his stomach. A bride who had not the slightest knowledge of cooking determined to make a noble effort to please her husband. His mother told her he was very fond of Welsh rarebit. She set about perfecting herself in the preparation of the dish and spent several after noons in her kitchen. Her failures were many. She finally exhausted the supply of cheese in the neighbor hood and gave up discouraged. A few mornings afterward her husband was leaving the apartment building in which they lived when he was stopped by the superintendent. “See here, young man,” said the su perintendent, “tell your wife to stop throwing that linoleum out faito the court.” —Thrift Magazine. “Peanuts” The other day Harry Black, Jr., a ten-year-.old Terre Haute boy, took his new dog to the baseball game with him. The little dog was led by a chain. He sat down beside Junior and seemed contented until the vendors began to call, “Ice cream cones” and “peanuts.” Then he almost went mad. He jerked at his chain, he stood up and howled. The grand stand was in laugh ter until the boy bought some peanuts and fed part of them to the dog. That evening he found out that the dog had been named Peanuts by its former owner, and knew that every time the vendor shouted he had thought they were calling him.—lndianapolis Star. The Rue de la Paix Mrs. Henry Carnegie Phipps, at a luncheon in her beautiful villa on the North Ocean boulevard of Palm Beach, said of Paris fashions: “They grow lovelier and dearer every year. Although the franc is only worth a few cents, a Paris frock costs more than ever. A man said at the Plaza Athenee the other day when his wife brought him a bill from the leading dressmaker on the famous street of dressmakers: “ ‘I know now why they call It the Rue de la Pay.’” MARY SUCCEEDS ON MAIN STREET By LAURA MILLER ©, 1924. by Laura Miller WHY SHE LIVES IN ARIZONA A few weeks ago the story of Leora Lobban Brewer was typed for the edi tor. It told of a cheery woman who wrote in snatches, between running the “Brewer Furniture” business, and nursing her husband through an ill ness. “The business is transacted in Tucson, Ariz.,” it said lightly. “Now the United States census places Tucson in the ‘Cities and Towns Having From 10,000 to 25,000 Inhabitants.’ Tourists on fast trains to California whiz past asking, ‘Don’t we ever get through the desert ?’ “Are you sorry for Mrs. Brewer? “Don’t be! Of a pile of letters on my desk, hers Is the happiest. ‘J. V.’ is better. Last Saturday she closed early to speak at the prohibition rally In the Baptist church. Swaying one’s audience brings the same thrill in Tucson as in New York. The post mistress, Mrs. Brewer’s candidate, has been elected president of the new business women’s club. Furthermore, Leora Brewer has just been asked to travel through the state in the inter ests of a big national organization. “ ‘Of course, I won’t take salary for work so near my heart,’ she writes. ‘Store clerk as I am, I manage to make a comfortable amount so that I can do this other work for pleasure.’ ” All this the story of a few weeks back. There’s another letter frem Mrs. Brewer today. It, too, Is scribbled, but this time on a train. Mr. Brewer’s Illness in May proved more serious than she had let herself believe, and the reason for living in the desert country is passed. Her brief little correspondence card says, “I am almost home.” Then her honesty puts a question mark, thus, home (?), and goes on, “that is, my native home, where I shall visit. . . . I plan to remain in Arizona. I have my business, the furniture store. And there also, I believe, is my field for the Master.” So she’s going back to the desert country, that isn’t a desert for her. When the Arizona Star has Included her In a series on “Interesting Tucsont ans”; when as a daughter and wife of a storekeeper and proprietor of a store she has learned to write ads that attract attention and customers; when she feels that “city parks cannot make up for country In the best climate on earth”; and when a girlhood vow to help create a dry country has brought an additional field of usefulness and honor, why should Mrs. Brewer have anything but love for Arizona? THRILLS ON “THE MAIN STREET MESSENGER” The life of the small-town reporter has many thrills. Eva Hunt Dockery of the Idaho Dally Statesman of Boise lists, as a few of the more dramatic, interviewing Paderewski through a knothole, being set upon bodily by an irate wife who mistook Mrs. Dockery for her husband’s affinity, writing up the first motor trip to California while the dusty gentleman gave out details from a barber-shop bath house, and having the police called when she tried to get a picture of a murdered woman. The woman reporter in the smaller place, Mrs. Dockery says, gets a chance to Interview notables when they come through the town. If she were on a big city daily these inter views would go to the star reporters and her own progress toward the most interesting feature of news writing would thus be delayed or curtailed. Among Mrs. Dockery’s choicest pos sessions are notes from Schumann- Heinck, Ida Tarbell, and other nota bles. A silver dagger, specially In scribed, is a memento of what prom ised to be an impossible interview with Mme. Nordica, but which eventuated Into such a friendship that the singer always sent for the writer when she reached Boise. Originally a trained librarian, the secretary of the Idaho state free li brary commission once lost her posi tion through a change of political color at the statehouse. Just then the Statesman was short a society editor, hunted her up and offered her the job. “It was when I went to San Fran cisco and talked with the newspaper women there,” Mrs. Dockery writes, “that I first realized my good fortune in receiving training on a small-town paper. Of cburse we consider ours the biggest little newspaper In the coun try. Anyway, the bright young news paper girls I met claimed quite to envy me my varied experience cover ing police and Supreme courts, hotel Interviews and celebrities—everything at one time or another except the leg islature. Even in the matter of fi nances I believe the small-town news paper woman has the best of the ar gument. While the pay Is small, liv ing expenses are cheaper and there is always a chance at sidelines such as writing ads for stores which cannot pay a regular ad writer, doing pub licity for campaigns, etc.” The Perfect Arch It has been said there is nothing Improved by anger except the arch is a cat’s back. demand PPM rP" World’* Beat Tonic wl Over 100,000 people ha J testified that TANLAC has relieved them of ; Stomach Trouble, Rheumatism, Mal-Nutrition, Sleeplessness, Nervousness, of Appetite, Loss of Weight, Torpid Liver or Constipation. “Ask Anyone Who Has Taken TANLAC” OVER 49 MILLION BOTTLES SOLD ’ For Safe By AU Good Dnirrirts ~ PARKER 7 S“’B HAIR BALSAH® i(Swfe j><r «S KemoT D r ’ anar ” irs: " , ’ flla ' r -jjagf r Restores Color and J'? *o Gray and Faded HtseoT Cb.cm. Wks. PaU-in.ew.llM giata. Hiscox Chemical Works, Patcbugiaa. Ji* xj Camp Bed From A little comfort in the camp now and then, is relished by the B of sportsmen. Here is a way toB a little spring in the bed under® ning: Cut four saplings about feet long and set the butts in theß on either side of a log so they cB in pairs. Lash short sticks to outer ends, then lay poles across tlB from end to end. Pad the polesß necessary, with leaves and moss, tB build your bed on top of that. It doesn’t take much longer to nB it than it does to tell how to do Sportsman’s Digest. Get Back Your Healtt Are you dragging around day afl day with a dull backache? Are jj tired and lame mornings—subject headaches, dizzy spells and sharp, sta bing pains. Then there’s surely son thing wrong. Probably it’s kidn weakness! Don’t wait for more seriq kidney trouble. Get back your heal and keep it. For quick relief d plenty of sleep and exercise and u Doan's Pills, a stimulant diuretic] the kidneys. They have helped thd sands and should help you. Ask yoj neighbor! A Wisconsin Case Ed. Huge, South Third Street, P. O. y Box No. 54, Med- Snt’jJ’ ford, Wls„ says: “A cold disordered MMky j / my kidneys and I KjHVj had a dull ache in my back. Morn-MjWw&l r; sF] ings the muscles T 'Afl 1 In my back A stiff and it trou-®'_U\AA x 'wl bled me to move" - f| around. My kid-’ neys acted too frequently and I hi to get up nights. The secretiol were scanty and contained sedimel Doan’s Pills drove away all signal kidney trouble.” DOAN’S™. STIMULANT DIURETIC TO THE KIDNS Foater-Milbum Co., Mfg. Chem., Buffalo. N.| Lectures by Wire When a professor in an Town I lege was quarantined recently « smallpox some fifty miles away fl his classes his students did not ceive the holiday that they had b| expecting. The professor, with aid of the long-distance telephd held classes daily so that his studd were able to continue the course d out any interruption. Teleph Press Service. Watercress for /nsomnta Sufferers from insomnia can he] lleved by using pillows stuffed d watercress, according to latest ini tigations. 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