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CHEAPER FUEL NEAR
CRUDE OIL FROM TEXAS COMING SOON. UP THE MISSISSIPPI River Route Certain to Exert an In fluence In Keeping Rates Down—A Clean Smokeless Fuel Without Cin ders or Ashes. Crude oil for fuel Is coming—and coming sure. It is declared by a gentleman just up from Texas that Madison will be using it inside the next six or eight months. There is a demand everywhere for cheaper fuel. P.l solves the problem. Transporta tion is all that is needed. Tankships, Ullages and pipe lines are being built now. Fuel oil can be brought to the head of navigation on the Mississippi and that, In turn, will force reasonable rates from the railroads. With a rea sonable rate, fuel oil can be sold here much cheaper than coal. It is a clean fuel. No soot, smoke, cinders, sparks nor ashes. It Is perfectly safe. An idea of the magnitude of the eTxas discovery and its wonderful pos sibilities as a wealth-producer, can l>“ had from the fact that, while the oil production of the world has been but about 138,000,000 barrels per year, or 378,000 barrels per day, the flow of the eleven gushers at Beaubont exceeds 600,000 barrels per day. It costs noth ing to produce the oil, therefore, being in such amazing quantities, it can be sold cheaply—-it is the general belief that the price will be about 50 cents per barrel. Big profits could be made at 20 cents per barrel at the well. The market for the oil will be as cer tain as the market for coal. It will be utilized for all kinds of heating, from private residences to sky scrapers, and for producing steam in everything, from a tea kettle to an ocean grey hound. One ton of this crude oil is equal in heating efficiency to from three to four tons of soft coal. It must necessarily be cheaper than coal, for the reason that there will be a great saving in freight rates, and also In the cost of handling it. Take the railroads, for instance. There are seven of them pentrating the Beau mont field, and they will all use this oil on their engines for producing steam as soon as it is placed on the market. The Mexican Central was the first to announce that it would use oil on its engines, and it Is preparing to do so now. In the case of ocean steamships, their carrying capacity will e largely increased by using oil, because, by doing so, they will save both bulk and tonnage over coal. Then they will save the cost of an army of stokers, of handling the tons of ashes, and other work made neces sary by burning coal under their boil ers. It Is an easy matter to fit an ap paratus for burning oil to any boiler. All that is necessary Is an attachment for sending a spray of the oil into the firebox. There is no question but that the Beaumont oil field is today the great est oil field in the world. Millions have been invested there, although not a barrel of oil has yet been marketed. The price of land In the vicinity of the gushers has gone up to such fabulous figures that only a millionaire or a company with a large capital can buy it. The man of moderate mens cannot even consider it. The only way <n which such a man can hope to share in the prosperity of the Beaumont oil fields is to uy stock In some company that has land In the gusher district, where the oil is not prospective, but actually is known to exist. OLDEST TREE IS IN CEYLON. It Has Been Through the Weather of Twenty-two Centuries. The very oldest tree which has withstood the onslaught of centuries, is certainly the 80-Gha or sacred 80. It is one of the greatest natural curiosities of Ceylon. It stands in An uradhapura. the ancient capital of the kings of the island. It is a fig tree under which Gautama reseed on the day he became Buddha. It was plant ed in 288 before the Christian era. In the eighteenth year of the reign of Devenipiatlssa. and is now 2.189 years old. The extraordinary tree seems to bearout the prophecy made by the king who planted it: It will blossom to the end of centurieß. M. Leclercq, the oriental scholar, sas that the sacred Bo was honored under all the reigning dygnastles and spared by every invader. For 22 cen uries. millions of pilgrims have eome and knelt down at the base of the re vered tree. To this day its leaves are piously gathered by the pilgrims and kept and revered by them as saintly lelics. The renown of this tree dates from far back. As late as the fifth century the Chinese traveler. Fa Hian, came to visit it. The Bo of Anuradhapura is certain ly the oldest historical tree now in ex istence. All the other Bos which grace Ceylon temples were grown from it. Thousands of years of age are also credited to the Dracena at Orotava. to the chestnut tree on he Athua, the Vir gin’s tree in Egypt, the cedars of the Libanus. the Californian Wellington ais. the eucalyptus of Tasmania, the Baobabs of the Senegal and others; but these estimations are based on mere probabilities while the age of the Bo is established by the most au thenUcal devilments that any man can require. Today the Bo of Anuradhapuia Is no more than a ruin in the midst of the innumerable ruins of monuments that i.c sore*.! ail over the ground around it. Its branches are suppoitcd by thick pillars, the trunk propped by masonry In the shape of a pyramid, which has grown in height from century to cen tury. Altars stand all around, on which the pilgrims lay their offerings. The tree is enclosed by walls. The sacred enclosure is entered through the portico of a temple, the priests of which have charge of the maintenance of the 80. M. Leclercq has brought with him a souvenir of his visit: a leaf, sold to him by a yellow robed priest for 1 rupe. The leaf i3 about the size of a man’s palm and is heart-shaped, somewhat like a birch leaf. Its stem is so slender that it shakes constantly like an aspen leaf. It is because, the believers say, it is still rejoicing at having afforded shade to Buddha. HAMMERS OF RAWHIDE. Mallets and Mauls Are also Made of the Same Material. "The common idea of a hammer, no doubt," said a dealer in tools, “would be that it was an implement made to pound with and having a head of iron or steel. The pounding part of that would certainly be all right, but not all hammer heads are made of metal. There are some hammers, in fact, with the head made of rawhide. "Where the head would be on an ordinary hammer there is on the raw hide hammer, set at right angles across the end of the handle, a short section of iron pipe. The rawhide that forms the hammer head is first cut into an oblong strip which is then, beginning at one end snugly rolled up. The roll thus formed is put through an iron pipe, being made long enough so that it will project an inch or more at either end. The ends of the solid rawhide are trimmed off flat and true like the face of any hammer, making this a two-faced hammer. "The rawhide hammer is used for various purposes, largely in place of a mallet for instance, for pounding on punches and on chisel handles. It is used where pounding is to be done on polished metal surfaces; it serves the purpose without scratching the metal. Rawhide hammers are made In vari ous sizes. "Then there is a rawhide implement that Is called a mallet, in which the head is formed in the same manner as the rawhide hammer head, but joined In the handle direct, without being held there In a holder. The raw hide mallet is also made In various sizes. It is a smaller and lighter tool than the hammer. “Another rawhide pounding tool is the rawhide maul, heavier than the hammer and made in various sizes. The head of the rawhide maul is made of disks of rawhide laid together in sufficient thickness and held together , by iron caps top and bottom, through which, as of course through the raw . hide nr, well, the maul handle passes. Tbo hlnclf tyf rawhMo thna njodo le turned into the usual maul form. ( Built up as it is of compacted layers placed crosswise of the handle, the , striking surface of the maul, as is the . case with the hammer and uie mallet , in the manner in which they are t made, presents the rawhide in a mass edgewise. The rawhide maul is used, , for example, by artificial flower mak , ers pounding all day long on dies t and punches cutting out flowers and , loaves. I “These rawhide hammers and mal , lets and mauls cost about three times , as much as corresponding wooden I mallets would cost. They last about r ten times as long.”—New York. Sun. SOUTHERN MOUNTAINEERS. The Part They Played in the War Be tween the State* It is cxld to think that the southern mountaineer was not discovered until the outbreak of the civil war, although he was nearly a century old then, and it is really startling to realize that when one speaks of the southern mountaineers he speaks of nearly 3,000,000 people who live in eight southern states between—and occupy a region equal in area to the combined areas of Ohio and Pennsylvania, as big, say, as the German empire, and richer perhaps, in timber and mineral deposits than any other region of simi lar extent in the world. This region was and is an unknown laud. It bas been aptly called Appalachian Amer ica and the work of discovery is yet going on. The American mountaineer was dis covered, 1 say, at the beginning of the war, when the confederate leaders were counting on the presumption that Mason and Dixon's line was the dividing line between the north and south, and formed, therefore, the plan of marching an army from Wheel ing to some point on the lakes and thus disserving the north at one blow. The plan seemed so feasible that it is said to have materially aided the sale of confederate bonds in England, but when Captain Garnett, a West Point graduate, started to carry it out he got no farther than Harper's Ferry. When he struck the mountains he struck enemies who shot at his men from am bush, cut down bridges before him, carried the news of his march to the federal*, and Garnett hims#lf fell with a bullet from a mountaineer's squirrel lifle at Harper's Ferry.—Scribner's Magazine. The Golden Opportunity. "1 suppose you will marry, though, when the golden opportunity offers, won't you?" "It w ill depend upon how much gold there is in the opportunity.” SOUP-ERISTATTTRAL. ' Farmer Oatcake’s country place Soon with boarders will be filled; Once the farmer had a conscience, But that small voice now is stilled. Soup the boarders want for dinner, Says the farmer “I’ll be glad”— ’T isn’t very hard to please them, Here’s, the dream the farmer had. —Havez. A GOOSE GAME. “Ha, ha!” said General Yellowbill To Colonels Honk and White. "Here’s fun! Well storm the corn crib hill And give a jolly fright To that red-coated miss Who’s come to visit Little Sis. “Let every gander shake his tail And flap his wings in air. While arter us in state will trail The lady geese so fair. We’ll give the timid little misses A fusillade of savage hisses!” “Oh, dear! Wnat dreadful things are these? I'm sure they mean to bite!” Screamed tiny Bess. “And, cousin, please, Please hug me very tight! I want my papa right away! I want to go somewhere and play!” “I’m not afraid,” said Little Sis, "Because they know my name, And say it every time they hiss; It's just a goosies’ game!” "Then ask them, please,” said Bess, “to play Their game with us some other day." —Forest Crissey in St. Nicholas. FEW PEW DOORS LEFT. Once Considered Essential in Church Equipment, Now Counted Obsolete. “In old times,” said a dealer in church fittings and equipment, “it was a common thing to have doors on the pews in churches. Fifty years ago in most Protestant churches there were pew doors. While used in Catholic churches also, they weie not so com mon. “In those days the pew door was an institution; now it is pretty nearly obsolete. There are still some in use. They will be found here and there yet in some of the old Protestant churches, as they may be occasionally too in some old Catholic churches, but they constitute no part of the equipment of any new church, and in many old churches the pew doors have been taken off as unnecessary and in the way. "There are various reasons for this. Conditions have changed for one thing. In the old days pews were more commonly rented entire. Now there are more free churches, more free pews, and there are rented nowa day a greater number oi individual sittings. “In such conditions a pew door is not in any degree a necessity; it might indeed be undesirable in itselt. Partly opened or closed, the door wab in the way; it might squeak; it was likely to be slammed in opening or closing. It was a quite unnecessary expense. It was really surplusage, and in all new churches its use was everywhere discontinued whether the pews were rented or not. "In Catholic churches, where it is still the comomn prevailing custom to rent the pews, and where there might still be some need for a pew door, its place is now to some extent taken by a modern attachment called a pew guard. This is a simple but sightly strip of leather attached at one end to the inner side of the upper part of the endplece of the pew next the aisle, the omer end, when the guard ‘a not in use, hanging down over the pew arm. “If all the regular occupants of a pew are not yet in it. and it is de sired to hold their places for them, the pew guard is put up across the open cud of the pern-, the free end of the guard being then secured in a holder made to receive it, fixed on the inner side of the upper part of the end piece oi the pew in front. Not in use. the pew guard, hanging loosely over the arm of the pew to which it belongs, occupies practically no room at all. and is in nobody’s way. “And so the pew door, once In com mon use and commonly considered an essential adjunct in the fittings of a church, has now, by common consent, virtually disappeared from use.’’ —New York Sun. FINE FOR XU EL, The New Texas Oil and Its Quality Considered. When Pennsylvania or Ohio oil is distilled, the last distillates, on cool ing, deposit crystals of paraffine wax and the residuum left in the stills has certain characteristics quite peculiar to these oils. When, however, Texas or California oil is distilled, the heavier distillates obtained by the ordinary methods adapted to Penn slyvania and Ohio oils yield no par affine wax, and the residuum is great er in amount and like asphaltum in its character, and consists essentially of asphaltum. Exactly what the dif ferences are in the oils themselves, before distillation, which cause this result has not been adequately deter mined. Very little has been learned in regard to the chemistry of the Tex as oil. We know that in addition to this “asphaltum base” the oil con tains considerably more sulphur than the sulphur-bearing crude petroleum of Ohio and Indiana. The odor of the oil is extremely disagreeable. The statements in regard to its usefulness have varied within the most extraor dinary limits. Some experts with a natural bent toward the optimistic have staked their reputations on its being adaptable to aU the uses of the petroleum industry, that enormous proportions of illuminating oil can he obtained from it with the greatest ease; that its properties as a lubricant are unexcelled; whereas, on the other hand, it has been condemned as “so bad that it can furnish practically no illuminants;” “has a viscosity too low for lubricating oil;” “is valueless as a fuel oil on account of the corrosion of the iron in furnaces from the sulphur in the oil, and therefore unfit for fuel,” which would take from it the last pos sibility of usefulness. Against this, on the practical side, is evidence of more value from the fact that the oil has a sale at 20 cents a barrel in large quan tities. The railroads and other in terests requiring steam are adapting their furnaces as rapidly as can be done to the use of this oil in the place of coal, and in this respect, as in Cali ' fornia. It comes as a boon to the fuel consumers. Its use as a fuel oil has been established, whether it corrodes boilers or not. In regard to the pros pect of using the oil for other pur poses, we must remember, in the case of sulphur, that only a few years ago the problem of taking sulphur from Ohio oils was unsolved, and yet fully as good illuminants are now ob- I tained from the suipnupbearing oils of Ohio and Indiana as from any other source.—David T. Day in American Monthly Review of Reviews. Anecdotes of Ingersoll. Senators Morrill, Voorhees and Gor man were conversing together outside the senate chamber. Colonel Ingersoll chanced to pass by. Mr. Voorhees greeted him and said, “We are dis cussing the meaning of improbable; what is your definition of the word?” Promptly Colonel Ingersoll replied: “It is a negro going in an opposite di rection from a brass band." Colonel Ingersoll was a temperate man, but not a teetotaler. One day Mrs. James G. Blaine was passing through Fifteenth street, opposite the treasury department, when out from a liquid refreshment saloon came Colonel Ingersoll and a friend. “My dear Colonel,” said she, “you would not be seen coming out of such a place, would you?" “My dear madam," replied he, "would you expect me to stay there all the time?’’—Washington Times. John Wanamaker renewed his offer of 12.500,000 for the Philadelphia street railway franchises, witfc the added inducement of three-cent fares. HOW BHE RODE. Lightly she sprang on her prancing steed As she went to ride. The noble creature was on his feed. She sent him oft at his utmost speed, And she rode No feeble, rickety girl was she— Penelope Ann— The bloom on her cheek was good to see. The blood in her veins coursed mer rily, She rode like a- - Yet Mother Grundy was heard to say Penelope rode In a peccant and obnoxious way The saddle she used when on that day She her horse be . NEW ASPIRANT FOR FAME. Congressman Jim Butler, of St. Louis, the Coming Leader. The latest representative of the strenuous life who is headed for a place in the Hall of Fame is Congress man-elect Jim Butler of St. Louis. Out in Kansas City the other night Butler was doing the town in com pan/ with Champion Pugilist Jim Jeffries, when there occurred one of those little misunderstandings which will come at times even to gentlemen of quality. Pugilist Jim started for Congressman Jim with the evident purpose of in vestigating the condition of his solar plexus, and a c*y of horror went up from the throats of the assembled multitude of admirers of the two Jims who had gathered about them. They recognized the gleam in the Jeffries eye as the same that had carried terror, and defeat to the mighty Cor bett; the swing of the great right arm was ominous of sudden death. On rushed the champion, and then When several hours later he was restored to consciousness, Jeffries in quired the particulars. Then he learned that a convenient beer glass wielded by a St. Louis statesman was responsible for his undoing. It had put him to sleep. There are fortunately more ways than one of acquiring fame. Congress man Butler is a marked man. So long as he is in the house to be pointed out by capital guides, there will be no dearth of interest in the American statesman. John Lentz and Jim-Ham Lewis will not be missed; H. Clay Sulzer can no longer hope to be the object of all the admiring glances from the galleries.—Baltimore Sun. Broken on the Wheel. In the diary of that remarkable man. General Patrick Gordon, who left Scotland in 1651 a poor unfriended wanderer, and when he died, in 1699, had his eyes closed by the affectionate hands of his sorrowing master, the Czar Peter the Great, the following entry is to be found, under date, Ham burg, March 22, 1686: “This day a man and a woman, a burger of the town being the woman’s for murthcring, were cm Leu from the prisone to the house where the murder was committed; and there, before this house, with hotte pinsers, the flesh was torren out of their arms, and from thence were carted to the place of justice without the town, and there broken and layed on wheels." An instance fifty years later 'han those quoted at the last reference is recorded in the “Correspondence of Mr. Joseph Jekyll.” (Murray, 1894). In April, 1775, from the balcony of his lodgings at Orleans, Jekyll saw a criminal broken on the wheel. In a letter to his father (p. 13) he enter3 minutely into the sickening details, adding that “the crime of the un fortunate creature was burglary, as we learnt from his sentence, which is posted up at every corner of the street.”—London Notes and Queries. GLAD TO MEET HIM. The Dapper Youth ana the Magnate of Wall Street. Here is the latest concerning a man of whom many stories have recently been told: A story is told of a call that was made upon J. Pierpont Morgan just before he sailed for Europe. Just after Mr. Morgan had opened his desk one morning, a young, well groomed man walked straight into the financier’s office as if he were accus tomed to drop in every day. Maybe he thought he’d better go in that way, lest he should not get in at all, Reach ing the desk he said: "Good morning, Mr. Morgan, I’m Mr. So and-so from Pittsburg. You don’t know me and never heard of me. May be, you’ll never hear of me again. I just dropped in to tell you that you’ve made me a millionaire, and I’m much obliged to you. Your steel company bought some stock I owned. Good day, sir. Glad to have met you.” Omaha Mercury. Old Age Pensions. "Several of the most prominent rail road corporations in this country,” the New \ork Tribune points out, have estaoiished, or are preparing to establish, pension systems whicL will be of inestimable benefit to faithful and devoted employes who have ’ een many years in service. This disposi tion to benevolence in arrangements to lessen the hardships of old age for veteran workers is gaining ground in every enlightened nation. The old fashioned custom of merciless con signment to destitution and the alms house of the bent and broken who have tolled diligently for unsympa thetic masters for scores of years does not find so many admirers and approvers as it did in earlier genera tions. The ruthless logic of the sur vival of the fittest and the long agony of the aged and feeble who are trampled underfoot as unfit are tempered in these days by impulses *f compassion and good will.” THE NAVAL CIPHER. It is Worse Than Kanaka to the Un initiated Layman. The naval cipher would make a good textbook for the puzzle editors and the queer people who solve their freakish maneuverings. Words and sentences are as involved in these mysterious writings as it is well nigh possible for human thoughts to be concealed. All the great departments of the govern ment have their own way of transmit ting secret messages, but the naval code is the most intricate and vexa tious of all. This naval code has been doing business for a good many years, but no one ever thought much about it un til the Washington newspaper men suddenly discovered that it was a very great nuisance in their business. Not that these enterprising chaps are un patriotic and want to pry into gov ernment secrets, but the transmission of a code message takes such a long, time that the waiting becomes tire some. In some mysterious icanner the receipt of an important message is always breathed forth in this j.’ttle newspaper community, and there .’8 usually a scurrying to the department, to get such portions as are to be given out. At first sight, these code cablegrams are not different from any other code messages. They are a jumble of words from all languages, lingoes and dia j lects, with a sprinkling of common strong slang. They suggest history, prize fighting, art criticisms, mathe matical problems, politics, circus tA vertising, and, in fact, almost every thing except something about ships. Italian words are joined to Bowery brevities to form a word, and strange surprises come in the shape of a col lection of letters with z’s on both ends and two or three x’s in the middle.—- Detroit Journ.il. From Rain in the Woods. When on the leaves the rain insists, And every gust brings showers down; When all the woodland smokes with., mists, I take the old road out of town Into the hills through which it twists. I find the vale where catnip grows, Where boneset blooms, with wetness bowed; The vale through which the red creek., flows Turbin with hill-washed clay, and loud As some strange horn the wildman blows. Like knots upon the gray-barked trees The lichen-colored moths are press ed; And, wedged in hollow blooms, the bees Seem clotted pollen; in its nest The hornet creeps and lies at ease. The butterfly and forest bird Are huddled in the same gnarled bough, From which, like some rain-voweled word That dampness hoarsely utters now,. The tree toad’s voice is vaguely heard. I crouch and listen; and again The woods are filled for me with, forms — Weird, elfin shapes in train on train Arise; and now I feel the arms Around me of the wraiths of rain. O wraiths of rain! O trailing mist! Still fold me, hold me, and pursue! Still let my lips by yours be kissed: Still draw me with your hands et: dew Unto the tryst, the dripping tryst! —Madison Cawein in Atlantic. Judicial Decision on “Humph.” The meaning of the word "humph” was the subject of a judicial decision in the Irish court of appeal on Monday last. Four judges of the queen’s bench >• .vision, from which the appeal was taken, were unable to come to a unanimous decision as to the meaning of the word. Mr. Justice Maddren and Mr. Justice Boyd held that “humph” as used by Sir Walter Scott and Miss Austin in their novels was an expres sion of dissent, while the Lord Chief Justice and Mr. Justice Burton in clined to the conclusion that “humph” only meant a dissatisfied condition of mind. The Court of Appeal has now decided that the word is "an expres sion of doubt or dissatisfaction,” or, as Lord Justice Walker put it, in the words of the “Century Dictionary,” a “grunt of dissatisfaction.”—London News. Sisterly Sympathy. Gwendolen —How late you are, dear! What have you been doing all the afternoon? Maude—Helping the Grigsbys at their "at home” and making myself generally fascinating and agreeable. Gwendolen—Poor thing! What a hard day’s work for you! A Miraculous Escape. Mr;. Bear —(excitedly)—Why, my dear, yiu’re wounded! Whst hsj> pened? Mr. Bear—Why. a darn near sighted hunter mistook me for his guide!— Puck. Mrs. Brown—A woman should not domineer over her husband. Mrs. Jones—Ob.no! Marriage should be a succession of diplomatic triumphs.. —Puck.