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TO THE BROGUE EFFORT TO KELL? ALIVE THE CELTIC LANGUAGE. A VERY OLD TONGUE Original Irish and Scottish Dialects Very Much Alike—Some Re semblance Also to the Greek, ►s*. Hebrew and Sanskrit—English tftt£.rs in the Alphabet. Thomas W. Gardiner, a member of the St. Louis police force, was recent ly interviewed by The Post-Dispatch of that city concerning the Irish tongue. He said: The Irish, or Gaedhilic. language is spoken to some extent in Ireland, in the Hebrides and highlands of Scot land and on the Isle of Man. It be longs to the Celtic group of the Indo- European languages. Its relation to English is not greater than the rela tion of English to Italian, while it is related to Welsh in about the same de>- gree that English is related to Ger man. Till within the last 300 years the language of Gaedhilic books, wherever written, was almost \ni form. Thus Bishop Cp.rsuel’s prayer book, printed in Scotland in 1567, does not differ from books written at the THOMAS VT. OARDIXER, same age in Ireland. The purest Irish in use today is that spoken on the Isle of Man. The Manx orthog raphy has several words borrowed from the Welsh and the Northmen. The Gaedhilic of the mainland of Scotland differs from that used in the isles, and the isles differ among them selves. In Ireland the dialect of the southern half differs from that of the north of Ireland, where little Irish is used. English has hedged it about there, as in many other places, until it is all but smothered. The Irish race has made a de termined effort to keep the old lan guage of their native land alive. Irish is the old Celtic. It dates back to the earliest occupancy of the island. It is difficult to learn, but when or.ce mastered is a delightful tongue. *1 have heard masters of it converse, and their skill with it in its difficult accents presented it to me ?s the most beautiful of tongues. There have been some brilliant stu dents of the language in *3t. Louis, but none of them remains now. so far as I know. Occasionally I meet some one who understands it, and we have a little chat in the Irish tongue. The students of old Scotch understand it. There is no appreciable difference in the languages of the old people of Scotland and those of Ireland. I was first interested in the .Irish tongue by a St. Louis Scot. I heaul him read from an Irish book, and it so shamed me to see a foreigner excel me in knowledge of my native land that I set out there anu then to learn Irish. I had no teacher. Books were rare. But I worked away, doing some study ing almost every night for several year;;. I firsjt took an Irish song and studied it over and over until I fa miliarized myself with every letter and every word of it, using an Irish grammar as a guide. From this song I took up more extensive Irish produc tions, and I finally became able to read and speak the language. Thera are 18 letters in the Irish alphabet, as follows: Ailm, a palm tree. Beih, a birch tree. Coll, a hazel. Dair, an oak. Fearn, an alder. Gost, an ivy. loga, a yew. Luis, a quick tree. MiilD, a vine. Nuin, an ash. Oir, a broom or furze. Pelh, a dwarf elder. Ruls, an elder tree. Suil, a willow. Teine, a furze. Ur, a heath. Eavrach, Hebrew. Eavrais, the Hebrew language. Most of these are names of trees. The written and printed Irish much resembles the Hebrew. Printed Irish all looks to the unknowing at first glance to be upside down. While the Irish tongue is in some ways a comparatively dead language, , it is still very much alive In many parts of this country and Eur< ne. It is taught in the public schools in Ireland, there are finished scholars In Irish at the German universities, there is a chair in the Irish tongue in one of the eastern colleges establish ed by the Ancient Ordfer of Hiber nians, there are Irish societies ic several American cities which main tain schools of instruction and have meetings at which debates are con ducted in Irish. There is a connecting link between the Irish language and the Greek, which is but natural, for the first peo ple to go from the continent to what is now Ireland were Greeks. There is also a similarity between the Irish tongue and the old Hebrew, and some of the bcrt students of Irish trace It back to the ancient Sansklrt. ADMIRE HIS FANKNESS. The Incident Which Gained Quaker Votes for Senator Gear. The late Senator Gear, of lowa, had one characteristic that is not peculiar to the politician; he was notably frank and outspoken on all occasions and neVfr endeavored to conceal by decep tion ' hts shortcomings. Senator Dolliveiv recently recti led an instance In which the exhibition of this trait worked to air. Gear’s advantage. Gear was a candidate for congress. The prohibition sentiment was run ning high in his district and the temperance people concluded to put the candidate through an examination. They held a meeting to which they invited Mr. Gear. He accepted. The chairman of the metjfng was a Quaker. “We learn,” said the Quaker to Mr. Gear, “that thee dost not belong to any temperance society, and that thee dost take a drink when it pleases thee?” “That is true,” replied Mr. Gear without any hesitation. “Thee are very frank,” said the Quaker, “and thy frar -mess is more to commended than thy habits. We do not think the ought to drink,-bm if thou —..st lied to us we would not have supported Thee wilt now receive our votes.”'' And Mr. Gear did get their votes. He never forgot the incident and its moral. —Chicago Chronicle. Egypt’s Impr&v em.nts. Lord Cromer’s rev.ew of Egypt’s finances in 1900 she vs a revenue of $58,316,000 and a surplus of $2,795,000. As the Nile was exceptionally low last year this is considered a good show ing. It beats 1899, when the revenue was greater than in any preceding year. Some $1,675,000 of the public debt was paid off, reducing that bur den to $513,570,000, including over $36,000,000 in the sinking fund. Pub lic burdens were otherwise reduced. Bridge and lock dues on the Nile were abolished, irrigation was aided, the prison administration was reformed, and prisoners are no longer to be fed at the expense’W their friends outside. Education is a growing interest, and young Egyptians show much anxiety to learn English, thinking they will thus be more likely to get appoint ments in the civil service. Formerly, previous to the Fashoda crisis, French was preferred, as the English regime was thought to be temporary. The Soudan has been tranquil, with abund ant rains and good crops, but still fig ures on the debt side of the account. It is designed to spend more on the Soudan railways and irrigation, with a view to the industrial development of the country. The clearing away of the sudd in the Upper Nile already fa cilitates commerce. Water as a Solvem of Values. It may be true that without water in large quantities the great enter prises which now challenge attention and excite more or less nervous appre hension could not be floated. It should not be forgotten by the inves tor, however, that water comes nearer than anything else to the standard of the universal solvent, and that when more of it is present than can be taken up in crystallization or held in chemi cal combination, is not inert, but dis plays ceaseless industry in wearing away and pulling to pieces whatever it comes in contact with. In water we find an explanation of the alluvial strata of dead enterprises upon which industrial progress builds its more or less substantial foundations. Just now we are passing through a period of emotional insanity, which renders us temporarily incapable of appreciating the basic truth in corporate finance that water not only does not represent actual or potential value, and that it is a solvent of values, and that the more we have of it the less permanent is that to which it enters as a com ponent part.—New York Times. Guard Against Inelegances of Speech. “Lapses in grammar do not offend when they are made by the illiterate who have not been taught the pro priety of speech. But they are exceed ingly disgraceful in an educated per son,” writes Margaret E. Sangster in the Ladies’ Home Journal. “Beyond mere correctness of expression there Is words, and there are hall-marks of words, and there are hall-marks of culture which the rich vocabulary shows, while the meagre one convicts of ignorance and poverty of resource. Colloquialisms and provincialisms are caught by those who live constantly among the unlearned, but the Influence of this contact may be modified by a daily study of words, as in a lexicon or thesaurus, and by the habitual read ing of good books. Insensibly, we ac quire the speech of our associates, and a favorite author, if he belong to the aristocracy of the literary guild, Is one of the best associates we can have.” Cynicism may be fashionable, but It has a very disagreeable effect on the corners of the mouth. A MISSISSIPPI SWAMP. Hero in this sultry July afternoon VIS The white light through the seems gloomy green; Here lies, all motionless, the lagoon 'W B Through twilight where no sun iS ever seen. v Huge turtles bask by youdor sluggish lake, A hoarse bullfrog is croaking from the bank, And like a jeweled necklace swings a snake Amid the mosses of a cyprer. dank. Here, like a shlpmast rooted in the soil, A great live-oak defies the future gales; Gigantic grapevines, twisting coil on voll, Have weaved his cordage and his mighty sails. A scarlet splash of color, here and there The trumpet blossom’s flag is all aflame; Beside this stream, the cardinal flowers glare Like eyes of tigers none can ever tame. Hero a magnolia with resplendent buds Seems a green billow strewing peer less pearls, Or bearing flocks of swans on emerald floods, Aflutter in a maze of snowy swirls. The sluggish waters, green with curdled scum. Are glorified by lilied robes of white— Lilies so pure, so lovely, that they come Like myriad noons on some en chanted night. The purple bunting that is glinting by Seems like a pansy that can soar and sing; The scarlet tanager that flutters nigh, Seems like a poppy warbling on the wing. The redbird, like a crimson shooting star, Burns on the vision with a blaze In tense; And like two jeweled daggers, from afar Two humming birds pierce through the shadow dense. The yellow-hammer for a moment glints, A golden-breasted, dotted autumn leaf; The oriole, in black and orange tints. Glows through the greenwood like a flaming sheaf. The hermit thrush, that forest Ham let, sings. Asking the old, old question, ever new, Yet, still unanswered by created things, ' And hid forever out of mortal view. —Walter Malone in Criterion. OLD TIME BANKING. How a New England Institution Began Business in 1792. A little book issued by the Hartford National bank takes us back to the be? ginning of banking, for that institu tion dates from 1792, and there are ex isting in the country only four which are older; two of the four, however, surpass the Hartford by not more than one year. A strictly local demand, not less real because recognized by only a few persons, led to the found ing of the bank, and the antiquated conditions of that time were very pe culiar. Even then Hartford had a good trade with the West Indies, ex changing horses, cattle, woods and farm produce for rum, molasses and some specie. But money was scarce and was tenaciously held, for in the last decade of the eighteenth century (and even later) trade had not emerged from the original condition of barter. The bank came in to relieve this friction in exchanges, but it had also to teach the nature and functions of a bank. It emitted notes in a small way and by redeeming them on de mand in “hard” money gradually made people perceive that these notes were quite as effective as the other and much more convenient. The next discovery was that a credit at the bank —a mere paper en try which could not be handled, though it could be seen—was in effect an entity, and a transferable entity: thus the use of checks began, and the old Hartford bank claims for itself that in its own community it initiated the use of the modern system of ex changes by transfers of credits, leav ing to cash in any form only the set tlement of the small final balances. This bank also led in introducing dec imal notation into Connecticut. Sterl ing prevailed when the bank was founded, and denominational values varied widely in the different states; but in June, 1792, the bank— following the Jefferson resolution in Congress in 1785— changed to the dollar unit, al though the State of Connecticut did not follow until five years later. The oldest of the notes shown in facsimilie in the booklet dates 1816 and is peculiar in phraseology: “The President, directors & Cos. of the Hart ford Bank promise A. Kingsbury or bearer to receive this note for Ten Dol lars in payment of any dues to said Bank.” There is no promise of re demption, as by later and usual forms, by only an I O U issued on the bank and receivable from any debtor to It. Very quaint appear some of the old checks, printed on coarse paper In oiu fashioned type and with an early at tempt at a “border.” The specimens shown are spotted and ragged and date back to 1793 and 1792. In one Noah S y P'fl • nV nll - :■ were 1 s at .loin, st n .••i-miu'-d I against dk they withdr. 4 count to be n ~ lllli'C 1 again.” "An v p. ' sdii > V£| ! !I■ t-■ uin 1: i!:.> .-ndovst-r will la- 1 I ! discount. \n> person note to lx- Sued is to lui posted in the Bank. No reason to be given out Bank for refusing a Discount Wi... passes In the Bank not to be spoken on at any other place.”—New Nork Financial Chronicle. LONDON SHOPMEN’S SIGNALS. How They Privately Communicate Respecting Customers. Did i* ever strike you that on entering certain shops you were, being “signaled” as surely as any tering a railway station? Most prob ably not; yet such a thing must often have happened in your case, es pecially if you do your shopping in or about London, and are in the habit of going regularly to certain shops for certain things, so that some of the as sistants come to know you by sight— as they very quickly do. Old hands can carry on a sort of conversation in the presence of a third party as expert as themselves, but ignorant of the special code in which the two in question are work ing; hence the instances we are about to cite are only specimens of one of the many codes in use in the city. If, in showing you to the counter you seek, the shopwalker in the establishment in question extends the first two fingers of the right hand and grips the others, the assistants im mediately understand that you are a kleptomaniac—not to put too fine a point upon it. A twirl of the right side of the mustache upward with the right hand signifies that you’re a sort of fool, who knows nothing and whom, conse quently, it Is safe to “rush” for all your’re worth —and the assistants charge accordingly. If. on the other hand, some assistant who has had previous experience of you, and has come to the conclusion that you are a particularly sharp customer, who cannot be taken In on account of your knowing the price of a given article to the fraction of a penny he will let the assistant about to serve you know this fact by wind ing his watch chain about his left forefinger in an absent-minded sort of way, the exact significance of the sign being: “Tartar; no good trying bluff.” If a little flattery will work well with you an assistant knowing this will telegranh the fact from the op posite counter by putting the finger tips of both hands together; the significance of it being “Blarney!” Even more explicit instructions can be expressed. For instance, if an as sistant espies another bringing down a particular roll of silk which he knows is dyed one of your favorite colors ho will pass his fingers over his upper lip, which means: “Raise the price of this particular article,” in contradistinction to putting something on all round. A similar movement across the lower Up would mean that it Is as well to lower the price if possible, as it can be made up in raising that of WALKING! WALKING! “They say he’s an awfully wide awake man." “Naturally. He’s the father of twins.” S with the folks vania border, you know. mer, with of hot weather father used to load us all into the big family rarriage and take us.by easy, stages to the top of the Allegheny mountains, where he would put in a month, six weeks or two months, ac cording to the weather. On those trips I was the happiest boy in Ameri ca and talked about one until the next one came. “The dear old governor failed finan cially before he died, and I struck out fog, myself. You could never guess my loftiest ambition. It was to make money enough so I could take that an nual outing just as I aid' when a boy. I sailed in and became reasonably well off. but this was the first time when everything was favorable for the trip. I did nothing on the way to the old home but tell my folks aliout. the pleasure in store for them and revel in the joy of anticipation. “Well. sir. that dream proved a nightmare. The house and yard that I remembered as so big seemed to have shrunk about 75 per cent. The springs on the carriage we bumped together, the horses were but one degree above a cow, the roads were dusty, the flowers were ftothing like us pretty as when I was a lad, the entire scenery showed a depreciation and we progressed so slowly that my wife and I had to walk frequently to calm our nerve3. The boys said it was too blamed pokey for anything and at the end of the first day we aban doned the expedition, took a train, re maining at the springs just long enough to eat and be disillusioned and then headed for a modern resort. The man living in the rush of today is a fool to put to the test of reality the sweet recollections of his boyhood. I’d give ten thousand dollars if I had never dispelled that memory." Funeral Custom in Athens. The possibility of getting an unex pected view of the corpse, which is carried exposed In a shallow coffin, renders a Greek funeral procession a spectacle which nervous foreigners would do well to avoid. Old men and women arrayed in somber black, young girls and children in white aid halt buried in flowers —all the dead are thus borne for the last time through the streets of the city which has been their home. You aro perhaps stopping at one of the hotels, and hear the solemn music of the dead march. You run to the window and look down, and there, turned toward you in the awful calm of death, is a face of marble whiteness, and a rigid form,' the poor helpless hands crossed upon the breast. In former times high dignitaries of the church were borne to the grave seated in a chair placed upon an elevated platform. But this display was too spectacular even for the Athenians, and it wa.' finally abandoned. The coffin-lid, upholstered with richly embroidered silk and hung with a huge wreath, is carried at the head of the procession, which derive ad ditional pomp from the numerous banners and symbols of the church held high in air. Priests, relatives and mourners follow on foot, and the men sitting at the cafes or in the open doors rise, remove their hats and cross themselves as the corpse passes. In the case of an officer in the army, his charge, caparisoned In black, Is led with him on this last expedition of all.—George Horton in Scribner’s. Venezuela Wants $30,000,000. Venezuela wants to borrow $30,000,- 000 In New York and has sent a repre sentative here to sound the market. The president, of the South American* republic can depend on the active sup port of the asphalt trust In his en deavor to float a loan. The asphalt spokesman will tell hankers that th'e policy of the Venezuelan government is to confiscate foreign investments if there is anything lying around loose or that It feels It would like to give to another. This will tend to build up the credit of the would-be borrower and cause American capitalists to climb over one another for an oppor tunity to subscribe for a loan. The ex cuse offered by Venezuela for wanting $30,000,000 Is the need of railways to develop the resources of the country. —New York Letter. . Ire; HHPk out for stol a Marvel. l *-i; .- In >• Man.-cr its capabilities in WWuHith Afrlean>Var —both on Brit ish and boer side—it has been the de sire of the makers of weapons of de struction to produce a regular pocket machine gun that would just go “R-rr-rr-pp” when the trigger was pulled and keep it up as long as the magazine held out. It was also de sired that the shots should scatter like a charge of bribery thrown into a meeting of the municipal council. The desired machine pistol has not been produced yet but the nearest ap proach to it seems to have been made by the Colt Patent Firearms Manu facturing company of Hartford, Conn., which lias constructed an automatic seven-shot "pistof of .38 caliber. Its total length is nine ipches and it weighs 35 ounces. The barrel is en closed in a way that resembles a wa ter jacket. The pistcfl is somewhat flat in pattern and the grip is set nearly it right angles to the barrel. People who have ever been lucky enough to with a revolver fitted with a handle tiijrtraked back until it. was not much oil of the straight line of the barrel, will understand the drawbacks of that right-? q&l.ftd -tujjv dle, especially when smokeless powder is used. That, however, seems to be the sin gle defect that the pistol presents—and that it is a fault at all will be denied by a great many. The Colt pistol has a decided advantage over the Mau ser weapon in that its hammer resem bles the hammer of ail revolvers. That on the Mauser is of so curious a construction that it has to be grasped by finger and thumb, one each side, before it can be cocked by most per sons. Another thing is that the Colt automatic pistol looks like a pistol. Some of the foreign makes of maga zine and automatic pistols that have been sent over here might be anything from a telescope to a surgical instru ment. No one would know they were pistols unless they happened to be shot by ifne. All the .revolvers used in the navy and most of those used in the army have been for many years supplied by the Colt company. It was the Colt .45 which civilized the woijt. Until the model was changed some years ago the standard army pis tol was a .45 calibpr Colt’B revolver, single action, taking a rifle cartridge and extracting its used shells by means of a spring ramrod The new model, which is now In use, is of .38 calibre, is double action and,throws out ell its fired, shells at once by means of a rod ejector. The pistol is loaded by pulling a spring which al lows the chamber to fall over to the left. This pattern is also made by the Smith & Wesson company. Because of the long time standing and reputation of the Colt company the ordinance officers of the Unfted States army have been making a thor ough test of the new automatic pistol manufactured by tho Colt company. The weapon, like all modern auto matic pistols, works by using Its own recoil. The first test was to the time necessary to dismount and reassemble the pistol. It was found that It took five minutes to take it to pieces, while it required nearly thirteen minutes to put it together again. The Mauser pistol, it may be re membered can be resolved Into its component parts in a few seconds. It has no screws in it and is so simply constructed that no tool Is needed. A horse-nail, a lead pencil or the point of a bullet can be used to dismount the Mauser pistol. The very simplicity, however, has been known to be a nui sance, for a Mauser pistol sometimes proceeds to take Itself to pieces with out asking for any assistance from its' owner. When it does that while he is using It. to shoot with, the result Is saddening. It is for this reason, probably, that there are six screws and eleven pins in the Colt pistol. It also contains three flat springs and five spiral ones. The other tests applied to the new pistol by the board of ordinance un doubtedly constitute the most severe conditions to which any small weapon —whether pistol or revolver—has ever been subjected.—Brooklyn Eagle. Anew broom may sweep clean, but In the hands of a woman who has an argument with her husband an old one is equally effective.