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pacts for O ur Farmers,
SUBURBAN NOTES. What may be termed a refined. In tensive form of agriculture has grown ap in recent years in the vicinity of all the larger cities, as a result of the modern tendency toward surburban living and the almost phenomenal growth of cities. It is noticeable about Springfield and Worcester anil all the cities of New England, and i3 hardly less the case in other sections of the country. The Country Gentle man calls it the suburban type of agriculture, and goes on to say: This style of farming presents various characteristics of a merely compara tive nature, such as the relatively smaller farm, higher cost of land, large Investment of working capital, more intensive methods, large produc tion and larger gross profits. Some times the percentage of profit is greater, and sometimes less, than in the old-fasnioned rural farming. This type of farming, which goes on under the smoke of factory chimneys, may fairly be called a refined style of agriculture. It has all those char acteristlcs which go with what is commonly called refinement of In dustry, or refinement of society. To be sure, one has often to doubt whether "refined society” Is any better than rural society: and It may still be a question whether the "refined type of agriculture” of the city suburbs ts better or more satisfying to the farmer than the good old frontier struggle with the wilderness. Never theless, in the sense of being more highly specialized, of being more inti mately in touch with modern scientific discoveries, of being more intensive in methods, the suburban agriculture Is more refined. Now the point which brings all this up here Is that the modern surburban agriculture, like every other case of refined farming, comes pretty near to being norticulture. Horticulture is the refinement of agriculture in more ways than some people care to recognize. Take the neighborhood of Washington rs an example. In 1899, the value of agriculture products for the District of Columbia was as fol lows for the items named. Milk, cream and butter, $185,093, cereals, $7,039; horticultural products, $639,398. Dairying, which, like horticulture, is a highly refined branch of agriculture, is the only rural industry which ha3 competed w'.th horticulture In the re pent development of the District of Columbia. In the decade between 1830 and 1900, the number of cows kept In this territory increased 45 per cent, and the amount of milk sec ired increased 85 per cent. Tho fact that the milk product iDcreaseu nearly twice as rapidly ss the number of sown kept speaks again most em phatically of the refinement of agri cultural practice which has been going ou. Meanwhile the value of market garden products increased (mn 1889 to 1899 from $74,890 to $95, 471, of $118,095, depending on whether potatoes and sweet potatoes ara oounted out or in for 1899. At the same time the total of flowers and ornamental plants grown In green houses and on farms rose to $519,565 s year, or nearly 60 per cent, of the total of all agricultural products for the entire District of Columbia. Now there Is just one moral that we should like to draw from this. Most fanner? are anxious for improvement in agriculture. The sincerely want to see farming improved in general, and they are willing to see some improve metn on their own farms, provided it does not require too much trouble, and providing it gives some promise of paying its way. With this feeling at heart, they ought to give more j thought and room to horticulture. j There are hundreds of farmers who will not bother with a strawberry bed. j or with plum trees, or even a row of. currant bushes. They have more im- 1 portant concerns. Their farming is i laid out on other lines. Yet in this refusal they shut up their souls against the greatest means of grace (applying a camp-meeting figure to an agricultural topic) which there is open to them. Always and everywhere, naturally and necessarily, horticulture means improved agriculture, and the man who desires improvement should take every chance to avail himself of the proper means. We have pur posely left out of account an inciden tal advantage to ba derived from strawberry beds and plum trees, which bas no relation to the money yield and which is nevertheless of the highest Importance to the farmer and his family—we mean the supply of the mo3t healthful and delicious of , luxuries for his own table. Examine Your Bush Fruit Plants. The condition of bush fruit plants at the close of the growing season is a certain indication of the product tb •• following year, says an exchange. If the foliage is free froLi rust and blight, the cane mature and well ripened, stocky and well supplied with strong, vigorous buds and free from spot or blemish, the roots light, fibrous and strong, and the pith, the vital part of the plant, bright, fresh and firm, these conditions give as surance that with a fair season and proper winter protection a full crop may be expected. It Is important to save all good canes by thorough winter protection. This is best dore by bending bushes to the ground and covering with fresh earth. The roots of plants are very flexible and may be turned and doubled in any direction. In laying bushes down for winter the beding must be In the root, and below the surface of the ground. It is not at all difficult, but simply requires a little care and practice. There is no doubt whatever as to the great ad vantage of such protection, and it should be given in all latitudes where the thermometer ever touches 30 degrees below zero. Deplores Valley Tobacco Culture. Rev. H. P. Cutter of Malden, agent for the Massachusetts total abstinence society, deplores the increasing amount of tobacco culture in the Con necticut valley, as he reported at the monthly meeting of the society. He has just completed an -extended tour of Hampden, Hampshire. Worcester, Middlesex and Essex counties, three months having been spent in the Con necticut valley. In the valley he was surprised at the rapidly Increasing cultivation of tobacco and what he was pleased to term “rum rule.” He de plored the fact that the beautiful valley is fast being devoted to a growth of the weed, which has come to be almost the only object for farm ing in some sections, Hatfield and Westfield being notable examples. Some Tobacco “Con'ts.” Here are some "dont’s” for tobacco growers, published by the Homestead: Don’t ever take down wet tobacco; it never will look well again. Don’t put tobacco in a bundle and stamp It In. Don’t press the bundles too hard. Don’t expect a big price for a lot of rubbish mixed in; this will always show the first thing when opening bundles for inspection. Don’t put water on the tobacco to dampen it; nine times out of 10 it will do damage. Don’t think your tobacco is all right | and not go near it for a month; if you do, you will find It all wrong. Notes. In proof that abandoned farms are “more largely the result of barrenness of brain than of soil,” an exchange reports that on one of these in Mas sachusetts a farmer from Long Island who knows something about farming has this year planted 37 acres witfo potatoes, from which he is now gather ing a crop of from 125 to 150 bushels per acre, disposing of the same ; n Worcester at from $4.50 to $5 per parrel. At the lowest figure he will receive over SIO,OOO for the crop, or at least 20 times the amount he paid for the land. At this rate a few more experiments by Long Island fanners will redeem the waning reputation of the agricultural district of Massachu setts. The secretary of the Massachusetts state board of agriculture has Issued a descriptive catalogue of farms for sale at prices low in proportion to the cost of their buildings and their productive capacity. There arc 50 farms ad vertised for Berkshire county, 15 for, Franklin, 15 for Hampden. 13 for Hampshire county, making a total of 93 for western Massachusetts. This work of the state board was begun 10 years ago and the results in farms sold seem to justify Its continuance. It is said that Chicago speculators have set aside a fund of $3,000,000, and have their agents in New York and Pennsylvania buying up apples and a corner in the fruit is talked of. A high price in the northern apple regions will bring out an unusual quantity from the Virginias, North Carolina, Missouri and Arkansas where they are relatively abundant, and in years of cheapness unable, from cost of transportation, to make competition. A Boston agricultural paper makes this observation: One who follows the Boston market year after year notices that its distributing trade area is be coming more circumscribed. Other New England cities are becoming trade centers, and as they get Boston freight rates from the west their merchants can get supplies at home cheaper than to send to Boston for them and pay the freight out. The Vermont potato crop is much below the. average, but is soraewh it larger than was at first expected. Ti e prevalence of dry rot is complained of in all potato-raising sections. The state experiment station early an ticipated the trouble and advised treatment of the vines by spraying Wherever the advice was heeded and the instructions followed a fairly good cron is being harvested. The United States government cen sus bureau Friday announced that statistics of agriculture for Con n.ecticut. It shows that 74.6 per cent of the land surface of the state con sists of farms, numbering 26.94 R in all ! Their value is $97,425,068. of which | $44,982,560 represents the value of the buildings and $52,441,508 the land and 1 improvements exclusive of buildings. A course in corn Judging is offeree' this fall to students of the Illlnoi*' college of agriculture. The work be- 1 gan September 15, and will continue' nine weeks. This is the first tim such a course has been offered any where In the world. Elsie Leslie, the beautiful young actress who is attracting so much at tention as Glory Quayle with E. J Morgan in The Christian this season is the wife of Jefferson Winter, son of the famous dramatic critic. William Winter Four were killed and four wounded in a fight between the Morgans an Chadwells near Middlesboro, Kv. HOLD THE TRAIN. “Madam, we miss the train at B .” "But can’t, you make it, sir?” she gasped. “Impossible, it leaves at three, Aud we are dve & quarter past” “Is there no way? Oh, tell me, then, Are you a Christian?” “I am not." “And are there none among the men Who run the train?” “No—l for got— I think the fellow over here, Oiling the engine, claims to be.” She threw upon the engineer A fair face, white with agony. “Are you a Christian?” “Yes, I am.” “Then, O sir, won’t you pray with me, All the long way, that God will stay. That God will hold the train at * B ?” “ Twill do no good; it’s due at three. And”—“Yes, but God can hold the train; My dying child Is calling me, And I must see her face agalp; Oh. won’t you pray?” “I will,” a nod Emphatic, as he takes his place. When Christians grasp the arm of God They grasp the power that rules the rod. Out from the station swept the train On time, swept past wood and lea; The engineer, with cheeks aflame. Prayed, “O Lord, hold the train at B .” • • • 4 • They flung the throttles wide, and like Some g'ant monster of the plain, Witt panting side and nighty strides, Past hill and valley swept the train. A half, a minute, two are gained; Along those burnished lines of steel His glances leap, each nerve is strained, And still he prays with fervent zeal. Heart, hand, and brain, with one accord, Work while his prayer ascends to heaven — "Just hold the train eight min .es, Lord, And I’ll make up the seven.” With rush and roar through mea dow lands, Past cottage home and green hillsides, The panting thing obeys his hands, And speeds along with giant strides. • • • • • • They say an accident delayed The train a little while; but He Who listened while His children prayed, In answer, held the train at B . —New Orleans Picayune. GLEANINGS AND GOSSIP. The customer, George Pilotelle, said that he once designed $200,00d worth of dresses for one woman, while Worth confesses that a Peruvian heir ess paid him $24,000 for a single gown. In St. Paul: Stranger—lsn’t there a good deal of kicking on account of having to pay street car fares to ride from Minnepolis to this town? Resi det —No, sir. People are willing to pay anything to get out of Minne apolis.—Chicago Tribune. New England is usally credited with the quaintest of tombstone memorials, but this one from a Wisconsin ceme tery Is odd enough.— Sixteen years a maiden, Sixteen months a wife. Six months a mother, Then she quit this life. Rev. Mr. Sheldon of Topeka, was un fortunate in his comparison when he said he “would rather drink a bottle of red ink than t bottle of beer,’’ for the Kansas City Journal rises to re mark that “the craving of some men for stimulants is remarkable. The main constituent of re< ink is alcohol.” A Philadelphia firm of auctioneers recently offered r.t one of their sales Robinson Crusoe's musket. It was a fine old flintlock. It was in the pos session of a geal grandniece of Alex ander Selkirk, and according to an ex change, its pedigree 1b much more un clouded than is usually the case with objects of the kind. The Royal Humane society of Eng 'and has picked from among 700 men who had performed gaiiant deeus Wil liam Allen, as the bravest man In Eng land. and has given him the gold modal for 1901. Allen’s heroism was shown In rescuing three men from the inside of a tar-si ill, which was filled with deadly fumes, He made four trips into the jaws of death At a recent wedding in V ashington Wu Ting-Fang, according to a news | naper stbry, was asked to pronounce a Chinese blessing on the couple. The | oriental diplomat complied In this fanbion: “May every year bless you | vith a child until they number twenty . five. May these children present you with twenty-five times twenty five Trandchlldren. and may these grand -hildren—” At Ibis point the bride and groom fled. Here Is Gus Roger’s definition of reciprocity: "You gift a man some dings you don’t got for somedlngs he ain’t need und don’t get no uselessness for.” But even that fearful and won derful definition is puny compared with Rogers' explanation of gravi tation: ’’Yer stand on der top of a hole, and no matter how high der hole iss, gravltatior s pulls you to der bottom.” A ticket collectoi on an English rail way got leave to go aud get married, and was given a pass over the line, says the Kansas City Star. On the way back he showed to the new col lector his marriage certificate by mis take for his pass. The latter studied it carefully, and then said: "Eh, mon you’ve got a ticket for a lang, weari some journey, but not on the Cale donian railway. There are 5,000 requests for Mr. Mc- Kinley’s autograph on file in Washing ton. It had been the custom of the late president to devote spare moments to the gratifications of these demands In so far as he could, but during a few months’ absence or through a period when the president would be busily oc cupied with affairs of state, these let ters asking for autographs would pile up. Mrs. McWilliams, who was with Mrs. McKinley at Buffalo and after ward accompanied the funeral party at Washington and Canton, is the favorite cousin of the president’s widow. She is the daughter of the only sister of Mrs. McKinley’s father. She was a Miss Goodman, and when she and Mrs. McKinley were young women, it Is said, they resembled each other strongly. The story is told of three Protest ant ladles, who walked into a Catholic church in Ireland during high mass. It was raining, and they had gone in for shelter. The priest, oua of nature's noblemen, recognized the women and said to the attendant. "Three chairs for the Protestant ladies.” It was a kindly thought, but the priest Regret ted It when the man stood up and shouted: “Three cheers for the Prot estant ladies!" which were given. An English paper publishes an ' lter esting yarn about a practical joae played upon a railway passenger by his traveling companions. One of them stole the victim’s ticket, and then they all persuaded them lhai tne best way to avoid unpleasantness wuh the ticket collector was to hide under the seat. When the ticket collector received one ticket more than the number called for he wanted explana tions. They were at once forth-com ing: “Oh, the other belongs to the gentleman under the seat. He would travel like that; we don’t know wny.” The paragraph from the Montreal i Star shows how sensitive Canada is: “One of the addresses to the duke and duchess of Cornwall and York was pre sented by two Indian chiefs and a squaw, the chief wearing great plumes, blanket coats, with wampum orna ments and silver armlets. This circus will, no doubt, be reported by the Eng lish press correspondents as some thing eminently characteristic of Canada, and If these gentlemen were told that their royal highness had seen In this ‘get up’ something that few Canadians have ever seen, they would probably reply, ‘Walker.’ ” The exchange of courtesies between the kaiser and the czar In the shape of colonelcies of guard regiments, is something which the magnates in the United States might emulate with pro fit, says the Kansas City Star. For example, Mr. Croker could be ap pointed honorary paragrapher of the Commoner by Mr. Bryan. ar,d in turn, Mr. Bryan could be made an honorary Tammany leader of the Eighth assem bly district. The possibilities of this scheme are magnificent. Mayor Reed might Ingratiate himself with Mr. Dockery by naming the governor as honorary superintendent of streets and the governor could return the compli ment by making Mr. Reed Janitor ex traordinary' of the state house. RAILWAY DEVELOPMENT. English View of What Has Been Done in America. Owing to a variety of causes, the evolution of the railway has progress ed more freely in North America than in any other part of the world. * • • Instead of being compelled to buy out landowners at fancy prices and to execute heavy accommodation works at every point along the route of a proposed line, compan'es were rather encouraged to advance by large gifts of land, which, if not so already, must sooner or later become extremely valuable, and neither by law nor by public opinion were they required to faca an expenditure on luxuries of construction such as so heavily bur dened capital accounts in England. With much of the country flat and open In character, the actual work f laying the tiack was generally easy and Inexpensive. •• • Under conditions so favorable it Is not surprising that railway develop ment has taken place in North America Is nearly 10 times that of the United Kingdom, and Canada, whose population, scattered over the 3,00fi miles from ocean to ocean, is hardly equal to that of London alone, has already opened a system as extensive as that of Great Britain. *• • In pas senger traffic the greater average length of Journey caused more atten tion to be paid to question of comfort. In the absence of railway class dis tinctions it was possible to provide long, open cars, allowing freedom of movement from end to end and gen eral access of lavatory accommoda tion. In the north at any rate the climate demanded an efficient method of beating, and the lack of organized cab service in the great towns com pelled the Introduction of arrange ments for dealing with luggage with which we In England are only now be coming familiar. Then followed sleep ing. drawing-room and dining cars, and, in short, practically all the Improvn ments which, adopted gradually ou this side of the water, have within the last generation done so much to lessen the tedium of European t raved. It runs the fastest trains In the world, and Invented the compressed air brake, by which even the quickest train can. if necessary, he stopped In not much more than her own length. The permanent way of the chief lines Is at least as good as any to be found elsewhere; the working of signals and switches otherwise than by manual labor has been tried with success and. though the steam locomotive has been very highly perfected, great ad vances have also been made tn con nection with electric traction, by which It may some day be replaced. The high rates of wages paid and the keenness of competi tion have compelled companies to seek every possible means for the reduction of working expenses. At sea. it has been found that other things being equal, the larger a steam ship Is the more economically It can be worked. Applying the same princi ple on land, the American lines In creased very greatly the power of their engines and the weight of trains hauled, and both In passenger and freight service the results have been highly satisfactory. The pre&ent excellence of American rolling stock has been attained under conditions curiously different from those prevailing In England, where the object of every railway is to make its coaches and lqcomotlves as different as possible from those of every other. This practice, so well illustrated by the English exhibits at Paris last year, gives the companies no doubt an advertisement of some value, the white carriages of the Northwestern, for instance, or the. yellow engines of the Brighton line being instantly recognizable everywhere; but whether it is wise in every case to allow each newly appointed engineer to introduce a style of Ills own may be open to question. In America, on the other hand, the work of building passenger vehicles of the best description is largely concentrated in the hands of the great Pullman company, whose cars run over nearly all lines indis criminately, while in the matter of locomotive power the railways are generally content to resort to a few large firms who have evolved certain standard types and are able to guarantee economic production. The era of unrestricted competition seems to be passing away, and the consolidation long ago foretold by Prof. Hadley 1b rapidly taking place and has become the question of the hour. * • • —London Saturday Re view. TALKING DOLLS. Girls Are Paid for Filling the Pho nographs With Jingles. Girls with pleasing voices find remunerative employment in factories where “talking dolls” are manu factured. These dolls contain a miniature phonograph, and the girls are kept busy talking into the tiny machines that are afterward fitted Into the dolls. They recite the familiar nursery jingles, “Mother! Goose” rhymes and other literature for small folk. A tube connects with the mouth of the doll, and through this the phonograp is heard when the doll Is wound up. Since dolls equipped with these an 1 other Ingenious Inventions have been put on the market, the business o? doll making has assumed vast propor tions, and In many of the factories women form a large part of the em ployes. i There Is constant demand for at tractive new features, and the little people of today would never o satisfied with the dolls of a few years ago. “The children are so exacting nown days,’’ said a woman who understandi thls business, “that If you show them a doll which does not close Its eyer when It Is laid down they’ll Invariable say: ‘No, I don't want that. I want my doll to go to sleep.’ They must have real hair on the dolls, and they are quick to notice whether the tin/ toes and fingers are perfect.” The work done by women consists largely of the finishing touches neces sary in completing the dolls and dressing them. Certain forms of work are assigned to each employe, and in a factory which turns out drpssed dolls one girl makes all tb< ruffles required, another the under wear, another the hoods, and still an other fashions the dress or puts it on the doll. Doll repairing is an exceedingly profitable branch of the work. Cbll dren are proverbially tenacious In their attachments to old dolls, and the repairer is kept busy supplying miss Ing arms, legs, heads, wings, toes fingers or other parts. The jointed dolls, which may be placed in any position, require great strength to re pair them, since all but the smallest are Jointed by means of powerful elestlc bands passing through the body. These must be exceedingly taut or the limbs will hang limp. In the largest dolls there are heavy hooks on the ends of the clestlcs, to be fastened Inside the body, and since a sudden unlookedfor spring of tbl elestlc band has been known to injure seriously a man’s hand, It Is not con sidered safe for women to engage In that branch of Industry. Many of the most expert of the women dolls repairers are Germans who have been taught the trade by their husbands and brothers, and find It easy and profitable. Women en gaged In this occupation have the ' advantage of being able to carry It on In their homes, or In connection with other work. The various parts to tte supplied can be obtained from the manu facturers, and the repairer makes her own scale of prices, according to the amount of repairing to be done an..' the materials supplied. Those on gaged In this industry frequently carry on In addition a brisk business of doll’s dressmaking and sell little handmade garments at fancy prices HOW ONE MAN MADE HIS FARMING PAY In the thriving little town or Cohns set, Minn., J. I. Jellison Is a striking: example of what one can accompltah If one only sets out to do somethbfc with a will and determination Seven years ago, says the Mian*, apolis News Tribune, Mr. Jellison was a resident of Duluth, and for three years had been engaged in the wall paper and paper-hanging bustneae, trusting to luck to get an odd job and faring rather poorly. Today he la • prosperous farmer, owning 950 aorwt af land, 600 of which contain pint tho other, 450 being partially cl eared for agricultural purposes. He eati mates his holdings at no less than $20,000. He has accumulated this property unaided by any one outside of the members of his own r&mUy The story which Mr. Jellison telto Is an interesting one: “I came to the conclusion that I wa not getting along as well as I irnghf to,' 1 said he to a representative of the News-Tribune a few days ago, wheat on one of his periodical visits hr Duluth, “and having heard of the pas sibilities of the northern p&ri of Itasca county, decided to launch oat to try my fortune. It was quite as an dertaklng with a large family of elchi children to provide for, but I was sat lulled that if I ever got a start 1 would make the riffle all right 1 came home from work one night and announced my Intention to my wile She was thunderstruck at the proposl tlon at first, but later on acquiesced and on the following morning bright and early we began to pack our how? hold goods for shipment This com pleted, I went to the land office and filed on 160 acres of land. The sun, total of my finances was $49, and It required considerable scheming to get myself and family started. I had a railroad friend who exercised con tidorable influence in the freight do partment, and through him Becured a rate of sl9 to Cohsßset for a car. Into this my entire family and household goods were bundled, and when w* reached our destination found that there was no hotel or house obtain able, so I got permission from the rail road company to occupy the car until I could build a log shanty. In two weeks' time this was completed am wo set. about to cl|ar off the land and do some planting. Mind you, I had ba; S3O left after paying for the car, and with this I had made the purchase of a considerable quantity of provision All these I toted on my hack to oar farm,’ which was seven miles away from the railroad track. The sell on my land was so fertile that we had no difficulty In raising all kinds of garden produce, and, although the pioneering was something pretty tierce, we managed to get along taler ably well, and the following year be gan to make money. Everything that we grew on the farm found a ready market, and by being prudent in the matter of expenditures I was somi enabled to purchase a few acre* of pine lands, and this has bees cam stantly added to until as staled. I now have 500 acres of such I am clearing up my farm, too, right along and it will soon be one of the finest In northern Minnesota. And whoa 1 say this It means considerable, lo calise there are northern Minnesota farms that cannot be beaten any where. “We have a thriving little town a Cohasset and we are aitxious for more people. We are anxious to show then: what is In store for all who have a desire to better themselves and who have the nerve to tackle the propom tion I did. If thy have ready money so much the better for them.' Going as They Please Home time ago cats were Imported into Australia to subdue the piagat of rabbits. Now come complaint* from New South Wales and Victoria that the birds are being destroyed, tiu cats, which were only Intended to prey upon the rabbits, having turned their attention to the feathered in habitants of the country, according to Youth’s Companion, while the foxes. Introduced for some other purpos* are robbing the hen yards and assist Ing the cats in the war on uailv* birds. A Critic of Materialism In an article In the Rlvlsta Italians <ll Kllosofla entitled ’ What Is Mai ter?” L. Ambrosi says the question U unanswered and unanswerable t> materialists, because they appeal u experience, whereas atoms, etc., cam not be presented to sense. Therefor* "matter” is a metaphysical concep tion. Again, if the materialist at tempts a definition, he becomes In volved In a vicious circle —e. g., mai ter is the object of sense- -si-okc Is that by which matter Is perceived Charles Kent, Joseph Brennan and Jane Oaker have Joined James K Hackett’s company, playing Doa Cae sar’s Return at Wai lack's tto-a ;er New York. Miss Oaker was last ses son the Hermia in Midsummer Night's Dream, wtth IxmU James aad Katb erlne Kidder.