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) PROGRESSIVE IDEAS IEIR MANAGEMENT LOWER RATES THE RULE Extent to Which Railways Touch Lives of the People—New Capital Vitalizes Old Investments—A Won derful Collation of Interesting Facts and Figures. Figures can never be made roman tic; that is, arithmetical figures. They are always dTy and narrow the mind down to the limit of cold facts, blight ing all imagery. Even the old rhyme that taught us the digits dealt with the practical side of life—buckling shoes, picking up sticks, fat hens. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the fol lowing facts about the railways of this country, drawn from the twelfth an nual report of the statistics of rail ways in the United States for tne year ended June 30, 1899, may be found interesting to the general reader: The length of the railroads of the United States on June 30, 1899, was 189,295 miles. In addition to this there were: 11,547 miles of second track. 1,047 miles of third track, 790 miles of fourth track. 49,686 miles of yard tracks and sid ings. There were employed on these rail ways: 9,894 passenger locomotives. 20,728 freight locomotives. 5,480 switching locomotives. 601 other locomotives. 33,850 passenger cars. 1,295,510 freight cars. 46,556 service cars. These freight and service cars would stretch more than one-third around the earth at the equator. To man and manage this system re quired an army of 928,824 men, or nearly five men for each mile of line. The total wages paid this army was $522,967,896. These wages were two fifths of the gross earnings of the rail ways; that is to say, of every dollar received by the railways for trans portation 40 cents was paid directly to their employes for wages. The total earn’ngs of these railways was $1,313,610,118, an inconceivable sum of money. Estimating the total population of the United States at tnat date at seventy-five millions, these earnings were $17.52 for each man. woman and child in the country. The wages paid to railway employes by each man, woman and child in the country, therefore. equaled $6.97. There was no other source for these earnings, no other source for these wages. How dependent, therefore, each citizen is upon the industry' and thrift of the other! The aggregate Indebtedness of these railways' was: For stock $5.515 011.726 For bonds •••• 4,731,054,376 For other obligations, in cluding income and equipment bonds 787,888,796 Total $11,033,954,898 It is conservatively assumed that three-fourths of these stocks and bonds are owned by the people, the banks and insurance companies of this country. This three-fourths—or, say, $8,275,466,172—is equal to $110.34 for every man, woman and child in the country. From this fact the interest of everyone in this enormous indus trial system can be gauged. Everyone who has a dollar in a savings bank, everyone who has money in any bank, everyone who has his life insured, is interested in the welfare of the rail roads. These railways moved in the year ended July 30, 1899. 441,881.623 tors of freight. Of this the mines contribut ed more than one-half, or 51.4 ■ pet cent.; manufacturers, 13.45 per cent., agriculture, 11.33 per cent.; forests. 10 89 per cent. The mines would close down without the railways and an other Industrial army of 200,000 be rendered idle. They carried last year 523.1.U.508 passengers; that is to say, on an aver age, everyone in the United States made seven journeys on railroads and each journey made was for *he aterage distance of 27.89 miles. With the growth of the country and tb spr ead of the people over the hitherto sparse ly settled west, the average distance of these journeys is found to increase at the rate of about 5 per cent, per an num for the last three years. A large > increase in the number of passengers may be espected this year,(for M is election year, in which many P grimiagrs may be looked <or. Tjus, 7 “V? 99 4*7 ipnr-P in ISii * A passengers moved than in 189. and 10,706,056 more than in 1898. The average cost to the passenger for each mile traveled was 1.925 cents, and for each ton of freight hauled one mile was .724 cents, or less than 2 cents a mile for passenger travel and less than three-fourths of a cent for hauling a ton of freight one mile. Ten years ago these rates were: For pas senger one mile. 2.142 cents; per ton of freight one mile. .941 cents. 7e* many railroads do a Urge portion of their business at one-half of these average rates, and do it profltab.y. which shows two things; First, the ef fect of volume in economy of opera tion; second, the unreliability of aver ages for specific purposes. Thus; In 1890 the number of tons of freight per train was 181.67 and in 1899 was 243.52,' show.ug an increased carrying capac ity of the train of 34 per cent, against a decreased rate of 23 per ceqt. Yet uot *<i freight can be profitably hauled for three-fourths of a cent a ton miie. liar will all that is hauled for less .ban that rate be profitless. And the for this same period cf Hhe passenger trafic, while affording no joOc’a happy results, shows that a shrinkage in the average rates does not necessarily mean a corresponding shrinkage in cither gross or net earn ings; for. though the rate in 1899, is 10 per cent, less per passenger mile than in 1890, <nd the average number of passengers per train is identical being 41 in each year—yet the average distance traveled by each passenger is increased 16 per cent, and the average receipts from passengeis for each mile cf road operated is substantially the same, being in 1890 $1,538 per mile, and in 1899 $1,535 per mile. These are the two points of economy in operating railways to which all managers are bending their energies: To increase the paying tonnage in a train; to in crease the paying of passenger per train, or what is the same thing with the passenger service, increase the number of miles of travel per passenger. This is the invitation for the investment of money in reducing grades, straigut ening curves, facilitating continue us transit, strengthening the bridges more powerful engines and larger cars. This investment last year was enormous, the increased capitalization of railroads amounting to $215,,400,867, and represents the cost of — 2,998 miles of main track. 252 miles of second track. 38 miles of third track. 1,646 miles of sidings. 469 locomotives. 250 passenger cars. 46,684 freight cars. 2,803 service cars. Of course there were large expend itures on roadway and structures to produce greater efficiency. A mere repetition of figures, however, is un serviceable without showing their rela tions to one another. The capital in creased as above stated, 19.91 per cent., but as a reward to the enterprise cf the managements and to the nerve of the financiers behind them the gross earnings increased $66,284,497 and tne nrt $27,288,774, or 12.67 per cent., on the increased capitalization. The in crease in capitalization in 1898 ovei 1897 was $183,545,957, and the increased net earnings for that year amounted to $59,787,336, or more than J 5 per cent, cn the increased investment This army, like those of Napoleon, requires three things: First, money; second, money; third, more money. But how different the return from the investment! Such expenditures for this army mean extension, development, prog-ess and resulting affluence. These expenditures in many cases In volve almost complete reconstruction of track and cf structures and absolute replacement of equipments. Hithei to the railways effected savings in doll years by abstaining from making re pairs and by reducing wages. The first of these is now recognized as ab solute waste; the latter impracticable. It has only recently been learned, and at great cost, but it is known that en terprise and progress are the two economists, and to make two blades cf grass grow where one grew before, cr, applied to transportation, to incree 'e the paying weight of the train is the test cf wisdom and economy of man agement. Ike management of a railway, like its trains, must be kept moving. A "dead center" is as abhorrent in the management as in the mechanism of a railway and as disastrous, 'me soul of the science of transportation is motion. The industral army of a million souls is not without its muffled drum-beat its furled flag, its reversed arms. There weie 2,210 soldiers of this peace ful army killed by accident when on duty last year and 34.293 injured. Out cf every 155 trainmen employed ore was killed and out of every 11 one was injured. Most Of those killed were from fall ing from trains and engines; most of those injured were from coupling and uncoupling cars. The second cause it is hoped to eliminate through the enor mous expenditures the railways have already made and are yet making in fitting their equipments with applian ces for automatic coupling. It is inex plicable how there can have been so many accidents from coupling and un coupling equipment when the fact is considereu that of the total equipment of all classes on the railways of the United States, amounting to 1,412,619, there are 1,137,719 fitted with auto matic couplers and 808,074 fitted with .rain breaks. This source of disaster so impressed itself upon the manage ments of railways that even before the Act of 1893 demanding such appliances h railways had already equipped 25 per cent, of their rolling stock with automatic couplers and 23 per cent, with train breaks. How well this army cared for its noncombatants is shown by the fact that only one passenger In 2,159,000 was killed and but one passenger in 152,000 injured. Thtsls the epitome of cne year's cam paign of an army of this Republic, whose movements and influence have made more history, conquered mere domain- and what is more to the point, held and f'*eloped it—more widely extended civilization and made our country greater and morefcloriou* and glorified than any army of war has done or could have done. It has no romance. “The romance Is In the results;*’ In the evolution of the consolidated engine from that of Peter Cooper: in the Pullman cat, di-awn bv the' locomotive faster than the .post, furious gale? from the car propelled by sail up the Patapsco Val y; in :he lives of the leaders of this army who planned its campaigns and achieved its triumphs.—J. V. McNeai :i Baltimore Sun. A KING S FINE HORSES. This summer weather those who rise early enough—and many do to get a bicycle ride before the heat of the day— will see some superb horses about the streets, ridden and driven, so may.- as to call forth remark. They are horses from the royal stables out for exercise in the fresh morning air. The late king kept in Rome 300 horses, In two immense stables, each horse hav ing an average value of SBOO. It is es timated that they cost their royal own er font- shillings each day, or S!CJ,vIOO a year. They make a fine show in their splendid and beautifully kept stables, but it must be said that that is about all they were, kept for, as the king did not ride more than seven or eight favorites, and the queen as many more. King Humbert was de voted to his stud, and paid the stables a daily visit. Each stall used to be inspected and each horse petted and fed with sugar. King Humbert was very fond cf driving about the city of Rome, and as his servants wore a dark livery, in no way distinctive, it is said that the only way strangers could distinguish the king was by his magnificent horses.—Rome Letter. DIVISION OF FLO 'IDA. An Impracticable Question, Declares a Local Paper. Alluding tc the action of the Young Men's business League of Pensacola in passing resolutions favoring the an nexation of that part of Florida west of the Apalachicola river to Alabama, the Jacksonville Times-Union in a leading editorial says "The subject has been much dis cussed in west Florida and Alabama of late years, and it may be added that no question so impractical has ever received more serious attention. We characterize the project as impracti cal because it will depend for its suc cess on the support of so many sec tions. It cannot be done without the consent of Alabama, of Florida at large and of the people of that portion of the state that would be annexed to Alabama if the plan were carried out. "There is no doubt of the approval of Alabama, though Mobile would doubtless oppose the proposition. If it would benefit Pensacola, as it might to a very slight extent, it would be so at the expense of Mobile. Its benefit to Pensacola and injury to Mobile, however, is doubtful, and would be of small amount, for transportation lines care little for state pride. They will ship through the port which offers the fc~~t facilities, and the exporters of Alabama products are not apt to make it a condition with the transportation company offering the lowest rates that he products be exrcrted through an Alabama port. Mu h of the Iron of Alabama is already shipped through Pensacola, in spite of the state line, and it is net certain nor even probable that appreciably more would be shirped through that port If Pensacola were an Alabama city. “But. while the hope of gain in busi ness, however remote and uncertain, might influence a number of business n in Pensacola to throw slate pride ..ay and consent to annexation to another state no su’h motive would apply to the remaim' r of west Flor ida. The state pride of the people of that section would cause them to op pose the proposition and they would have no motive for favoring it. But even if west Florida were will ing the balance of the state would cer tainly not be, and the majority against the measure in the state as a whole would be large. No state has ever yet given up thickly settled territory, and there is no reason to believe that Flor ida will take the lead in a movement f or the readjustment of State lines. The talk of removing the capital from Tallahassee has added something to the little vitality that was already in the movement, but it has not added enough to make it at all probable that it will ever amount to anything more than talk.” WHAT TO EAT IN SUMMER. Three months of vegetarianism would do every one good, but since we are not ail inclined to such radical changes there is left t us the sensible change to lighter meats, which proves as delightful as beneficial. Lamb, veal, poultry, boiled and broiled ham, bacon, and, above all, fish, give a wide range of choice. For hot weather breakfasts there should always be one dish that uas a 'snap” to it, a something to provoke an appetite. This is just the role for delicately pre pared salt-fish dishes (prominently among them haddie), for curries, and other highly seasoned dishes that are left off the breakfast menu. —Ella Morris Kretschmar in Woman's Home Companion. LIFE IS A MASQUERADE. Oh. life is a masquerade; Its span is a fleeting breath; We act out the wild charade, And only unmask at death. Few doff the disguise ere then. Or break from the gay parade; Pride hldeth the heart from view— Ob. life la a masquerade. —Philadelphia North American. MA?4fK. o o i fc>] 'J • K -.-'iv '.iMS nrfsmSßßt Mm,?* * 3 I *"* ’'in ** £ * i ?C'j ’I t j tjj. ? ||J • s®j : ; r * iU ~ I ; :;V! i \ \ / 1 ; " ' - The illustration herewith is a Chi nese passport, signed by Id Hun t Chang, greatest of oriental statesmen, who may be a virtual prisoner t ( the admirals of the allies. The docr ment reads from right to left, and th; BIBLE IN SCOTCH DIALECT. I A Publication That Few Probably Can : Understand. The Scriptures have been translated ; into Scotch —to speak accurately, the] New Testament, for the experiment is! to extend only to that now. Such a translation must be one of two tiling It must be either in a dialect that is impure and unliterary, or in a dialect, that is no longer familiar to the mul-; titude. As we learn from the publisher. Alex. Gardner, Paisley, the experiment I is to be in the latter, in the Scotch of i the early Century, that is tosay: Interviewed on the point on behalf 1 of the London Leader, Mr. Gardner i said his Testament in the braid Scotch —or braid Scots as the pedant has it —which is still only in manuscript, would not be in the Glasgow or Pais ley Scotch of the present day, but! would more resemble Burns. It would 1 not be archaic, but neither would it I be corrupt. “Here, for instance, is the j Lord’s Prayer,” said Mr. Gardner: "Father o’ usa’, hidin’ Aboon! Thy j name be holie! lat Thy reign begin! ! Lat Thy wull be dune, haith in Yirth and Heevin! Gie us ilka day oor need fu' feedin’. And forgie us a' oor ill deeds, as we sen forgae thae wha did us ill and lat us no be sifut; but save us frae the 111-Ane; for the *uroon is Thine ain; and the micht and the glcrie, of evir and evlr, Amen.” “Presumably the author Is a Scots man?” Mr. Gardner was asked. “He is a Scotsman, but a Scotsman resident in Canada, who has acquired his knowledge of Scotch from books only. He is a retired minister. Mr. Smith his name is, and he is over 80 years of age.” “Do you really think Scotch people will understand it, Air. Gardner?” “Those who know their Burns per fectly will; other may be puzzled by it.” “And English people?” “I showed it to an English minister the other day and he was greatly tickled. His knowledge of the Script ures aided him a little, but even at that he was beaten to read it- intelli gently.” “You don't count, then, on any great demand for a book of this kind!” “Not in the sense that there is any desire for it,” said Mr. Gardner. “There is no need for such a Scotch Testament, as for a Gaelic one; and you can guess whether it will ever be used or recognized by the churches. But it will be an interesting and curious book, and on that account may have some vogue.” In answer to a further question Mr. Gardner mention ed that the publication would probably come in the autumn. Asked if the Scotch rendering of the scriptures was in any way ludicrous, Mr. Gardner remarked that that would depend on the reader and his know ledge of the dialect. “I'll show you the manuscript,” he said, “and you can judge for yourself.” FROM MANY SOURCES. Australian bushmen are being of fered farms free of cost in Ruodesia. Like the bonito, the kingfisher's colors dull after dealt. No one who has seen only the stuffed bird can form any idea of the brilliance of ita plumage when alive. Plants, like animals, are continually I wandering to fresh fields and pastures I new. Prof. Kellerman finds that of j the present flora of Ohio no less than 430 are Immigrants. Almost all are from Europe. Hawks have been seen to follow the wake of a moving railway train, to swoop down on small birds that were suddenly disturbed and frightened by the noise, and therefore for the mo ment were off their guard. The Chinese began to write books before they migrated from the region south of the Caspian sea. Two ol their greatest literary productions are a dictionary in 5,020 volumes and an encyclopedia in 22,937 volumes. The flotation of brewery companies in Englani' at present has almost ceased. Ouly £1,648.400 of new securities were issued by the various companies, and of this amount £l,* 022,500 was authorized by one concern alone. The ostrich has long been laughed at for pushing his head into a uush when hunted. It is really far the wisest thing the bird could do, for Its long neck Is by far the most easily seen part of it. Its body-plumage i column of characters on the opposite side from tihe seal represents the name and titles of the officer by whom it was issued. This very interesting doc ument is reproduced by courtesy of The Little Chronicle of Chicago. harmonizes perfectly w.ih the desert sand. All things that grow out of the ground, such as peas, corn, and the like, must be planted In the Increase of the moon, from new to full; all things that mature in the ground, like pota toes, murt be planted In the decrease or waste of the moon, from full to new. It has been planned to establish a service of traction engines and wagons :n oss the desert of China to compete with the carrying business done by means of camels. Fifty engines and 3,090 wagons would have been at w-ork wttl.in a year but for the present troubles. Military uniforms were not orignally especially splenuiu. It was the Prus sian army, and then Napoleon, who set the example of adorning the soldiers' dress all over with fur, gold lace, and so on. The Napoleonic armies suffered from a perfect mania for showy trappings. People of this country who are an -1 noyed by flies should remember that i clusters of the red clover, if hung in | the room and left to dry and sheu its 1 faint, fragrant perfume through the air, will drive away more flies than | sticky saucers of molasses and othar j flytraps and flypapers can ever conect. i Rhubarb and raspberries can be pre served with cold water. Fill the jar to the top with rhubarb cut fine, or berries, and pour cold water Into it slowly until there is no sign of an air bubble to be found; then cover quickly, and set away. The berries will keep perfectly, and retain much of their natural flavor TRANSLATION OF THIS SEK.viuN ON THE MOUNT. And seein' the thrang o’ folk, he gaed up until a monutain; and whan he was sutten-doon his disciples gather't aboot. And he open’t his mouth and in structklt them, and quo he: “Happy the spirits that are lown and cannie, for the kingdom of Heeven is waitin’ for them! “Happy they that are makih' their mean; for they sal fin' comfort and peace! “Happy the lowly and meek o’ the yirth; for the yirth sal he their ain hadden! “Happy they waso hunger and drouth are a’ for holiness; for they sal bi stegh’d. “Happy the pitfu'; for they sal win pitta theirsels! “Happy the pure heartit; for their een sal dwell upon God. “Happy the makkers-up o’ strife; for they sal be coontit for bairns o' God! “Happy the ill-reatlt anes for the sake o’ gude; for they 'se hao the king dom of God. “Happy sal ye be when folks sal misca’ ye, and ill-treat ye, and say a’ things against ye wrangouslie for my sake! “Joy ye and be blythe; for yore meed is great in Heeven! for e'en sae did they till the prophets afore ye! “The saut o’ the yirth are ye; hut gin the saut hae tint its tang, ho's to be sautit? Is it no clean uneless? to be ctilsten oot and trauchl't under folk's feet. “Yo are the warld's licht. A toon biggit on a hilltap is aye seen. “Nor wad men licht a crusle and pit it neath a cog, but set it up and it gies licht to a’ the hoose. “Sae lat yero licht gang abrled amang men; that seein’ yere gude warks they may gie God glorle. “Think-na I am come to do awa’ wi’ the law, or the Prophets; I’se no come to do awa, but to bring to pass! “For truly say I t’yo, Till Heeven and Yirth dwine awa, ae Jot or ae tittle failsna o’ a’ the Jaw, til la' CCtIiGS to jiitnn, “Than, wha breks ane o’ thae wees't commauns, and gars ithers sae do, he sal he ca'd sma’ 1’ the kingdom o' Heeven. "For I Ray till ye, Gin yere gude •ness gang-na, yont the Scribes and Pharisees, ne’er sal ye win Intll the kingdom o' Heeven! "Ye ken hoo *t was spoken fill the folk of yore: ‘Ye maunna kill, and v.'hasa kills Is In danger o’ the Coort.” —Montreal Herald. While reversing his engine to pre vent it crashing Into a Fond du L;c street car, Engineer George Martin of the Wisconsin Central road pulled so hard that be broke his arm. -- - - ■ - '■■■■■ ■ A Russian flying column advanced In Manchuria PROVIDED FOR THE CHILDREN- During a four months’ visit in Ber*- lin, Germany, last winter, I noticed numerous sand piles surrounded bf happy children of all ages, and. won dering why they were allowed the priv ilege of scattering the sand in thin otherwise very tidy city, I made in quiries, and learned that before the old Emperor William died he ordered large piles of sand to be placed a* in tervals on Unter den Linden, and in all the large parks throughout the city, for the benefit of the poor child ren who live lr the crowded tenement houses. The pleasure proved to be so great that the children of all classes, rich and poor, mingled together, all armed with spoons, paddles, buckets, and pans. In Victoria park, which is situ ated in the “poor” district, there in one solid acre of fine white sand, whera on a fine day, hundreds of children dl® and play, enjoying the kindness of tha old emperor. This impressed me aa the greatest kindness I ever witnessed. —Minneapolis Journal. SUGAR AND SUGAR CANE. It was recently announced that the* managers of the great sugar refinery soon to be erected in Tampa had begun operations by the purchase of a site ot some 14 acres, and the fact may be ac cepted as an indication of the energy and good faith of those behind the enterprise. The land selected is locat ed on tidewater and will afford ample accomodation for the docks and ware houses necessary for the successful operations of any extensive plant as that about to be operated by the South Florida Sugar Planting and Re fining Company. In this connection it was suggested that ample dock room might be required, since were the home supply of cane to prove inadequate, it was proposed to depend largely upon importations from Cuba. It need hardly lie said that the people of south Florida should see to it that no such necessity shall ever arise, and that the new refinery is at all times kept sup plied with all the sugar cane it can handle. Jacksonville has long felt the necessity of securing more manu facturing enterprises and the establish ment here of such a sugar refinery aa that upon which Tampa is now con gratulating herself has for some time past been ably advocated by prominent and practical experts. —Flordia Times- Union A GEORGIA GATOR FARM. There are schemes and schemes, but the latest and most extraordinary is. one projected by a prominent city court offlelal to mnke a fortune by raising alligators. The official, who dislikes publicity and prefers that hie name be wltheld, is quite serious in his undertaking and has purchased 300 acres of swamp land near Seven Bridges, into which he will turn his herd of alligators. The entire 300 acres is to be closely fenced in. and this work Is now well under way and will be completed by October 1. Thirty-seven alligators have already been placed on the farm and the promoter expects to realize S6OO on hie scheme next year. The alligator is said to be the most prolific of all ani mals, the goat not excepted, and where there Is a ready demand for them, there Is more money in raising them than any other animal. That there Is a demand for them now is shown by the fact that the promoter of thlH farm has now filed away In his office more orders for alligators than he hopes to be able to supply in two years.—Macon News. CONSUMPTIVES IN COIA)KADO The “lungers” (Colorado slang for consumptives) are by no means as numerous In the city and state as I had been led to suppose. A great many men and women who were sick of lung tuberculosis have been cured by this climate and are as rugged as anybody. They will be. In that respect, healthy as long at they stay in Colorado or some of the other mountain states. There are a good' many ' weak-lunged people cattered about; they are now nearly all In the raounta'ns, at Mani tou, at Colorado Springs, Boulder and the hundred and one other resorts; or they are roughing It on the ranches, in the gold diggings, etc. The average man or woman of Denver is a healthy person to look at and I think the ap pearance of health is-not mere appear ance. —Denver (Col.) Wetter to Chatta nooga Times. ——— i STAGE RATES 100 VKAKS AGO. The first law of congress fixing rates on postage went Into effect on June X. 1792, with rates as. follows; Not exceeding 30 miles, 6 cents. Over 30 ami not exceeding 60 miles. 8 cents. Over 60 and not exceeding 100 miles. 10 cents. Over 100 and not exceeding 150 miles. 12(4 cents. Over 150 and not exceeding 200 miles. 15 cents. Over 200 and not exceeding 250 miles, 17 cents. Over 23A and not exceeding 350 miles. 20 cents. Over 350 and not exceeding 450 miles, 22 cents. Over 450 mile*. 25 cents. It would seem that postmasters of that day must have been greatly per plexed in adjusting the rates on each letter under such a diversified schedule as the above. The weight limit was. one Ounce (single), but a single letter was a single sheet; two sheets double; three sheets triple; fojr sheets a quad ruple letter, even If the whole four did not exceed an ounce.