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SUBSIDIES AND CANAL ALL ARE URGE!? IN PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE. RECIPROCITY IS IN FAVOR Abuses in Mails Great and Correction Is Demanded—Generous Treatment of Cubans Suggested. Trusts and Anarchy Treated of and Many Other Subjects Considered. Washington , Dec. 3.—President Roosevelt's message read to'congress today was 22,000 words long, and in the opening an eloquent eulogy was paid to William McKinley, who was spoken of as “the most widely loved man i*: all the United States.” Then the question of anarchy is considered and the president urges a more rigid exclusion of undesirable foreigners. It is also recommended that the federal courts be given jurisdiction over any man who kills or attempts to kill the president or any man who by the constitution or by law is in line of suc cession for the presidency. TRUSTS. During the Inst five .roars business con fidence, cdutinues tin* president, lias been restored, and the nation is to be congratu lated because of its present abounding prosperity. Such prosperity can never be created by law alone, although it is easy enough to destroy it by mischievous laws. Then follows a consideration of the trusts. The creation of great corporate fortunes has not been due to the tariff nor to any other governmental action, says the presi dent, but to natural causes in the business world, operating in other countries as they operate in our own. The process has aroused much antagonism, a great part of which is wholly without warrant. It is not true that as the rich have grown richer the poor have grown poorer. On the con trary, never before has the average man. the wage-worker, the farmer, the small trader, been so well off as in this country and at the present time. A chief reason for caution in dealing with corporations is to he found in the international commer cial conditions of today. The same busi ness conditions which have produced the great aggregations of corporate and in dividual wealth have made them very po tent factors in international commercial competition. Business concerns which have the largest means at their disposal and are managed by the ablest men are naturally those which take the lead in the strife for commercial supremacy among the nations of the world. It cannot too often be pointed out that to strike with Ignorant violence at the interests of one set of men almost inevitably endangers the in terests of all. There is a widespread conviction in the minds of the American people that the great corporations known as trusts are in certain of their features and tendencies hurtful to the general welfare. Corpora tions engaged In Interstate commerce should be regulated if they are found to exercise a license working to the public in jury. It should lie as much the aim of those who seek for social betterment to rid the business world of crimes of cun ning as to riil the entire body politic of crimes of violence. The first essential in determining how to deal with the great in dustrial combinations Is knowledge of the facts—publicity. In the interest of the pub lic, the government slumid fhave the right to inspect and examine .he workings of the great corporations engaged in Inter state business. Publicity is the only sure remedy which we can now invoke. What further remedies are led in the way of governmental regulation or taxation can only lie determined after publicity has been obtained, by process of law, and 111 the course of administration. The large corporations, commonly called trusts, though organized in one state, always do business in many states, often doing very little business in the state where they are incorporated. There is utter lack of uni formity ill the state laws about them; anti as no'stale has any exclusive interest In or power over their nets, it has in prac tice proved Impossible to get adequate rog illation through state action. Therefore, in the Interest of the whole people, tile na tion Should, without interfering with the power of the states in tile matter itself, also assume power of supervision and regu lation over all corporations doing an Inter state business. Tile president believes that a law can be framed which w enable tin* national government to ext* so control along the lines above Indicated, profiting by the experience gained through the passage and administration of the Inter state-commerce act. If. however, the judg ment of the congress is that it lacks the constitutional power to pass such an act, then a constitutional amendment should be submitted to confer the power. There should lie created a cabinet officer, to be known ns secretary of commerce and industries, as provided iti the bill intro duced at the last session of the congress. It should lie bis province to deal with com merce in its broadest sense, including among many other things whatever con cerns labor and ail matters affecting flu great business corporations and our mer chant marine. If possible legislation should lie passed, in connection with the Interstate commerce law, which will render effective the efforts of different states to do away with the competition of convict contract labor in the open labor market. In all in dustrles carried on directly or Indirectly for the United States government women and children should lie protected from ex cessive hours of labor, from night work, and from work under unsanitary condi tions. The government should provide in its contracts that all work should be done tinder fair conditions, and in addition to setting a high standard should uphold it bv proper Inspection, extending if acces sary to the subcontractors. The govern incut should forbid all night work for women and children. IMMIGRATION'. Our present immigration laws are un satisfactorv. We need every honest ana .-ffleicut immigrant flttfd to become an American citizen, every immigrant who comes here to stay, who brings here a Strong body, a stout heart, a good head, and a resolute purpose to do his duty well In every way and to tiring up his children as law-abiding and God fearing members of the community. But there should be a comprehensive law enacted with the object of working a threefold improvement over oor present svstem. First, we should aim to exclude absolutely not only all persons who are known to be believe™ In anarchls tic principle* or member# of anarchistic societies. but also all person# who are of a low moral tendency or of unsavory reputa tion The second object ought to l** to se cure by a careful ami not merely perfunc lorv educational test some Intelligent capacity to appreciate American institu tions and act sanely as American cltliens. Finally, all persons mould be excluded wno are below a certain standard of economic iitness to enter our industrial field a* com petitors with American labor. There should be proper proof of personal capacity to earn an American living and enough monev to Insure a decent start under American conditions. THE TARIFF. There Is general acquiescence in oar pres ent tariff system as a national policy. The first requisite to our prosperity Is the con tinuity and stability of this economic pol irv Nothing could more unwise than disturb the business lot cent* of the count rv bv any general tariff change at this time Yet It Is not only possible, bnt eml nentiv desirable, to combine with the stability of our economic system a supple- mentary system of reciprocal benefit and obligation with other nations. Such reci procity is an incident and result of the tirm establishment and preservation of our present economic policy. It was spe ♦dally provided for in the present tariff law. Reciprocity must be treated as the hand maiden of protection. Our first duty is to see that the protection granted by tie* tariff in every rase where It Is needed is maintained, and that reciprocity be sought for so far as it can safely be done without injury to our home Industries. Just how far this is must be determined according to the individual ease, remembering always that every application of our tariff policy to meet our shifting national needs must be conditioned upon the cardinal fact That the duties mast never be mimed below the point tl ?1 will cover the difference be tween the labor cost here and abroad. The well-being of the wage-worker is a prime consideration of our entire policy of eco nomic legislation. Subject to this proviso of the prop . protection necessarv to our industrial well-t>eing at home, the princi ple of reciprocity must command our hearty support. The natural line of de velopment for a policy of reciprocity will ie in connection with those of our produc tions which no longer require all of the support once needed to establish them upon a sound basis, and with those others where either because of natural or of economic causes we are beyond the reach of success ful competition. MERCHANT MARINI-:.. The condition of the American merchant marine is such as to call for immediate remedial action by the congress* It is dis creditable to up as a nation that our mer chant marine should be utterly Insignifi cant iu comparison to that of other nations which we overtop in other forms of busi ness. We should not longer submit to con ditions under which only a trifling portion of our great commerce is carried in our own ships. To remedy this state of things would not merely serve to build up our shipping interests, but It would also result in benefit to :ill who are Interested In the permanent establishment of a wider mar ket for American products, and would pro vide an auxiliary force for the navy. Ships work for their own countries just as rail roads work for their terminal points. Ship ping lines, if established to the principal countries with which we have dialings, would be of political as well as commercial benefit. From every standpoint it is Un wise for the i uited States to continue to rely upon tin ships of competing nations for the distribution of our goods. It should be made advantageous to carry American goods in American-built ships. At present American shipping is under certain great disadvantages when put in competition with the shipping of foreign countries. Many of the fast foreign steam ships, at a sjmmhl of 11 knots or above, are subsidised; and all our ships, sailing ves sels and steamers alike, cargo carriers of slow speed and mail carriers of high speed, have to meet the fact that tin* original cost of building American ships is groat eg than is the case abroad: that the wages paid American officers and seamen are very much higher than those paid tlie officers and seamen of foreign competing conn tries; and that the standard of living on our ships is far superior to fhe standard of living on tie* ships of our commercial rivals. Our government should take such action ns will remedy these inequalities. The American merchant marine should be restored to the ocean. The gold sianuard is endorsed and econ omy Is urged but it is suggested that care should 1)0 taken not to reduce the revenues so that then* will be any possibility of a deficit; but, after providing against any such contingency, means should be adopted which will bring the revenues more nearly witliiu the limit of our actual needs. The Interstate railway net should be amended, says the president. The railway is a public servant. Its rates should be just to and open t<* nil shippers alike. The gov ernment should see to it that within its jurisdiction this is so and should provide a .peedy inexpensive and effective remedy to that end. AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. The department of agriculture lias stead ily broadened its work on eeonomte tinea, and has accomplished results of real value in upbuilding domestic and foreign trade. It has gone into new fields until it is now lu touch with all sections of our country and with two of the island groups tliai. have lately eonn* under our jurisdiction, whose people must look to agriculture as u livelihood. It is searching the world for grains, grasses, fruits, ami vegetables spe cially fitted for Introduction into localities iu the several states and territories where they may add materially to onr resources. By scientific attention to soil survey and possible new crops, to breeding of new va rieties of plants, to experimental ship ments, to nniina; industry and applied chemistry, very practical aid has been given our farming and stock-growing in terests. Public opinion throughout the United States lias moved steadily toward a just appreciation of the value of forests, whether planted or of natural growth. The great part played by them In the creation and maintenance of the national wealth now* more fully realized titan ever before. Wise forest protection does not mean the withdrawal of forest resources, whether of wood, water, or grass, from contributing their full share to the welfare, of the peo ple, but, on the contrary, gives the tissur a nee of larger and more eertain supplies. The fundamental Idea of forestry is the perpetuation of forests by use. Forest pro teetivm is not an end of itself: it is ti means to Increase and sustain the resources of our .country ami the industries which depend upon them. The preservation ot our forests is an Imperative business neces sity. The president should have by law the power of transferring lands for use us forest reserves to tile department of agri culture. Tlie forest ami water problems tire perhaps the most vital internal ques tions of the United States, declared Mr. Roosevelt. The forests are natural reservoirs. By restraining the streams in Hood and re plenishing them In drought they make pus sible the use of waters otherwise wasted. They prevent the soil from washing, and so protect tlie storage reservoirs from till ing tip with silt. Forest conservation is therefore an essential condition to water conservation The forests ntnne cannot. however, fully regulate and conserve the waters of the arid teuton. Great storage works ar** neceoaary to equalise* tin* flow of streams and to save the flood waters. Their construction has lieeu conclusively show n to he an undertaking too vast for private effort Nor cun It le Rest accomplished h.v the individual states acting alone. Far reaching interstate problems are Involved and the resources of single states would often be inadequate. It is as right for the national government to make the streams and rivers of tlie arid region useful by ]• giuecrlng works for water storage as to make useful the rivers and harbors of tin* humid region by engineering works of an other kind. The storing of the floods In reservoirs at the headwaters of our mer# is but an enlargement of our present pol icy of river control, under which levees are built on the lower reaches of the same streams. The government should eonztrrt* t and maintain these reservoirs as it docs other public works. Where their purpose I* to regulate the flow* of streams, the water should be turned freely Into the channels in the dry season to take the same eonrae under the same laws as the natural flow. The reclamation of the unsettled arid public lands presents a different problem. Here It Is not enough to regulate the flow of streams. The object of the government is to dispose of the land to settlers who will build homes upon it. To accomplish this object water must be brought within their reach. There remain vast areas of public land which can be made available for homestead settlement, but only by reservoirs and main line canals imprac ticable for private enterprise. These Irrl gation works should be built by the na tlonat government. The lands reclaimed by them should t*c reserved by the government for setnal settlers, and the cost of con struction should so far as possible be re paid by the land reclaimed. The distribu tion of the wster. the division of the streams sranng Irrigators, sbonld be left to the settlers themselves In conformity with state laws and without Interference with those laws or with vested rights. The pol ler of the national government should Ice to aid Irrigation In the several states and territories In snob manner us will enable the people in the local eommnnltlea to help themselves. In the arid states the only right to wster which should I>e recognized 1 that of use. In irrigation this right should attach to the land reclaimed and be inseparable there from. Granting perpetual water rights to others than users, without compensation to the public, Is opeii to all the objections which apply to giving away perpetual franchises to the public utilities of cities. A few- of the western spates have already recognized this, ami have incorporated iu their constitutions tin* doctrine of per petual state ownership of water. Our aim should be not ■simply to reclaim the iarg est area of laud and provide homes for tlie largest number of people, but to create for this new industry the best mssible social and industrial conditions; ami this requires that we not only understand the existing situation, but avail ourselves of the best experience of the time iu the solution of Its problems. A careful study should be made, both by tin* nation and the states, of the Irrigation laws and conditions here and abroad, ritimately it will probably lc necessary for tile nation to co-operate with the several arid states in proportion as these states by their legislation and admin istration show themselves fit to receive it. HAWAII ANI) PORTO RICO. In Hawaii our aim must be to develop the territory on the traditional American lines. We do not wish a region of large es tates tilled by cheap labor; we wish a healthy American community of men who themselves till the farms they own. All our legislation for the islands should be shaped with this end In view ; the >well being of the average home-maker must af ford the true test of the healthy develop ment of the islands. The land policy should as nearly as possible be modeled on our homestead system. It is a pleasure to say that It Is hardly more necessary to report as to Porto Kleo than as to any state or territory within our continental limits. The island Is thriving as never before, and it is being adminis PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT. tcred efficiently and honestly. Its people are now enjoying liberty and order under the protection of the United States, and upon this fnet we congratulate them and ourselves. Their material welfare must he us carefully and jealousy considered as the welfare of any other portion of our coun try. We have given them the great gift of free access for their products to the mar kets of the United States. The attention of congress is asked to the need of legisla tion concerning the public lands of Porto Rico. CUBA. In Cuba such progress lias been made toward putting the independent govern ment of the island upon a firm footing tiiat before the present session of congress doses Ibis will be an accomplished fact. Cuba will then start as her op-n mistress: and to tile beautiful queen of llie Antilles, as site unfolds Ibis new page of her destiny, we extend our heartiest greetings. In tin ease of Culm there are weighty reasons of morality and of national Interest why the policy of reciprocity should lie held to have a peculiar application, and the president most earnestly asks your attention to the wisdom, indeed to tile vital need, of pro viding for a substantial reduction in tlie tariff duties on Cuban imports into the United States. TIIB PHILIPPINES. Tlie Philippines are rich tropical islands, inhabited by many varying tribes, repre senting widely different stages of progress toward clvlliziijloii. Our earliest effort is to help tiles** people upward along tin* stony ami difficult path that leads to self government. We hope to make our adnilii bt ration of tlie islands honorable to mil nation by making it of tin* highest benefit to th<* KlUpinos themselves, it is no light task for a nation to achieve tin* tempera mental qualities without which the lnstl lutlons of free government are but an empty mockery. Our people are now suc cessfully governing themselves, because for more than a thousand years they have been slowly fitting themselves, sometimes consciously, sometimes unconsciously, to ward this •■■ml. What lias taken us thirty generations to achieve, we cannot expect to see another race accomplish out of hand, especially when large portions of Unit race start very far behind the point which our ancestors had reached even thirty genera tlons ago. In dealing w*... the Philippine people we must show both patience and strength, forbearance mid steadfast resolu tion. Our aim is high. We do not desire to do for tin* Inlanders merely what lias elsewhere been done for tropic peoples bv evpn the best foreign governments. We hope to do for them what lias never la-fore been done for any people of llie tropics to make llicin lit for self-government after the fashion of the really free nations. History may safely la- challenged to show a single Instance In which a masterful race such as mirs, having Itcen forced by the ex igencies of war to take possession of an alien land, lias behaved to Its Inlialiitaiits with tin* disinterested zeal for their prog ress that our people have shown In the Philippines. *r< leave toe islands at this time would mean that they won lit fall into a welter of murderous anarchy. Such de sertion of duty on our part would lie n crime against humanity. The character of Got , Taft and of his associates and subor dinates is a proof, if such lie needed, of the sincerity of our effort to give the Islanders a constantly Increasing measure of self government, exactly as fast as they show themselves lit to exercise It. Since Un civil government was established not an ap pointnient has been made lu the islands with any reference to considerations of po litical Influence, or to aught else save the fitness of the man and .the needs of the service. The only fear Is lent In our over anxiety we give them a degree of tndepend cnee for which they are unfit, thereby In vlting reaction mid disaster. As fast as there Is anv reasonable hope that In n given district the people can govern them selves self g has been given ir. that district Then* are still troubles ahead In the Islands The Insurrection has lieeotne an affair of local banditti nnd ma rauders. who deserve no higher regard than the brigands of portions of the old world. Encouragement, direct or Indirect, to these lnsnrreetos stands on the same footing aa encouragement to hostile Indians In the davs when w-c still had Indian wars. Lx aeilv as our alin Is to give to the Indian who remains peaceful the fullest and amplest consideration, bnt to have it un derstood that we Will show no "eaki.es. if In* goes on the warpath, so we most mt.c It evident, unless wo* nr* false to onr own traditions and to the demand- of cl and lx tlon and humanity, that while we * M everything In our power for the FlliP l ™ who is peaceful, we will take '*!’' *'**' measure, with fhe Filipino who follows the path of the Insnrrecto nnd the ladroae. Tlie heartiest praise is due to large none bers of the natives of the Islands for G><" steadfast loyalty. he Maeatn-tien have lN>fn conspicuous for lh*lr course* and d** rollon to tne flair. The president rH)tn mrad* that the secretary of war In* etn powered to take some systematic aetion lu the way of aiding those of these men who are crippled In the service and the families of those who are killed. The vast natural wealth of the Islands must be developed, and the capital willing to develop it must be given the opportuni ty. The field must be thrown open to in dividual enterprise, which has been tin* real factor in the development of every region over which our Hag has flown, it is ur gently necessary to enact suitable laws oealing with general transportation, min ing. banking, currency, homesteads, and the use and ownership of the lauds and timber. * Attention is called to the need of a cable to Hawaii and the Philippines, *o be con tinued from the Philippines to points in Asia. FOR AN ISTHMIAN CANAL. No single great Material work which re mains to be undertaken on this continent is of such consequence to the American people as the building af a canal across the isthmus connecting Sort it and South Amer ica. its imimrtaucc to the nation .is by no means limited merely to its materiai ef fects upon our business prosperity: and yet with view to these effects alone it would be to the last degree important for us im mediately to begin it. While its nenetlclal effects would perhaps in* most marked upon the Pacific coast and the gulf and South Atlantic states, it would alo greatly benefit other sect ions. It Is emphatically a work which it Is for the Interest of the entire country to begin and complete ns soon as possible; it is one of those great works which only a great natlou can undertake with prospects of success, and which when done are not only permanent assets in the nation’s material interests, but standing monuments to its constructive ability. The president is glad to Im üble to announce that our negotiations on this subject with Great Britain have resulted in u * whieh if ratified will enable us to begin preparations for an Isthmian cm mil nt any time, and whtcli guarantees to tills nation every right that it tins ever asked In con nection with tue canal. In this treaty, tin* old (’btyton-Bulwcr treaty, so long reeog nized as inadequate to supply tin* bane for tin* construetlon and maintenance of a nec essarily American ship canal. Is abrogated. It specifically provides that the United States alone shall do tlie work of build ing and assume tin* responsibility of safe guarding tlie canal and slmll regulate its neutral use lay nil nations on terms of equality without the guaranty or Infcrfcr cnee of any outside nation from any quar ter. Tlie signed treaty will at once In* laid before tlie senate, and if approved tlie con gress can then proceed to give effect to tin* advantages it secures us hy providing for the building of the canal. Till: MON ROB* DOCTRINE. The Monroe doctrine should lx* the card! nal feature of tlie foreign policy of ail tin* nations of tin* two Americas, as it is of the United States. The Monroe doctrine is a declaration that there must bo no ter ritorial aggrandizement hy any non-Ameri can power at the expense of any American power on American soil, it is in no wise intended as hostile to any nation In the old world. Still less Is it intended to give cover to any aggression by one new world power at the expense of any other, it Is simply a step, and a long step, toward as suring the universal peace of tin* world by securing the possibility of permanent peace on this hemisphere. NAVY UPBUILDING. The work of upbuilding Die navy must Im* steadily continued. No one point 6f our pol j ley, foreign or domestic. Is more Important • than tills to the honor and material wel fare, and above ail to the peace, of onr* nation iu the future. imiMnnieh as tlie Ainerienn people have no thought of aban doning tlie path upon wlileh they have entered, nnd esiieelaHy in view of the fact that the building of tlie isthmian canal is fast becoming one of tin* matters which tie whole people are united in demanding, it is Imperative that our navy should Im* put and kept iu the highest state of efficiency, ami slumid be made to answer to our growing needs. So far from being In any way a provocation to war. an adequate and highly trained navy Is the best guaranty against war. the cheapest and best peace Insur ance. Our people Intend to abide by tlie Monroe doctrine and to Insist upon It ns tin* one sure means of securing the peace of the western hemisphere. The navy of fers us the only means of making our in sistence upon the Monroe doctrine any thing hut a subject of derision to whatever nation chooses to regard It. We desire the peace which comes as of right to tlie Just man armed; not the peace granted on terms of Ignominy to the craven and the weakling. At very great length tlu* presl dent discusses the need of a stronger navy. The naval militia forces are state organ izattons, and are trained for coast service, and in event of war they will constitute the Inner line of defense They should receive hearty encouragement from the general government. Rut In addition we should at once provide for a national naval reserve, organized and trained under the direction of the navy department, and subject to the • all of the chief executive whenever war becomes imminent It should l*e a real aux iliary to the navpl sea going peace estab lishment. nnd offer material to be drawn on at once for niaiitilng our ships In time of war. It should be composed of gradu ate# of the naval militia, officers and crews of coast line steamers, longshore schooners, fishing vessels and steam yachts, together with the const population about such centers ns lifesaving stations and light houses. . ... The American people must either build and maintain an adequate navy or else make up their minds definitely to accept a secondary position In International affairs, not merely in political, but In commercial matters. It has been well said that there is net surer way of courting national dis aster than to be “opulent, aggressive, and unarmed.** ARMY RIG ENOUGH It Is not necessary to Increase our army tieyond Its present size at this time. Rut It Is necessary to keep It at the highest point of efficiency. 'Hie conditions of modern war are such as to make an Infinitely heavier demand than ever before upon tlie Indi vidual character and capacity of the officer and the enlisted man. and to make It far more difficult for men to act together with effect. At present the fighting must be done In extended order, which means that each man must act for himself and et the same time act In combination with other* with whom he Is no longer In the old fashioned elbow -to-dbow touch. Under such conditions a few men of the highest excellence are worth more than many men without the special skill which Is only found as the result of special training ap plied to men of exceptional physique and j morale. Rut nowadays the most valuable! fighting man and the most difficult to per fect is the riffemait who is also a skillful and daring /filer. A general staff should be created. As for the present staff and supply depart meats, they should la* filled by dot;.*!s from Ihe line, the men so detailed returning after awhile to their line duties. It Is very un deal raid, to have t lit* senior grades of tile army compuM'd of men who have come to fill tile positions by the men* fnet of seniority A system should be adopted by. which there shall be an elimination grade by grade of those who seem unfit to render tin* best service in the next griTffe. Justice to the veterans of tin* civil war who art* still in tin* army would seem to require that iu tin* matter of retirements they be given by law the same prlvlllges accorded to their comrades in the nuvy. The process of elimination of the least fit should bo con ducttMl in a manner that would rentier it practically *mpossible to apply political or social pressure on behalf of any candidate, so that each man may be judged purely on itis ovn merits. Pressure for tin* promotion of civil officials for political reasons is had enough, but it is tenfold worse where ap plied on behalf of officers of the army or navy. Every promotion and every detail under the v. *r department must be made solely wltu regard to the good of the ser vice and to the capacity and merit of th> man himself. No pressure, political, social, or personal, of any kind, will lie permitted to exercise tin* least effect in any question of promotion or detail; and if then* Is reason to believe that such pressure Is ex erelxed at tin* instigation of the officer eon corned. It will be held to militate against him. In our army we cannot afford to have rewards or duties distributed save that on tlie simple ground that those who by their own merits are entitled to the rewards got them, and that those who are peculiarly fit to do tlio duties are chosen to perforin them. The congress should provide means where by it will lie possible to have field oxer eises by at least a division of regulars, and if possible also a division of national guardsmen, once a year. These exercises might take the form of field manoeuvres; or. If on the gulf coast or the Pacific or Atlantic seaboard, or In the region of tlu* great lakes, the army corps when assem bled could l)o marched from some Inland point to some point on tin* water, there embarked, disembarked after a couple of days’ Journey at some other point, and again marched inland. Only by actual handling and providing for men in masses while they are marching, camping, embarking, and disem barking, will it be possible to train the higher officers to perform their duties well and smoothly. Much good has already come from the act reorganizing the army, passed early In the present year. The three prime reforms, ail of them of inestimable value, are, first, the substitution of four-year details from the line for permanent appointments in tlu* so called staff divisions; second, tin* establish incut of a corps of artillery with a chief at tin* head: third, the establishment of a maximum and minimum limit for the army. It wofild be difficult to overestimate the Improvement In the efficiency of our army which these three reforms are making, and have in part already effected. The reor ganisation provided for by the act lias been substantially accomplished. Thorough mil itary education must be provided, and in addition to the regulars the advantages of tills education should lie given to tlu* offi corn of the national guard and others in civil life who desire intelligently to tit themselves for possible military duty. The officers should be given tin* chance to per fect themselves by study In tlu* higher brunches of tills art. At West Point the education should be of Hie kind most apt to turn out men who are good in actual field scrv’< e; too much stress should not be laid on mathematics, nor should proficiency therein in* held to establish tlu* right of entry to a corps d’cllte. Tin* typical American officer of the best kind need not lie a good mathematician; hut lu* must, lie aide to master himself, to control others, and to show boldness and fertility of re source !n every emergenc.,. The orgatilsa tion and armament, of tin* national guard of the several states, which are treated ns militia hi the appropriations by congress, should lu* made identical with those pro vided for tlu* regular forces. MERIT SYSTEM The merit system of making appoint incuts Is in ils essence as dctnocrutic and American as the common school system if self. It simply means that iu clerical and • dher positions when’ the duties are en tlrely non political, all applicants should have a fair field nnd no favor, each stand ing on his merits as lie is able lo show them by practical test. Written compel I five examinations offer tlie only available means in many cases for applying tli ln sys tein. In other eases, as where laborers are employed, a system of registration un doiibtcdly can Im widely extended. Then* are. of course, places where tlu* written competitive examiuatioij cannot be applied, and others where it offers hy no means an Ideal solution, hut wher<* under existing po Mtical conditions it is, though an Imperfect means, yet tin* best present means of get ting satisfactory results. Wherever tlie! conditions have permitted tlie application of the merit system In its fullest and widest sense, tlie gain to the government has been immense. The navy yards and postal service Illustrate, probably better than any other branches of the govern ment. the great gain in economy, efficiency and honesty due to the enforcement of this principle. The passage of a law which will extend the classifier! service to the District of Columbia Is recommended. Not an of fice should he tilled in tlie I'hlllpplncK or Folio Rico with any regard to the man’s partisan alllilatioiis or services, with any re gard to tlie political, soe la I. or personal In fluence which he may have at his com mand: iu short, heed should lie paid to ab solutely nothing save tlie man’s own char acter and capacity and ihe needs of the service. CONSULAR REFORMS. Tlu* guardianshio ami fostering of our rapidly expanding foreign commerce, (lie protection of Ameriean citizens resorting to foreign countries in lawful puisid of their affairs, and tlu* maintenance of the dlguio of tlu- nation abroad, combine to make it essentia I that our consuls should he men of character, knowledge and enterprise. Ii Is true tlutt the service is now, In tlie main, efficient, but a standard of excellence can not be permanently maintained until the principles set forth 111 the bills heretofore submitted to the congress on this subject are enacted into law 111 tlie president's Judgment the time Inis arrived when we should definitely make up our minds to recognize the Indhin * an Individual and not as ii member of a tribe. We should now break up fhe tribal fends, doing for them what allotment does Tor the tribal lands; that Is. they should he di vldcd into individual holdings. A stop •diould la- put upon the Indiscriminate nor mission to Indians to lease their allot incuts The effort should be steadily to make tjie Indian work like any other man on l!s own ground. Tlie pmrrlagc laws of the Indians should be made the same as those of the whites. In the schools the education should be elementary sud largely industrial. There is no use In attempt Ing to Induce agriculture In a country suited only for cattle raising, where the Indian should be made n stock grower. Tlie ration system, which Is merely the corral jind the reservation aystem, Is highly detrimental to tlu* Indians It promotes beggary, perpet nates pauperism, and stifles Industry. It Is an effectual barrier to progress The In dlan should be treated us an Individual like the white man. Commendation Is accorded the St f/ouls and Charleston expositions. LIBRARIES Perhaps the most characteristic educa tional movement of the past fifty years Is that which has created the modern public library and developed It Into broad and ac tive service. There arc now over 6,000 pul) lie libraries In the United state*, the prod uct of this period. In addition to accumu biting material, they are also striving hy organization, by Improvement In method, and by co-operation, to give greater effi ciency to the material they hold, to make It more widely useful, and hy avoidance of unnecessary duplication In process to re duce cost of its administration. In these efforts they naturally look for assistance to the federal library. For flic sake of good administration, sound economy, and the advancement of science, the census office as now constituted should Ik? made a permanent government bureau. POSTAL ARISES. The full measure of postal progress which might be realized has long been hampered and obstruct cm by the heavy burden im posed on tin* government through tile in trenched and well-understood abuses vhich have grown lip in connection with second class mail matter. The extent of this bur den appears when It is stated that while the second class matter makes nearly three fifths of tin* weight of all itie mall. It paid for the last fiscal year only jgl of the aggregate postal revenue of liH.tkil.Utt. If the pound rate of postage, which produces tin* large loss thus entailed, and which was fixed by congress with the purpose of en couraging tin* dissemination of public in formation. were limited to the legitimate newspapers and periodicals actually con templated by the law. no exception could le taken. Tnnt expense would lie tin* rec ognized and accepted cost of a liberal pol icy deliberately adopted for a justifiable end. Rut much of the matter which enjoys the privileged rate is wholly outside of the liuciit of the law, and has secured admis sion only through an evasion of its require ments or through lux construction. The proportion of such wrongly included matter Is estimated by postal experts to be tine half of the whole volume of second-class mail. If it Im* only one third or cue quarter the magnitude of the burden Is apparent. The postotficc dt part incut has now under taken to remove the abuses so far as pos sible by a stricter application of the law; amt it should be sustained iu Its effort. lu conclusion tin* president alludes to the settlement of the troubles in China. SOME GOOD-NATURED JOKES. Miss Manhattan, (encouraging her friend) —Never say die! Miss Hub —Oh, l never do; always say "expire.”—New York Times. "I guess there is something the mat ter with our rubber tree,” said little Johnny. “Why do you think so?" asked his mother. " ’Cause we've had it over two years and it hasn't sprouted any overshoes yet.”—Cfllcago News. The young wife was weeping when her mother cal'ed. “It's all because of John,” she ailed. “He’s a brute and he doesn’t love me any more. I asked him if I wasn’t the dearest little wife In the world ” , “1 know, 1 know," interrupted the elder woman. “And he said his check book indicated that you were.” "No, he didn’t.” "He didn’t?” “No." “Well, husbands must have changed since I was a bride. What did ho say?" "He said, very cautiously, ‘Well, you know, my dear, I haven't seen them all.’”—Chicago Post. “The banana peel joke seems to have gone entirely out of vogue,’’ re marked the casual observer. “That," replied the city official, who never misses a trick, “is entirely due to the efficiency of the street cleaning department.”—Washington Evening Star. "If you had worked hard during the summer, as I did, you would not be obliged to beg now," said the ant cold ly- “ True," replied the grasshopper; “but if I were not lazy you would never be able to acquire such a reputation for industry.”—Judge. LARGE LOSSES BY FIRE. During tho year 1900 there were 79,249 fires In the United States, which burned 109,092 pieces o f property and destroyed values rep resented by $106,929,806. An analysis of the causes of these fires shows that 23.13 per cent, of the number origi nated from such as defective flues and stove-pipes, friction in machinery faultily installed, or degenerated electric wires and lights, oil-stove ac cidents and explosions of gasoline chemicals, dust, etc. Such common causes as lamp ac cidents, sparks, careless use of matches, cigars, cigarettes and tobacco pipes, ashes, hot coals, open fireplaces and grates, plumbers’ furnaces, candles and gas jets were responsible for 23.8f> per cent, of the amount of the loss. Property exposed to fire originating on othef premises was destroyed to the extent of 31.03 per cent. Fires originating from crime and mlchlef, such as In cendiarism, tramps, burglars, drunken men, lunatics and mischievous chil dren were responsible for 8.52 per cent, of the loss. Fires of unknown origin burned 21.15 per cent. It Is estimated, however, that at least 50 per cent, of the fires of unknown origin are caused by Incedlarles. Of the causes which may be con sidered unavoidable, lightning was re sponsible for 2.15 per cent, of tho loss. Spontaneous combustion caused 4.25 per cent., the result of careless or Ignorant handling of inflammable ma terial. From the foregoing per eentagos it will be seen that nearly all fires pro preventable. That they are not prevented is due in a large measure to the fact that the people of this country are ignorant or in different. as to the reasons for an an nual absolute waste, which has averaged almost $110,000,000 In twenty-six years. It seems to be a popular fallacy that a Are Insurance policy Indem nifies all loss. During the past twenty-six years the Are Insurance companies have paid to the property owners of this country a sum aggre gating over $1,700,000,000. The dlf ference between the amount of tb<- property loss, vthlch Is placed In the "Fire Tables" at $2,899,714,021, and the amount distributed by the In surance companies represents what has been borno directly by Are suffer ers. The companies have collected from policy holders and, therefore, from the thrifty of this country the amount which they have paid !n losses. The sooner the public at large appreciate these facts tf < '.ooner will the time arrive when the general prosperity will be enhanced by a de cided lessening of this unnecessary drain.