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z. UNPARALLELED ATROCITIES BY AN OLD-TIME TCING. > CHANG HEN CHUNG’S DEEDS Ordered 600,000 Persons Massacred on One Occasion—Most Unprincipled Brigand of History—His Sole Am bition to Take the Lives of Every One He Warred Against. The fiendishness of the Chinese char acter is shown in ths brief career of the usurper Chapg Hen Chung, whose love for bloody deeds vis.ted upon his own subjects is probably unrivaled iu the world’s history. He was beyond question the most unprincipled brigand and wholesale butcher that ever lived in China, if what is related of him is true, and the evidence seems to come from pretty good authority. Chang Hen Chung lived m the seven teenth century. When young he usurped the title of king iu the prov ince then called by writers Suchuen, now Sze-Ci\en, iu western Caina, bor dering on Thibet. From whence he sprung is cot related, but before ap pearing in Sze-Chuen he had raided other provinces, filling them, as an cient ecclesiastical chronicles put it, “with rapine, death, fire and sword.” It is only when he appears upon the Sze- Chuen scene that the story of his ap palling careei begins. His atrocities were not perpetrated in open warfare, but upon the defenseless people of his province for the personal' gratification of a fiendish nature. Martin Martini, for several years a Catholic missionary in remote western China, wrote to Rome an interesting report on the Tartar wars and the shifting dynasties of the Chinese em pire. This work, entitled “Bellum Tar taricum,” was published in London in 1665. A copy is in the -*.stor library, New York. As Martini had evidently a large ap preciation of the fact that his record of the acts of Chang might not be cred ited by the western world, so over shadowing then of all known bloody deeds of an individual were they, that ne ,’ook great care to write: “1 nm ashamed and also touched with a kind of horror to declare Chang’s villainies, both in respect as ♦hoy cwm to exceea aii belief, and therefore 1 may be declared to write fables, as also because it is no grateful thing to make reflections on such sub jects.” The priest author is very careful to state that his narrative is based on the written statements of “two religious persons” who had lived in Sze-Chuen, and who, like Martini himself, had preached the gospel in the province over which Chang, “some devil trans vested in our human nature,” exercised authority. The acts of this self-styled king of Sze-Chuen could today be interpreted as those of an insane being. But it is the more remarkable that they were permitted to be perpetrated upon th# enormous population of the province. In 1644 Chang entered Sze-Chuen and captured the principal city, Cheng- Tu. The ruler (king) ot the province was killed, together with his nobles. This was the prelude to all Chang’s barbarities. At that time the divided class of China entertained the single idea of opposition to Tartar domina tion and they strove to the utmost to stay that country’s growing power. Chang was fighting the Tartars already lodged in the north. This naturally brought under his control all the na tives in the field of his operations. To enforce his dominant power he resort ed to the most heinous crimes ever committed by ancient or modern ruler. No slaughter of western history com pares with them. Cahng slew ms peo ple for his own amusement, just to gratify any violent or sudden notion of furious cruelty. No matter how slight an offense t 6 his ideas of respect of the kingly person or if he even sus pected others of being offended with him he commanded that they be mas sacred. There was no appeal from his word, his whim was supreme law. The priests who were in the province dur ing his bloody career tell these among other filings concerning him: Frequently for a single man’s fault some trifling matter —Chang would or der all the members of a family mas sacred. ’ Neither children nor women with child were respected. On many occasions he massacred a whole street of a town where an bf fender lived. Once he sent a man hurriedly into the province of Xensi (Sben-Si), north of Sze-Chuen—sent him on a mission. This man, glad to be out of the tyrant's control, refused to return. To get even with this defiance of authority. Chang ordered that all the quarter of the city in which his rebellious subject had dwelt before his departure for Xensi should be burned and every person In it murdered. It was done. Chang’s favorite was a particular headsman. This delectable Individual sickened, and despite the effoi .s of the medicire men to save his life, died. This incensed the monarch, who In sisted that the physicians were respon sible for theealamity. To even accounts the doctor who had atterded the heads man was publicly executed. Next IGu ether physic .aus were taken into-the’ open and sacrificed to the ghost .of ! Chang’s iuvome official. ! Chang is said to have been consider ate with his army so long as taey per formed any valorous deeds. H' i usual Steward to soldiers was silk tia\ money. Hut, on the other hand, whenever he saw a soldier illy clad, or one who aid not march as vigorously as he liked, that man was at once taken out and t-.ti.d. tt was related that once he gave a soldier a p.ece of silk. The un-! wise teliow complained to a comrade i that its quality was not up to standard.' A spy reported the fact to the king, w’lth the result that the solider’s indis creet remark caused the slaughter of the entire legion to which he belonged, numbering 2,000 men. On another occasion Chang turned h s attent.on to the judiciary of the provinces, including all the legal fra ternity. In the royal city there were; nub prefects, or judges, aad ethers be longing to the nrotessiou--wise men, as they were termed. Within two .. ears all these were disposed of, with the exception of tv.xnty, all murdered I oa slight pretext. There were a number of eunichs of the Tai-mung-sean family who wouldn’t ail Chang king, but persisted in ad dressing him by his surname. Of these 500 were ordered out one day and killed for this little breach of eti quette. Next Chang turned his attention to Chinese priests. He had about 20,000 of them brought together on the pre text that he desired to promote their interests. Then he ordered them be headed. To his mind they had been guilty of some little departure from the strictest proprieties and they had to go. The Catholic worker next relates the particulars ot Chang’s capture of the city of Nau-Chung, just north of his province. It appears that in 1645 he raised an army of 180,000 Sze-Chuens, in addition to his own followers, who had entered this province with him and subjugated it. During the siege of Nau- Lhung 40,000 Sze-Chuens, tired of the bloody domination of this king, desert ed and joined the army in Nau-Chung. Upon learning of this act Chang or dered the masacre of every one of the remaining 140,000 Sze-Chuen soldiers, wiling to sacrifice that number of his army to avenge himself upon the de serters. The bodies of many of these victims were skinned. These were stuffed with straw, and. with the heads sew'od on,, there figures were pubiicly carried into the towns wnere they were borne as a warning to#their friends and families. Not long after this the king ordered that all students in his province should come together for examination. This brought to one point 18.000 candidates for scholastic honors, who believd they had been commanded to appear before the wise men for promotion. Details are lacking as to what grievance Chang had upon his mind at this time, but. instead of carrying out the examina tion, he commanded the execution of every one of the candidates. It was done. Six Hundred Thousand Massacred. In 1646, when the Tartars entered the province of Xensi, adjoining Sze- Chuen, to give battle to Chang, he per petrated the most enormous criminal and bloodthirsty act of his career. He raised a big army and moved to meet his enemy. He was determined that at he advanced the country left behind should be made secure against any aid or advantage to the enemy. To com pass this end his plan was to leave neither habitation nor person in any village or city. His army should live off those before it and the rear should be devastated. His first act was to ob literate the city of Ching-Tu. This was done by binding hand and foot more ihan 600,000 people. When they were secured Chang, riding abort the city, mocked their misfortunes. The unfor tunates begged Chang to spare their lives —cries, Martini says, which “pen etrated the very vault of heaven and might have moved a heart composed of stone or rock.” But the bloody mon arch stood awhile, like an astonished creature, apparently contemplating the situation: then his cruel nature as serted itself and he called out to the soldiers, “kill! kill! and cut off all these rebes.” Surprising as the state ment may seem. Martini says nearly ail these wretches were killed In one day, outside the city walls. The soldiers fairly waded In blood. A few persons were saved by Christian priests, who were allowed to claim those they had converted to their faith—a strangely different procedure than is now the outcome of the antagonism of the Con fucian followers against the native con verts. Martini, the priest, says that in this massacre “so much blood was split the river Klang, flowing past the city increased and swelled visibly.” Next, inhabitants of other cities were served In like manner, but there are no accounts of these slaughters. The priest upon whom Martini depends for his data regarding these atrocities well adds, “then this tyrant did bring that populous province of Sze-Chuen into a vast wilderness.” Chaug’s ambition was to become em peror of the wortd as soon as the Tar tars were expelled. He told this to his army, ar and at the same time he sig nificantly informed his followers that they must manifest a more humble spirit than they had been showing. They must also show a disposi tion to inarch. He had, htPioid them, sunk three vessels; loaded wjrt^Uveiv in the Klang, dnrt 'lit >.over this money at any time to reward them 1 if they deserved it. This little subterfuge never materialized, it is quite needless to say. men Chaug came to the conclusion that the wives of ihe soldiers hampered operations as camp followers, and his solut.on of the problem was in keeping with his other atrocities. There would not be wanting, he told the army, plen ty of other exquisite women in the kingdom when they had come to pos sess it, and the best thing to be done was to rid themselves of their present incumbrances. To set them an exam pie, Char-g ordered out 300 of his per sonal concubines and had all but 20 of them killed before his trsn. Of course the soldiery could but follow this ex ample, with the result that the head of every woman in the camp vns at once sliced off. Having killed every human being on his line of march, Chang destroyed all cities, their houses and palaces. These and forests he burned that they “might profit no man.” Then he marched to meet and give battle to the Tartars. As he went on all sick, wounded or weak soldiers were killed and left Dy the roadside. At the first meeting ot the two ar mies Chang was killed. Those who sur vived in Sze-Chuen heralded the Invad ers as their saviors. HIS VERACITY GOT A BEER. There Was no Deception About the Thirsty Old Fellow. On one of the hot afternoons last week a tall, gaunt figure, with un kept hair and seedy of clothes, was seen slowly wandering through Thirty-fifth street, near Eightieth avenue The small boys immediately recognized in him a good subject for ridicule and followed at his he'd* growling like a lot of dogs. The seedy gentleman took the matter good naturedly, however, and the boys soon ceased their taunts and smiled with him. Presently the old man sat down on the tail end of a truck, and, wiping the perspiration from his forehead with the back of his hand, began to hold forth on the heat. “Gosh! it’s hot. How I do hate summer! It seems to me when I was a boy up on the farm we never had such heat as this. I tell you, my , friends, the poets don't know what they are talking about when tin y write of the b ■ mtiful summer. Do you call this beautiful? Look around you. See the dirty children, the dirty streets; smell the smells and tell me if there is anything beautiful here In the city summer brings forth every thing that is dirty, mean and vulgar. Winter covers it up with its mantle of snow, and I think the man who wrote ‘Beautiful Snow’ knew what he was talking about. Perhaps he lived .in the tenement, district during the dog days, and I feel just as If I could write of beautiful snow, too.” The old man again wiped the per spiration from his brow,- “By the way," said he, looking at every face intently, "caD anybody spare a nickle. I’ll tell the truth —I want to get a beer.” “Well, come along,” cried a young man who had been listening. “You can join me,” and amid the cheers of the crowd the two strange figures, one tall and guant, the other short, stout and comfortably dressed, en tered a nearby saloon. PROUD OF HIS FAMILY. Lord Roberts Is Greatly Devoted to His Wife and Mourns His Son. Asa husband and father Lord Rob erts, or “Bobs” as the soldiers and peo ple generally are wont to call him, Is a model in every respect. If common report is to be believed, the most pre lect sympathy has existed between Lord and Lady Roberts since they were married 41 years ago, and Lady Roberts, herself the daughter of a sol dier, has always been able to associate herself with the chic' interest in life of her husband. Her v:ork in India in the cause of the soldiers' wives will long be remembered by the English, and among her own sex she is as much beloved as Lord Roberts is by men, says a London paper. The death of their son at Colenso came all the more severely to Lord and Lady Roberts, as they were a singular ly affectionate and united family. The greatest affection existed between the distingulshd father and bis promising son. Lord Roberts was most anxious that his son would achieve distinction in the same profession, pnd his valuable experience and sympathy were always at his son’s service. "Bobs” was very proud of his son’s prowess in the saddle. At a race meet ing some time ago in Ireland Roberta rode clean away from the field and won by a dozen lengths. “My son must not be encouraged to ride; a sol dier has to keep all his abilities in the service,” said Lord Roberts, aDd then with a burst of paternal pride, “but In all my life I never saw anyone ride a better race.” Glorious Prospects. Mrs. Worldly—Yes, my dear, he Is handsome; but what are his prospects for the future? Lovesick Daughter (gushingly)— Why, mamma, he is an evangelist! Mercenary. Ah, yes, it was for money Alone he married her. And yet that’s not so funny— He was the minister. iy RED HAIR THE VOGUE. Parisians Dye Their Tresses to Suit Their Style. In Paris it is more and more the custom to dye the hair, or, in the polite vernacular of the Parisians, “tint it.” There is scarcely a French actress whose hair is rot some shade of red, mahogany, golden brown* bronze or russet. One woman told an inquirer the secret of her hair, which was a most beatiuful russet, waving and soft, as well as brilliant, it did not bear a trace of dye. A Turkish lady from Constantino >le for some favor received gave her a large package of powder. One tablespoor ful of this powder put in oil and a' cohol applied lightly to the hair pro duced the effect, the oil preventing the harsh, dry appearance all dyes give. The mixture actually increased the growth of the hair, but unfortu nately no one knows what it Is, for the TmUsh lady vanished. There are four colors the woman who has dyed fear hair red should strictly adhere W —white, black, blue and gray. There Is in Paris an auto crat who charges terrific prices, to whom women go when they want an opinion as to what color they shall tint their hair. He talks with them for an hour, studies them ill his Lott: 3 XV. drawing-room which has no suggestion of hair dressing, re gards their eyes and set of the feat ures, inquires what color predomi nates in the toilets selected oy mad ame for the season and sends the in quirer away. In a day or so she re ceives a water color sketch of how she will look with a tiny curl of red hair, the shade he has decided best suits her, pinned to the corner. She goes to the hair-dresser the artistic adviser employs, and presto, the charge is made. For the house hair is worn very high or very low. and the beautiful parting which men admire so much is done away with, the pompadour effect, with puffs and curls, taking ltn place. The parting is left for very old ladies and school girls. All kinds of jeweled ornaments are worn in the hair. USED HER UMBRELLA ON HIM. Mrs. Murhecl Attacked Former Busi ness Partner in Lower Broadway. Pedestrians on lower Broadway en joyed the sight of a woman banging a man over the head with her umbrella in front of 309 Broadway until the mans' hat was smashed, his head cut and he was otherwise >retty badly used up. There was no policeman around and one of the spectators helped the woman on to an uptown Broadway car after the fun was over. The man refused to tell why she had whipped him. “I am Frederick Link,’ he said, "the brother of David Link, a broker and a member of the Produce Exchange. The woman was Mrs. Mary Murhed, who lives at 232 Ninth avenue.” He refused to-talk any more about the case. Mrs. Murhed was seen at her home last evening. “That man Link.” she said, “was a partner of my husband and myself in a livery stable business. The business failed and I went down town to see if I could collect some money from Link. My husbpnd told me to go to Link’s lawyer, Baggott & Ryall, at 309 Broadway. As I went through the door I saw Link talking at the telephone. I las so mad that I wanted to whip h*n: then and there but I didn’t want to make a scene in the lawyers’ offices, so I went down to the street entrance and waited for him. When he came down I asked him if he would pay me. He told me not to make such a row on the street. Then I got mad and I hit him with my umbrella. I am sorry that this thing got in the newspapers, jut If I had to do it over again I think I would act Just as I did this morning.” Mrs. Murhed said she did not fear that Link would try to have her ar rested.—New York Sun. WHAT THE NATIONS SMOKE. Tastes of Leading Peoples In the Way of Tobacco. We frequently hear remonstrances against the smoking public of England. Only a short time ago a vigorous pro test was entered by non-smokers against those who wished to enjoy an after-dinner cigar. I-et the anti-tobacconist congratu late himself that he lives in England, for if he follows this article he will see that among the important nations of Europe Great Britain is one of the smallest consumers of tobacco. To our taste the tobacco of the con tinent is vile. Our sympathies are en tirely with the Russians, who consume less of this villainous preparation than the people of any other European na tion. The people of Russia number, roughly, 103,666,060, i *! they only consume about 180,000,000 pounds of the fragrant (or noxious) weed per annum, which amounts to 28 ounces per individual. Germany, however, hae always had the reputation of being the home of smokers, tud yet It comes third In the list of smoking countries. The population of the German empire at the last census was returned at 52,- 250,000, and in the year they consume 77,267 tons of tobacco. This amounts to about fifty-three ounces per inhab itant. Austria boasts of 51,060,000 people as Its population and between them they manage to get through a little over a hundred and eight million pounds of tobacco a year. Each Aus trian, therefore, would be able to have two pounds ten ounces o'f’Wbacoo to lat-hthi a year if all the’inhabitants smoked. In France, however whore the con sumption of tobacco ft. mostly in the form of very bad cigarettes, each in habitant could smoke only two pounds two ounces of tobacco. Judging from the quality of the French tobacco, we wonder how they can smoke even that amount. Taking the population of France at 38.518,000. the amount of the villainous weed consumed in tho year can easily be deduced. AVith greater inducements, in the thape of better and cheaper tobacco, the inhabitants of Eng'and smoke more tobacco per man than their near neighbors, the French. If we take the last census we find that the peo ple of England number about 38,000.-1 000, and. allowing for the yearly lu- I crease, they now certainly number a 1 good many more. If all of these smoked the umount of tobacco doled out to each on the Ist of January to last for the year would only amount to one pound five ounces. This is about what a heavy smoker would con ntme la a month. T~’.;i.ig, however, the’ approximate number of adult males !r. the king dom at 9.760,000, we get an average of 144 ounces per man. which is about what the average smoker gets through. Yet wc arc net a nation much addicted to tobacco. For really colossal smokers you must go to Bel gium and Holland. The population of Belgium is a little larger than the population of London, being about 6, 250,000. One would think from tho returns that the Belgian infants were reared on tobacco. If we consider every soul in Belgium as a smoker we get the astounding average of eighty seven tunas per soul each year. tVhcn, however, w’e reduce the popu lation to the probable census of males of an age to smoke, we get an aver age amount of twenty-two and one-half pounds a year per man, or a weekly consumption of seten and one-half ounces. Holland, with its 6,075,000 Inhabitants, comes second in the smoking world. There is, however some excuse for the Dutch smoking so much, for their tobacco is very mild and of a pleasant flavor. Nevertheless a yearly average of seventy ounces per man must be considered abnormal, and the English anti-tobacconist has every reason to rejoice that he does not live under Queen Wilhelmina. What do all these people smoke? Well, putting it roughly, the consump tion of tobacco In France Is chiefly in the shape of cigarettes and cigars. In Russia the cigarette Is also, unfor tunately, too popular. No one in Hol land or Belgium would thank you for the paper-covered cartridge which the British soldier designates as “two | puffs and a spit.” The pipe predoml j nates in Germany. Holland and Bel gium. Austria aud England are im partial. The cigarette appeals to some, the cigar to the wealthy and the pipe maintains its popularity. During the last six years the consumption of cigarettes has almost doubled, and this is not good for the nalloti at laige, though it may be for the revenue and the tobacconists.—London Express. Money in Cocoanuts. The cocoanut industry is a veij prosperous one, for it has resulted in the making of tremendous fortunes. A cocoanut tree yields fruit within five years after planting and then bears uninterruptedly for over a century. Those engaged in shipping the copra to Europe pay |1 per year for the fruit from a single tree. The trees, once started, need no further con sideration. Ten thousand trees cover a comparatively small space, as there are no branches. The trees invariably grow best in what is for all other purposes the poorest soil.—Leslie’s Weekly. Five Generations Under One Roof. There is a home in Tokio, Japan, where five generations live under the same roof. The family is that of Mr. Kinycmon Aral, of Matsunoki, Un ememura. Gumma prefecture, who has just entered on his ninety-third year and is still hale ahd heart;. So is his wife Naka, who is of the same venerable age. Equally healthy and prosperous are their eldest son, Kakunosuke and his spouse, who are respectively 68 and 67 ycarH old. Then comes their grandson, Kennosuke, 46 years old, and his wife Asa young er by two years. Twenty-six and 24 are the ages of their great-grand son, Isematsu, and his life partner, Toki, respectively, from whose union have sprung a healthy, growing boy of 4 years and a baby girl. No Shirt. * Such was her extreme misery that the wife fell Irta the vernacular. “You pre not the only shirt In tta laundry!” she cried, bitterly. i ne man her husband, shrugged his shoulders. “Ira net a shirt at all!” he re torted. "If I were a shirt you voc'. li’t have done me up so nicely!” Now he cursed the day that sbe -.vas bom—Detroit Journal. A Bad Break. She—Hor; did ho come to marry a widow? He—She asked him why he didn’t marry, anl ho thoughtlessly replied that he didn't have to.—Smart Set. Sharks Now in the Mediterranean. It Is stated that sharks have now penetrated Into the Mediterranean through the Sues canal from the Red sea TWO CARIBOU AT ONE SHOT. Entire Herd of Six Were Dropped by this Hunter. Two caribou at one shot is the kind of a story to which the uninitiated would give the smile audible, and which would be pretty hard for the expert hunter and story-teller to beat. But is true nevertheless and the men who fired the shot and bagged the two caribou is Walter J. Swett, a Maine guide, now in New Bedford on - visit to Michael Shea. "It was a numlvn of years ago,” said Mr. Swett, “one morning when i was out still-hut ting I found the tracks of some caribou, leading up over a rioge, and after cruising around awhllo I caught sight of them. There were six of them standing together under a little dump of trees. I stop ped to see which way the wind was, so they wouldn't get scent of me, ana then began to creep up on them. I got ” good place behind some bushes and 1 it there waiting for a shot. Just | hen one of them stretched his neck -’■t a little, giving me a firs chance at him. I let go, and the bullet went straight through his head and into the luart of another right behind him, killing them both. The other four didn t get away, either, for I dropped every one of them before they had got twenty rods front the place where I firs* saw them. “That’s a pretty unusual thing, Wiling two caribou at one shot, al though you often hear of a man’s getting two deer that way; but I must suy that one of the guides I knew told mo a story that beat this one. He said he was out one day when he s truck a herd of nine caribou standing ion the ice. He only Intended to shoot one cf them—that was all he wanted— • he picked out the best shot and fired. Ho was pretty sure he had ■truck it, but tho caribou didn’t seem to be wounded and walked away until he was hid frem view behind a bunch of trees. My friend had a magazine rifle, holding nine cartridges, so he didn’t lose any time in firing at the next one. Strange to say, he ap parently missed this time, and the caribou walked away just like the first or.e. Then he tried for the third, and so on up to the ninth and last one. Each time he seemed to miss and each time the caribou disappeared behind the tree:. Thinking there was somo- Ihing funny about it he went out to look and well, ho found the whole nine of them stretched out on the Ice dead, lie had hit everyone, but they hnd been able to walk far enough to get out ot sight beiiino those trees be fore they dropped.”—New Bedford Standard. Hawaiian Sugar Plantations. Discussing the labor question in Hawaii the Honolulu Republican says: “The greatest curse In many ways that this territory has to contend with today is the large land holdings. Di vide the plantations Into small tracts and give these tracts over to the cul tivation of American farmers, who will come here with their families, afford ing them an oportunity to share in the profits of the soil, and Hawaii will proguesi? as never before. Not only that, but by taking such a course the sugar planters will be Insuring them selves against the future. With the growth of beet sugar cultivation on the muinlund sugar will tnke a drop ere many years, where the cultivation of cane sugar, excepting under the most favorable conditions, will be un profitable. Until the advances in the price of sugar of the lsst year sugar cultivation in tin- British West indies had grown unprofitable and there was much unrert because the planters were flnanc’aliy embarrassed. The beet sugar of France and Germany had crowded out the cane production of the West Indies from the European market, while the tariff shut it out from the United States.” Paderewski’s Pride. At the age of 27 Paderewski was in Paris—whither seem to go all poor musicians, not when they die, but when they struggle to live. He con fesses thet he was nr’serabiy poor, that he owed much, that the future seemed to have nothing for him. But the dr y came when he met a Polish princess, who was so impressed with his powers that she offered him the sum of 100 francs to play at her house. Unable to indulge in the luxury of a carriage, he walked there and played. At the end of the performance his hostess observing the young man's fatigue he was probably in those days more at home in the cafe where the fragrant cup at three sous, of which Alphonse Daudet speaks lovingly, was vended), offered to send him home in her carriage. But with pride in hie eyes, and defiance in his mien, the pianist declined. "Madame,” said uc, “my carriage in at the door.” And with that he walked out. Huch an at titude was one to win a woman's sym pathy. His new patroness was ijy lighted both with his marvelous gifts and bis graceful bearing. Hb<- spoke of him la the salons.- Kngcgermjflts began to come swiftly. In a tew years his name was ringing through the city. And from that time he never looked bark.-J-Golden Penny, All the Same. a He—l *<mt know whether to maks a fool of myself by playing golf or sit on the hotel piazza and make love to some girl all the afternoon. She —What's the difference?—De troit Wee Press.