Newspaper Page Text
TRAMPING IN SPAIN
'VARSITY BOY TELLS OF HIS IN TERESTING EXPERIENCES. WOMEN NOT BEAUTIFUL And Love Making Conducted in Conservative Fashion—lgnorance of People so Dense That They Don’t Even Know Enough to Hate Americans. J-,Q. Lyman, who was the Demo crat’s correspondent at the Paris ex position, is back and is now a student in the ’varsity summer school, seeking to make up in some measure the year and a half of academic work lost while abroad. After concluding his duties as an American guard at the exposition Mr. Lyman and a com panion walked through Spain, drifted the Rhine and did the continent iiL other unconventional but very de ligiiful; ways. “foot the Spanish people hate Amer icans?” he was asked yesterday. “Are the people intelligent, the women beautiful?” “Answering these questions in a general way,” he replied, “it may be said that the people as a rule are not intelligent, that they do not dislike the Americans, that the women are not as beautiful as they are pictured, but Uhe bull fights are more cruel and dis gusting than they are generally con sidered. The Spaniards seem to have accepted the results of the war philo sophically. and therefore do not feel any particular enmity against Ameri cans. This lack of bitter feeling is also due to ignorance. Over one-third of the Spanish people can not read or write and of course their ideas on the war are rather vague. In the moun tain districts where we spent a good deal of our time the dense ignorance of the people is rather startling. At one place where we said that we were Americans they asked if America was farther away than France. People possessed of the extensive knowledge of geography indicated by this ques tion could not have been greatly troubled by the loss of colonies as much out of their ken as if Columbus had never discovered them. The Americans are called Yankees by those who know what they are and where they come from but we never heard any allusions to the ‘Yankee pig,’ which played such a prominent part in the Spanish cartoons during the war. In our tramp we had a good deal to do with the guardia civil which patrols the inland roads and with the carabineros who are posted along the coast to prevent smuggling. They were always very friendly and willing to help us as much as lay in their power. They showed considerable curiosity about America and inquired whether it was richer and larger than Spain, how much the soldiers were paid, was military service compulsory, etc. The Spanish soldiers themselves are poorly uniformed but well armed. The carabineros lived in houses on the shore and patrol the coast at night to prevent smuggling. There are 15,- 000 of them employed in this service, and every inch of Spanish frontier is watched. However, the Spanish of ficers in southern Andalusia connive with the smugglers who bring goods from the free trade Gibraltar, so that dress goods and some provisions find sheir way into the interior. Love Making. “Spanish social customs in regard to love making have their draw-backs. 'All courting must be done in the pres ence of the senorita’s mother and even after a couple are engaged all their meetings are presided over by the terror-in-law-to-be. When a young man calls on his fiancee and finds that her mother is not at home he must stand outside in the street and say what he has to say to his sweetheart who is behind the bars of the window on the second floor. This is quite a common sight in the streets of a Span ish city and it is a sign that the two are engaged, for they must be en gaged before they can be allowed this kind of long-distance love making. -The standard of feminine beauty in Spain does not come up to its rep tation to any great extent. There are a few who are strikingly beautiful but they are oases in a desert of small, dark looking and often mustachioed females, who, when not engaged in raising families, are busy making cigarettes for the rest of the populace to smoke. The cigarette Industry is one of the largest in Spain. Each large city lias its tobacco factory run by the government and employing from 5,000 to 12,000 cigareras or cl- L garet girls. Great precautions are [taken to prevent smuggling. All the ' emploves are searched on leaving the factory and in Seville a deep moat surrounds the factory on all sides so that tobacco can not be taken away during the night. Bull Baiting. ••Th'' bull fight Is the most typical Spanish institution and is the one which has best withstood the invasion European customs and the attacks whitfh have been made upon it. It is the national sport. Every town of any considerable size has its bull ring. The Spanish town which lies just aero- the frontier from Gibraltar has a bull ring costing 130.000. but no pub licschool of any kind. The bull rings ol the larger cities are large arenas seating from 5,000 to 20,000 people and are among the chief rights of the town. Bull fights are held in Madrid during the entire year and in other towns on church festivals, such at easter, palm Sunday, and on fair days. The bulls for the fights are bred es pecially for the purpose on the ranches of breeders who make it their specialty. One of the drawing cards of a corrida is the breed of the bulls which will be killed. The duke of Ve raqua, who was entertained so mag nificently at Chicago during the world’s fair, is a famous breeder and his bulls were used in the fights at Madrid last oaster. The corridas are held in the afternoon and almost in variably on Sunday. They are attend ed by all classes of the population and by women as well as men. The performance opens with a procession of those taking part who march into the ring and in front of the uox of the president of the day. There they swear to kill the bulls, the president dismisses them and the slaughter be gins. The regulation number of bulls killed at each corrida is five. They are all killed. No bull ever goes out of the ring alive. The killing of each bull is divided into three scenes, the first two of which are preliminary ex hibitions of worrying and exciting the bull and which lead up to his death in the last act. Before he is let into the ring the bull is kept in darkness and without food or water so as to make him fiercer than usual if possi ble. When he Is let into the ring the first part is begun by the picadores, who are armed w-ith long lances and mounted on horses. They are sup posed, by skillful use of their lances, to keep the bulls from injuring the horses. This is merely a pretence, however, for the horses are partly blindfolded so that- they can Tie brought within striking distance of the bull. The bull attacks the horse, the picador usually fails to protect it, and it is gored by the bull. If the w-ound is not fatal it is forced toward the bull again and again until it falls to the ground from weakness caused by loss of blood. Several horses are killed at every corrida and the audi ence votes the performance a failure if too few horses are gored to death. The next part is played by the bander illeros, who stick the banderillos, or short pronged sticks, into the bulls’ necks. This part of the performance requires skill and nerve, for the ban derillos must be placed, two at the same time, one in each side of the shoulder, as the bull rushes for the banderillero with its head down and on mischief bent. Sometimes the banderillos are placed by the bander illero while he is seated in a chair or in some other way out of the ordinary. If the banderillero is too hard pressed at any time the attention of the bull is distracted by colored capeS flung in his face by men who are employed to keep the bull busy in the intermis sions. After the crowd has had enough of this entertainment the ma tador, or killer, enters the ring. He is armed with a brilliant red cape which he uses to excite the now tired bull, When he has the bull in the proper position, which is with his head down and coming for him, he thrusts the sword downward between the buu s shouideis into its heart. The bull drops dead on the spot if the job is well done. Often, however, it. takes several attempts before the finishing tnrust is given in the proper manner. The dead bull is hauled out of the ring, a little sand is sprinkled over tRe pools of blood and another "bull is let In. “A great many attempts have been made by the clergy and others to put an end to bull fighting in Spain but the institution flourishes as much as ever and it does not appear to be in danger of losing its hold on the people. The bull fighters are the popular heroes and the ambition of every small boy is to some day be a famous matador.” —Madison Democrat. Are French Latins or Celts? In connection with the recent visit of the Italian fleet to Toulon there have been many references In the European press to a renewal of the entente cordiale between two ‘Latin’’ nations. It may be of some interest to inquire in what sense the term “Latin” can be correctly applied to the Frenc’i. whom, almost in the same breath, many people are apt to describe as a “Celtic” people. One thing surely is certain, that In blood the French car not be at the same time both “Latin ’ and “Celtic.” Yet the inconsistency does not seem to strike people. I think that, although outside Pro vence the French have little or no Latin —i. e., Italian —blood in their viens, the explanation of their being described as a “Latin” race is to be found in the fact that their language and civilization are both Latin. It stems no longer permissible to hold that the French are mainly “Celtic” In blood, the view being now generally accepted that the bulk of the popula tion In France Is of a pre-Celtic, and probably of Iberian or Lugurian, stock. And this view seems to hold good also of Ireland and Wales.—The Spectator. The Intermediate Period. Despondent Father—" Maria, haven’t we done our best to train our boy right? And isn’t he going to the devil as fast as he can go? Hopeful Mother —“But, John, doesn’t Solomon say. ’Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it? Johnny won’t be old for forty years yet. We must give him time.” Chicago custom house receipts last year were $8,327,635. LASSIES 0’ LONDON JILTED GIRLS WHO SEEK AID OF THE LAW. SOME BREEZY EPISODES Breach of Promise Suits are Regarded Quite the Proper Caper Among R Quite the Proper Caper Among Re spectble Classes—Unhappy Love Af fairs Very Often. Some months ago an army surgeon returned home and scandalized all London, especially the female part of it, by declaring that south Africa was suering from a "plague of women” and begging the women of England to stay at home instead of going to the vari ous scenes of south African war opera tions, dancing about in an improvised ball rooms while wunded soldiers groaned in pain. The Impression gained by all who heard him or read his speeches in the papers was that south Africa was already being turned into a matrimonial hunting ground by Engand’s surplus women even among the fashionable set, and that they real ly constituted a ‘ plague.” For a time this vigorous sort of speaking had a tendency to stay the emigration of females to the war be leaguered towns, for the women grew ashamed and even the wives and daughters and sisters of the men who were fighting decided that they could probably best help their country by re maining at home instead of going to south Africa to help eat up the food that was frequently none too plentiful amng he men. Now, however,w 9 among the men. Now, however, es pecially since the reports of the cen sus have been partially given out, the subject of emigration to what are al ready called the “new colonies” of south Africa has been taken up seri ously and is being discussed at wo men’s meetings and clubs more than any other subject in which the gentle sex is supposed to be interested. “There’s a plague of women in Eng land!” said a prominent English wo man to me the other day. “There are too many of us! We ought to be shipped, or ship ourselves off some where where there are fewer of us. If the war would stop in south Africa we could go there!” A plague of women in England! At last I believe I have discovered the so lution of the mystery that has puzzled me almost ever since I came to Eng land—the reason of the thousands of breach of promise cases in England. The frequency of these cases among respectable women has puzzled nearly every American that has thought about the matter, and who that reads any Engish paper can help but have attention called to it? The papers filled with these stories of jilted maidens and widows I have made a point of noting that I have not picked up a single newspaper in many months that has not reviedew a breach of promise case, and generally several cases are referred to as being up before the courts. Not Like American Cases. Now, the breach of promise cases I have in mind are not of the sort we occasionally see written up in the American papers. Asa rule they arc not cases of women whose suits for damages against men of money and position are really nothing more than cases of blackmail. Of course there are some of those in England. A pretty barmaid or a music hall artist will sue the son of an earl for what she calls “breach of promise” and be awarded by the jury substantial dam ages, or a Whitechapel girl will sue for the Support of herself and obtain an award of 2 or 3 shillings a week; but these are not the cases with ac counts of which the papers are always full. A young shopgirl of the highest re spectability is engaged to be married to a young salesman in a grocery shop. He ceases writing, ceases to call, and when she inquires the reason he declares that he finds he is too poor to marry, or has found another girl he loves better. Now, in America a girl thus treated would go into a corner and weep, and might love the perfidious young man still, or she might simply despise him for his lack of taste in preferring someone else to herself, but she keeps the matter quiet goes on with her selling of rib bons and laces, for wounded pride and a sense of self-esteem make her keep to herself the fact that she has been jilted. But in England the highly respect able shopgirl takes her grievance to the courts, after carrying all her love letters, which she has refused to return, to a solicitor. He brings suit for damages, which she generally gets, although in some cases the lover repents in court and promises to es pouse her right away. The girl gen erally expresses her willingness to forgive and marry the young man of her abused affections, and thinks not that she has made an unwomanly and immodest spectacle of herself. She is willing to marry him, knowing that he does it in order to keep from pay ing the damages, and to go back with no sense of humiliation to her work among her shop mates. Not only does the highly respect able shopgirl act thus. Women of al most every grade, tinless it be among the very aristocracy Itself, think noth ing of bringing suit for breach of nromise, having their love letters f rea< in court and published in the news papers and re- Jving the damage: awarded them by a sympathetic judge and Jury. One cannot but wonder that English magistrates and judges, who are a set of men with much humor and are not averse to ex hibiting their wit in the courtrooms, do not make use of it when dealing "with these cases of maids and widows who sue a man because he has changed his mind about marrying them, but the judges try the cases selemnly, the jury listens more sol emnly still and brings in its verdict, which is always, it seems, tn favor of the woman, even If it awards her only two or three pounds. The jurors show not the slightest contempt for women who, if they thus carried their broken off love affairs to American courts, would excite only the scorn and laugh ter of judge and jury. Shocked by Her Protege. I shall never forget the shock 1 met from information of an Intended breach of promise suit to be brought by a little English girl whom I had met in one of my journalistic cam paigns, and befriended to the extent of helping her to get a place in a dressmaking shop. I found her weep ing one day, and thought she might have lost her place. But no! It was a love affair. “My young man has gone to walk ing out with another girl!” she said to me, “and he says we oughtn't to get married, as we’re not suited to each other!” “Dear me!” I returned, “it’s a good thing you found him out in time, for if you had married and then found he thought you were not suited to each other, that would have been worse!” I could treat the matter only lightly, for it seemed to me that a really bro ken heart would have hidden itself. “But he’s got to pay!” exclaimed the girl. “I’ve taken all hi3 letters to a solicitor. He’s got a place at. £2 a week and can afford to pay £SO damages! Why, I even had some of my wedding clothes made! Men can’t break off like that and not pay!” “What! Do you mean to say that you who pride yourself on your re spectability would do such a terrible thing? Only common, vulgar women do things like that!’’ I exclaimed. She explained to me that English girls always expected to sue their “young men” when the latter broke off engagements, and I washed my hands of my protege in disgust. I do not mean to imply that in Eng land there are not women who keep their unhappy love affairs locked In their own hearts. I fancy there are many, but certainly there are thou sands, in the classes considerably higher than the little dressmaker's girl, who look upon it as only just and right that a faithless lover should pay them for changing his mind and. as they call it, “cheating them out of a home.” It shows that marriage Is still looked upon as the only “pro fession” for the rank and filo of English women; that whether or not love comes their way, they must marry for the sake of having a home, and it is for this “home” which has been promised them and then denied that they consider they are entitled to “damages.*’ Even if all young men kept their promises and did "ot “Ro out walking with other girls” there would still be a large superfluity of women, and It is to provide for this condition that the question of female emigration to south Africa is being so generally dis cussed. First Children Strongest. It would seem that firstborn children excel later-born children in height and weight, says Arthur MacDonald, in Everybody’s Magazine. This may be due to the greater vigor of the mother at the birth of the first child. We are reminded of a fact, memtioned later, that out of 50 great men of this century, 30 per cent, were the youngest sons. In England it waa found that growth degenerates as . go lower in the social scale, ther being a difference of even five inches in height between the best and worst fed class in the community. An >n vestlgation of 10,000 children In Swit zerland showed that children born in summer are taller for their age than those born in winter; as a majority of children In the public schools are poor, in winter their parents a-e forced to economize more on account of expense of heating; their rooms are also liable to be small and poorly ventilated, while in summer they are out in the fresh air; food is al. cheaper and more varied. The in fluence of unhealthy conditions on a very young child would be mu -h greater than when it is older an 1 better able to resist them. Traveling Man and Reporter. Arthur Goodrich, in the World's Work. —The traveling man had just told the "cabby” the destination, and given him suggestions on fast driving, when a soft-hatted youth with a note book rushed up to him. “I’m from the News, Benator. Won’t you give me In a word what you think about the state election ?’’ The traveling man unconsciously grew dignified as he smiled at the reporter. “I should like you better, my boy, if you would call be by name,” he said. “I beg your pardon, Senator , I was in a hurray. "Yes, and you’re young. That will save you. Here is my card, and I want you to understand, young man, that I am a respectable traveling man. Then he added, as he saw the boy’s onstemation: If you really want my •lews of the Ohio election, I’ll write hem for you after I get to New York, lut you won't print them.” SCIENTIFIC SCRAPS LINES OF PROGRESS IN MODERN THOUGHT AND INVENTION. SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES Troubles That Watches Suffer —Gas at Eight Cents per 1,000 Feet—Flux for Castiron—New Alloy Found— Other Notes of General Interest. Like human beings, watches suffer from exposure—they take cold or they may catch the contagion of dyna mos. Watches often suffer from changes of temperature. After a watch has been worn next, to a warm body all day It should not be left overnight on cold marble or near an open window. The cold is likely to contract the metal pivots, and, however slightly, tighten up the works. The next morning, for no apparent reason, one’s watch will be found to be losing time, It fre quently happens that watches are slightly magnetised by electricity given off by the human body. Dark people are more likely to exert this influence over their watches. This influence is, besides, more common among women than with men. Per sons of this sort can never hope to carry the correct time unless they carry their watches In rubber or steel cases. One must not lay his watch down for the night in a horizontal position. It should always be hung vertically, as it is carried during the day. If the pivot of the balance wheel be in the least worn this change of position tends to loosen the “cap jewel.” Everyone has had a watch suddenly stop for no apparent reason and go on again when slightly shaken. This may not happen once a year, but all watches are liable to such an accident. This is due usually to the catching of the delicate hair spring. It is caused by some sudden movement such as jumping on or off a car. The jolt must come at the exact fraction of a second when the spring is in position to catch, so that the chances of such an accidnet are rare. A watch should be oiled every 18 months. Women are said to be the best customers of the watch doctor, since they seldom wind their watches regularly. A watch should be wound earl/ in the day, and not, as is the common practice, at bedtime. The reason for this is that the spring is then tighest during the day while the watch Is being carried and Is less sensitive. —The Scotsman. Gaseous Fuel. A topic among Midland manufac turers is the propable future of Mound gas. Many manufacturers are ex pecting great things. Professor Lodge, principal of the New Birming ham university, says of it: “The supply of gaseous fuel could be con ducted over very considerable dis tances. Towns go a great distance for their water supply, and there is no reason why they should not go a con siderable distance for gaseous fuel supply. The supply of fuel for fur naces and large manufacturing oper ations and the supply of fuel for household purposes are questions that must be considered by themselves, but it really looks as if gaseous fuel is go ing to do for both. * * * The real solution of the fuel problem would be the manufacture of gas at the pit’s mouth, if not at the bottom of the pits, and then carry, not the coal, but the gas produced, into the towns. If we calculate the size of the pipe required to supply a town we should certainly find it pretty big, but we must rpmember the immense rate at which gas could rush through pipes. Water could not be driven at a prodigi ous pace, but with a mederate pres sure gas would rush along pipes like a hurricane, and a sufficient quantity for all purposes. While Professor Mond arbitrarily fixes the price at 8 cents per 1,000 feet, he expects to produce his gas at a much lower figure. Mid land manufactures affirm that, if the Mond realizes only half Its expecta tions they will regain their ascendency over their American competitors. But what Is there to prevent American manufacturers following suit? —Iron Age. Flux for Cast Iron. A serious drawback in the use of castiron has been its brittle nature, the impossibility to braze it again when broken and the fact that it could not be brazed to other metals as wrought iron, steel, copper, etc. AH these faults are claimed to have been overcome by an English experimenter In a flux which accomplishes the de carbonlzatlon of cast iron under the exclusion of atmospheric air. Cast iron will not form an alloy with other metals unless it is frAed from carbon. It is stated that the brazing is easily performed, and Professor Martens, of the Berlin Mechanical Technical In stitute, testifies that the tearing and betiding tests with brazed cast iron made under his supervision prove that cast iron brazed with this flux stands the same strain as new < \st Iron, that brazed pieces never part again at the same place and that th j iron Is in no way deteriorated by the process.— Railway and Engineering Review. New Method With Bteel. The Bertrand process, as practiced at Kladno, BohemiA, consists in pour ing the liqnld pig from the blast fur nace into an open hearth furnace, where It is treated with lime and ore, the liquid pig carrying about 3.W of I carbon, 1 per cent of silicon, 1.5 per cent, of manganese. After about 2% hours the preliminary work is finished and the metal flows into the finishing furnace. The metal then contains practically nothing but carbon, which is oxidized in the flnishiug furnace in about the same time as the work lasts in the primary furnace, i. e., 2% hours. Thus eight heats are made in 24 hours, or an average of 45 heats weekly, the weight of the heat being 16 to 17 tons. The yield is 102 per 100 of pig charged, a plus of 2 per cent. Since the metalloids in the pig, which are eliminated by oxidation, the carbon, silicon and phosphorus amount to 6 per cent., therefore 8 per cent, of me tallic iron is reduced from the ore added. The best do hj so far was the average of the month of December, when the yield was 103.40 per 100 of metal charged.—lron Age. MAIMING TO ORDER. How Some Men In France and Ger many Avoid Conscription. When some months ago tho question of conscription was widely discussed In this country poole seemed to take it for granted that were it once adopted we would “settle down to it as they do on tho continent.” Now, anybody who has taken the trouble to study the subject will in form you that on the continent they never have quite "settled down to It.” Indeed, the extent to which some young men are prepared to go in order to avoid compulsory military service is amazing. Many will actually malm themselves, for physical deformity Is about the only cause which enables a man to be exempt. In France and Germany, for instance, great sensations have beji caused from time to time by the dis covery that gangs of professional maimers have been working whole dis tricts. The unscrupulous adventurers undertake to temporarily maim young men in such a way that they will be rejected by the military authorities when their turn comes to be examined for service. The French police have lately been in hot pursuit of one of these gangs. Their plan was simple, yet very clever. There must have been several mem bers In the band, as a bulky package of their letters which has just been found shows that they have for months been operating throughout the department of Ix)t-et-Garonne, as w_*ll as In the district Moissac. On arriving in a town the members of the band copied from the official lists the names of those who would be required to do military service when the next call was Issued, and then they ascertained how many of these young men were willing to become soldiers for a time and how many would much sooner remain at home. They lost no time In calling on the sons of well-to-do parents who were anxious to escape military service “If you can only prove that you have some grave bodily Infirmity,” they said to each of these young men, “you will never be required to serve. It you are willing to pay us 1.000 francs we will furnish you a bodily Infirmity which will not do you Injury and yet will prove a barrier against your becoming a soldier.” As soon aR a young man accepted this offer, two of the swindlers pro ceeded to manufacture a bodily In firmity by twisting and squeezing his tees and fingers, the result being that after a few days' manipulation they became deformed, and the young man could congratulate himself that in view of such a grave physical defect no medical examiner would accept him for service. Of course, the fingers were "guaran teed to gradually recover," and thi victims actually believed they would. Many young Frenchmen have bee.i op< rated on In this fashion, and for this service the majority of them havo paid 1,000 francs each. Asa rule, the band insisted on get ting their fee in advance, but some times they had to be satisfied with promissory notes, and it is because they demanded payment of one of these that their work has become known. The note in question was given by a young man and was readily accepted because the rogues knew that his mother was wealthy. They did not know, however, that she was a woman whom no amount of money could induce to countenance fraud. But they soon learned it, for when they presented the note she not only refused to pay it, but forwarded it to the nearest poller, magistrate. Asa result some of the minor con spirators have been arrested, and hundreds of letters found in their possession have been sent to the Paris authorities.-—London Express. Promising. In these gentle days of spring Everything is promising. Chinamen declare that they Wdl step forth and duly pay; Sultan wants It understood That he’s trying to be good; All our cities make things warm In the interests of reform, And the trusts hold forth anew "Better goods and cheaper, too.” So the blooming of the May Sweetly smiles and fades away, In these gentle days of spring Everything Is promising. —Washington Star. Constance Kendall has come into possession of property in southern California to the value of $50,000. It Is probable she wij.l spend some time there during this summer.