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WHY MEN EAT SALT
SCIENCE SAYS THE REASON IS VERY PLAIN. NATURE DEMANDS THE DIET People of Sedentary Occupations in Special Need of Condiments to Stir the Liver—Useful Func tion of Tea in the Human Body. In the dining room of a down-town hotel, on a recent evening, two men | sat at table w r ith their wives. They have sat for months every evening at that same table and gossiped while they ate. On this evening the men, re belling, had forbidden gossip, and con versation lagged. At last, in despair one of the women exclaimed: “Well, if you cant talk anything else, talk shop!” “With pleasure, my dear!” replied her husband, and added to the other man: “Doctor, why do we put salt in our meat? Is it merely a matter of taste?” The physician's reply, which was voted better than gossip even by the women, developed into something of n lecture or an answer-to-queries talk. This is some of it: Why do we take salt with meat, and more with mutton than with beef, with pheasant than with partridge, with rabbit than with hare, with whiting than with mackerel? Well, there are two chief salts in our flesh and blood and the supply has to be kept up. These are potassium salts and sodium salts. There is suffi cient of the former in the food we eat, but not of the latter. We therefore have to add the sodium salts in the form of common salt, which is sodium chloride. Another reason why we eat common salt is that a certain quantity of hy drochloric acid is needed by the stom ach for the purposes of digestion, and also to kill the microbes we swallow. This acid is manufactured In the stom ach from hydrogen and the chlorine of the salt. We take more salt with some kinds of meat than with others because some naturally contain less than others. Why do we take vinegar with salad and sometimes with cabbage? Haw vegetables are easily enough di gested by cows and horses, but with great difficulty by the human stomach, because they contain the hard, fibrous substance, cellulose. Cabbage con tains such a quantity of this stuff that, even when boiled, it is almost quite indigestible. You will probably never meet a cabbage eater who does not complain of dyspepsia. But acids dis solve cellulose, and vinegar is an acid. That is why we take it with salad ana cabbage; and doubtless that is why it tastes so well, for the palate is an excellent judge of what is good for the stomach. Oil or cream is added for the good reason that it protects the stomach from the biting acid. Some people take butter with por ridge, some take sugar, some take milk, and some take buttermilk. The two latter classes alone are gastio nomically wise. Our bodies need a certain quantity of nitrogenous and a certain quantity of carbonaceous foods. The porridge does not contain sufficient of the for mer, and the deficiency is admirably supplied by skimmed milk or butter milk. Sugar and butter are useless for the purpose. But the butter is wanted, too, to a small extent, for nei ther the porridge nor the skimmed milk has enough fat. The best of all ways to take porridge, and by far the nicest when you get used to it, is to boil the oatmeal in buttermilk and eat it with cream. Why do we take pepper, mustard, and other spices? They tickle the glands of the stom ach and make them work. Conse quently they produce an abundant sup ply of digestive juices. They also stir up the liver —a necessary function in the case of people who live sedentary lives. The less craving you have for spices the stronger are your digestive organs. But as you advance in years you will do well to call in the aid of the spices whether you desire them or not. Many people use milk in tea, but few of them know it is to preserve their stomachs from the unhappy fate of be ing converted into leather. Of course, it is an exaggeration to suppose that the living stomach could by any means be so transformed that a pair of gloves might be made from it The scientific facts may be stated as follows: Whenever tannic acid and albumen meet they fall desperately in love with each other, get wedded without banns, and live together forever after as tan nate of albumen, or leather. Now, there is a tannic acid in tea, and tho lining of the stomach is one mass of albumen. The tannic acid weds as much of this as is allowed by the laws of chemistry. But it kills it in the process, and so far injures the stom ach. But milk also contains albumen. When milk is added to tea, therefore, the molecules of tannic acid select their albumen partners from it, and, as divorce is unknown to tannate of al bumen, the albumen of the stomach re mains single, and so the lining is un injured. HUNDRED-MILES-AN-HOUR TRAIN. The Prospect for Hiflh Speed Electric Traction. Through years we have been in wardly bracing ourselves for the tri umphant entry of that hundred-mile an-hour train. But we have waited in vain with the patience of St. Simon Stylites. The conversion of the trunk lines of this country to electric power has not yet come. By this statement we mean in no way to mini mize the enormous strides which the science of electric traction has ac complished during the last 10 years It has revolutionized urban and sub urban transportation, and has brought with it a host of benefits to city and country dwellers which seemed abso lutely unattainable a decade and a half ago. More than 10 years ago the experi ments of Crosby made it certain that electric traction at very high speeds was, as an engineering feat, entirely at hand. His results In determining air resistance removed the only doubt ful factor from the problem, and the experience of more recent years with locomotives has confirmed these re sults in the fullest and most satisfac tory manner. Further, no engineer is today disposed to deny that the electric motor has certain very mark ed and decisive advantages for such work. It renders whole weight of the locomotive, or, with multiple-unit control of the entire train available for traction, facilitates braking by the generator function of the motors, and greatly facilitates the reduction of dead weight to be dragged. At the present time there has been long enough experience with long power transmission lines to show that the contniuous supply of large amounts of energy over long sections of line Is a very simple and easy matter, and that the efficiency of such a transmission is high enough to utilize fuel more economically than is possible with lo comotives, even setting aside the great advantage to be gained by the use of water power. The cost of the conducting system, once a matter of very grave import, has subsided in these days of high voltages into comparative moderation, and Is likely to subside still further. And, finally, the trial;? carried out abroad within the past year or two have shown conclusively that energy at very high voltage can readily be taken to the motors by a flying con tact with trolley wheel or shoe, so that the transmission line and the work ing conductor may be one and the same. The fact is, that, with the light upon the subject now available, it is not too much to say that an electric train at 100 miles an hour not only is entirely practicable, but involves very little of an experimental character. One might almost go further and say that the only difficulties worth serious consideration are those involved in the track and roadbed, which, of course are quite apart from the mo tive power, except as the electric motor has somewhat the advantage of the lessened pounding of the rails. Yet, in spite of all this, the high-speed electric road is today seemingly fur ther from accomplishment in this country than it was seven or eight years ago. Abroad it seems to have been taken up with some prospect of success, particularly by the Studien Gesellschaft, an association of the German electrical companies, on the Berlin-Zossen line, and it would be far from surprising to see the first success reached on the continent. The reason, for such a state of things is not altogether obvious. F apparently is a commercial rather be a curiously composite one. Are we to suppose that no one wishes to travel at such speed, or that wishing it. the cost would be found to be pro hibitive? Certainly we have seldom seen an American business man who wished to travel by a slow train if a faster were available, and the agree ments between railroads as to rates plainly show that the public considers the quicker routes desirable, even if the difference in time be only 10 or 15 per cent. The same argument against higher speed has been used against every ad vance for half a century past, and in every case competition has forced the improvement, and the public has wel comed it. As to the matter of cost, it is absurd to suppose that fast ex press trains* would be running today, if, everything considered, they did not pay. You cannot convince the American public by any amount sf juggling with statistics that the exist ing railroads are regularly running trains at a loss, out of philanthropic enthusiasm. Directly or indirectly, good service pays, and it Is fairly demonstrable that the cost of electric service at 100 miles an hour would not be largely in excess —per passenger carried —of the cost of the existing, fast express service between large centers. Moreover, extra fares would be gladly paid for the sake of time gained. Time is money to a business man, and if he could step aboard a train in Chicago at 5 p. m. and be landed in New York at 8 a. m. he would save an entire business day over the present trip and the speed thereby Implied would bo considerably under the 100 miles an hour that seems a worthy objective point; in fact, less than 70 miles an hour, in eluding stops. In this hypothetical trip Is. perhaps, the key to one of the problems of high speed traction. Most of the fast elec tric lines projected have been of mod erate length, and hence the total saving of time would not be vry great. It would be easily within the bounds of possibility to establish a runnning time of an hour between Philadelphia and New York, yet the saving over the present time would hardly be sufficient to count for much. On the other hand, a line from New York to Washington or to Boston, would be worth the whole, since a business day would be made available to the traveler from either terminus. A fortiori, the New York-Chic&go line would meet a real want. —Street Rail way Journal THE LEGION OF HONOR. Anecdotes and Scandals in the His tory of France's Famous Order. France owes the Legion of Honor to Napoleon. AH orders of chivalry had been abolished by the revolution, and had left a gap which It was not easy to fill. "They were mere gew gaws,” said Monge, the chemist, who had taught the revolutionists how to make gunpowder out of plaster of Paris. “Gewgaws, if you will,” the First Consul answered, “but people like them. Let us approach the ques tion frankly. All men are enamored of decorations—the French more than any. They positively hunger for them, and they have always done so.” This was at Malmaison in 1802. In May the Counsel d’Ktat was Invited to consider the project of the institution of the Legion of Honor. It was ridi culed by many, notably by Moreau, who, as a victor of Hohenlinden, was bitterly jealous of the victor of Maren go. At a dinner party he sent for his cook and said to him in the presence of his guests: “Michel, 1 am pleased with your dinner; you have indeed distinguished yourself. I will award you a saucepan of honor.” Mme. de - ,ael was also satirical upon the sub ject. “Ah! one of the decorated?” she used to ask each guest wno was shown into he salon. But Napoleon had guaged human nature correctly. His Legion of Honor did meet a felt want, and it was definitely inaugu rated on July 14. 1804. Among the eminent men of science and men of letters on whom It was then bestowed were included Laplace, cne mathema tician; Lalande, the astronomer; Cu vier, the naturalist, and Legouve, the poet. The most notable name omitted was that of Bernardin de Saint Pierre, just then in disgrace for championing Mme. de Stael, whom Napoleon had banished, but he got the decoration later, on the entreaty of Queen Hor tense. Afterward Jena Goethe was decorated. A little later high promotion in the order was given to General La marque, to whom Sir Hudson Lowe had surrendered at Capri. "What did you do with him?” asked Napo leon “The King of Naples had him exchanged for a Neapolitan general who was a prisoner in Sicily.” “Very well, there is no harm in letting this English colonel go. He Is not danger ous.” It seems not unlikely that Sir Hudson Lowe remembered this sar casm when he was Napoleon's jailer a few years afterward. After Napoleon’s downfall the ques tion of suppressing the Legion of Honor arose. Chateaubriand, whom Napoleon had decorated, stronglj urged its abolition. So did Pozzo di Borgo. Marshals Victor, Marmont, ■ and Macdonald opposed. After de- I bate it was decided to recognize and 'ictain the order, not on any high moral or patriotic grounds, but be cause Louis XVIII could not afford to make himself more unpopular than he was already by stripping people of their decorations. Chateaubriand and Lamartine consented to accept the red ribbon, but it was also conferred upon a great number of worthless personages, and so brought into con tempt. When the nationalists com plain that the republicans are degrad ing the Legion of Honor it is gratify ing to be able to remind them that the example of degrading it was set by a son of St. Louis. There have been many Legion of A CALL DOWN. Mrs. Smith —“Where do you think you’ll go this Xmasf” Mr. Smith —“To the poorhouse if many more bills come in.” Honor scandals since those days, but one of them surpasses all the others in magnitude. This is, ci course, the Wilson scandal, the history of which, though intricate, is worth recalling. The trouble may be said to have be gun on the day on which Mile. Alice Gravy fell in love wtih an opera singer, who need not be advertised here. He wanted to marry her and she wanted to marry him, and the papers were beginning to couple the two names in a manner most em barassing to the president of the re public. The president, however, sent the opera singer about his business, and found his daughter another hus band—not a very good husband, but the best husband he could procure on the spur of the moment. His cholee fell upon M. Daniel Wilson who had leng been one of Mr. Gravy’s political supporters and was a financier of some mark. No sooner was m. Wil son established at the El.vsee than he proceeded to enrich himself by various means. Among other things he found ed a paper called Le Moniteur de l'Expositlon Unlverselle, which really covered a traffic in decorations. The whole story came out in a state trial toward the end of 1887. It was proved that Wilson had made a regular prac tice of selling the Legion of H onor, or, rather, of inviting people ..’ho wanted to bribe him to use his in fluence to obtain It for them. His overtures were presented through his jackals, Generals d'Audlan nad Cat farel and Mmes. Limousin and Rataz zi, and the whole party had to stand In the dock together. Wilson w’as sentenced to a two years’ Imprison ment, a fine of 3,000 francs, and five years deprivation of civil rights. He appealed, and the Court of Cassation annulled the judgment. The accused, said the judges was obviously guilty of everything that he was charged with, hut, as his offenses were not an ticipated by any punitative law, he could not be punished. So he retired to the country and tried to live down his bad name. As he ultimately got himself elected counsellor general one must suppose that he succeeded lr. this object—London Pall Mall Gazette. EGOTISM OF GENIUS. A writer in the London Standard declares the idea that genius is usual ly modest to be a popular delusion. On the contrary, he alleges egotism to be the very essence of true genius, and quotes many amusing examples. When Wadsworth, Southey and Col eridge were walking together and Coleridge remarked that the day was so fine “it might have been ordered for three poets,” the gentle Wads worth promptly exclaimed: “Three poets! Who are the other two.” Disraeli, then a mere youth, wrote to his sister that he had heard Macau lay, Shell nad Grant speak, “but be tween ourselves I could floor them all.” And again he said, "When I w ant to read a good book I write one.” . Our own Joaquin Miller wrote Walt Whitman: "You and 1 are over the head of the rubble. We know we are great and if other people don’t know it it is their own fault.” I was President Grant who, being told that a certain senator, an ad mitted genius who was very hostile to him. did not believe the bible, ex pressed his estimate of the senator's egotism by rejoining. “Why should he? He didn't write it, you know.”— New York World. Captain James J. Meyler of the United States army engineer corps died of pneumonia at the home of his mother in Newark, N. J. Captain Meyler had been stationed for some time at Los Angeles and San Diego and he had charge of building several breakwaters on the Pacific, coast. He was graduated from West Point in 1887. His wife and 7-year-old son were the de* tbbed. APPEAL IN BEHALF OF BIRDS. Let Us Save the Gulls and Terns, Pleads an Eastern Man. The American ornithologists’ union committee make appeal to those who would preserve an invaluable family of birds from extinction. The union has devoted itself to this cause, and now It is In immediate need of money to enable it to continue Its bird pro tection. The appeal reads thus: The few people who really cure whether our seacoast birds disappear forever, or increase in their former beautiful throngs, are now summoned to rally about the standard, unless the noble work for which their subscrip tions have backed the American or nithologists’ union committee In the last two years is to be undone. The great achievement of this committee hns been the procuring of effective state laws and effectual wardenlng of all remaining sea-bird colonies along our Atlantic coast. The American or nithologists' union committee has be gun several suits in New York state, with good hope of success, but this winter’s fight looms big before them, and is wholly dependent on the sub scriptions for which we are now so liciting. Short-sighted dealers have in the past few years changed, from New Jersey to the Gulf, a beach throng* a with millions of exquisite white sea birds, filling the air with their wild voices, to a waste, silent but for the sound of the surf, and where there is little hope that a distant object will prove to be anything more inspiring than an old shoe. This devastation (wrought by at tacking the birds In their breeding colonies, as they madly hover over the Invader) was only complete as far northward as New Jersey, while in Long Island, Vineyard Sound and in Maine, good colonies, both of terns and gulls, remained. These and some remnants In Virginia and Mary land, the dealers were about to finish, when, two years ago, they found themselves confronted by a system of wardens, paid by subscriptions of thlß small body of beauty-loving Ameri cans. Our triumph has been com plete. Nearly every colony has great ly increased each year. The dealers plead that we are crippling an industry. Thai which passes like a blight across the fields, leaving no seed for the morrow, is not an industry. , Half our work Is the securing Im proved laws ,and the watching them to see that they be not scuttled In the next legislature by amendments In stigated by the dealers. The American Ornithologists’ union commlnttee consisting of two men who can ill spare the time and who give their services gratis, will conduct the whole warden system and will be present at the meetings of legisla tures all over the United States east of the Mississippi, If we can raise the money for their expenses. '1 ae com mittee have used almost the last of our remaining funds, and every one who wants the work to go on must send them at once any money he enn spare, as their winter and spring cam paign will involve heavy expense. There Is every reason to believe that a few years’ struggle will put this cause on a more stable and less expensive basis, if not wholly abolish Its need, but in the meantime we are in crying need of an organization and funds enough to meet emergencies, and any one promising to stand by us with a certain annual contribution will do yeoman service. The legislature work Is to cover the protection of all birds threatened by milliners, and to watch for violations of this protection and of the Lacey act of congress, which prohibits send ing unlawfully procured bird-skins from state to otatc. Sea birds are wholly essential as scavengers of the coast and harbors, and as pilots for fishermen to schools of fish. English fishermen allow no one to kill them. The work already accomplished Is only a beginning, and if the commit tee can get the money they will ex tend the protection to the breeding colonies of the gulf coast and those of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, as well as to inland breeding colonies, and will strengthen the protection of the Florida pelicans and the compara tively few herons that remain there. Sportsmen, too, will find themselves Indebted to our wardens, who have not only protected sea birds, but, equally, rails and shore birds. The smallest subscriptions will be thankfully received, and If every one east of the Mislsslppi who has even a slight desire to perpetuate this beautiful form of nature would send a small contribution, the aggregate re sult would go far toward accomplish ing the desired end. The whole work of patrollng our coast from New Brunswick to south ern Virginia, Ixmlsiana and the long journeys to visit legislatures and in spect the work of wardens cost about $2,000 during the past year. Money should be sent either to William Dutcher, 526 Manhattan avenue, New York city, or to Abbott H. Thayer, at Monadnock, N. H. A DISAPPEARING STREAM. The Dry Fork of Ashley Creek, In Northwestern Utah. Some curious revelations are being made by the United States geological survey. A recent report from Mr. C. T. Prall, one of the hydrographers of the survey, has reported the existence of a stream, whose water in the summer season entirely vanishes midway m its course. The river is known as the Dry fork, a small stream In N ’th western Utah, tributary to Ashley creek. About fourteen miles from its source in the Uinta mountains this stream reaches a large basin or sink, whose walls are from 75 to UK) feet high, except on the up-stream side. The pool is apparently bottomless, and the water revolves with a slow, circular motion, caused either by the Incoming waters or by suction from below, or both. The only visible out let to this pool Is a narrow rook chan nel, from which a little water flows, but Is soon lost to sight a few hundred yards below. A measurement of the main stream just above the pool showed a volume of 96 cubic feet of wator passing each second, but this entire tlow disappears in the basin and the stream bed for miles below is perfectly dry. About seven miles below this Interesting pool were found several springs, one of them is a large hole, twenty-five feet in diam eter and twenty feet deep, which at times is empty and again filled with water. It is thought that the water which disappears in the upper pool flows underground deep below in the gravels which form the bed of the stream, and In times of rainfall heavier than usual, appears again in part in the large springs below. At lanta Constitution. Obituary. Riber Ransom Walden, president of the Commercial Travelers’ associa tion, died at his home in Indtnnapoliß after a brief illness, versalists church at Dubuque. Edward Riemcr, who has been first assistant chief of the Milwaukee fire department since 1883, died of pneu monia. *’'' ’ John O’Connell, aged 56, died sud denly of heart disease at Bt. Joseph’s hospital, Joliet. Mr. O’Connell was a former member of the legislature. D. P. Keller, a former member of the general assembly of Illinois and president of the Commercial bank of Moweaqua, 111., and the bank of Dalton City, died at the ago of 70 years. Samuel I). Wood, aged 51 years, proprietor of the Baldwin bank of Delavan 111., and one of the wealthi est landowners in Tazewell county, died at his homo in Delavan. He was born In Pleasant GYovc, Pa Rev. Dr. J. W. * Huimon f Chicago died of heart disease on hoard a Santa Fe train en route front Chicago to Pasadena, Cal., near Flagstaff, Ar.. In 1869 he was the pastor of the Uni* William F. Llndemnnn,.a well-known banker of Vlroqua, Wis., died while sitting in his private office. He was for years n partner in the hanking business of ex-Secretary of Agriculture Jeremiah M. Rusk. Rt. Rev. Thomas Mathias Leuihau, bishop of Cheyenne, one of the best known men in the Catholic church of the west, died at the home of his brother, Father M. C. Lealhan. in Marshalltown, lowa. He was a suf ferer from heart disease. Dr. Robert Curry, founder of Curry university of Pittsburg and well known in educational circles through the country, died at his home in Al legheny, Pa., aged 80 years. Dr. Curry was formerly principal of the Nebraska state normal school. Frank Moore, well known land own er In northern Indiana, fell dead while talking with friends at Peru, lud. llarlow A. Gale, a resident of Min neapolis since 1876, died in that city, aged 69 years. He established the first central market in tho city and for many years had been closely and prominently identified with tie- busi ness interests of Minneapolis. Griswold Harte, tho oldest son of Bret Harte, the novelist, died in Ixui don. Griswold Harte was born in San Francisco 87 years ago. He wua a student in Oxford, Knglaml, although he did not graduate from the unlver slty. He began life as a writer of newspaper articles and short stories, hut he had not the literary force and skill of his futher and his stories, while not without merit, did not win for him fame and fortune. David P. Thompson, a well-known capitalist and ex-United States min ister to Turkey, died ~t Portland, Ore. ife was born in Ohio in 1834 and wont to Oregon in 1853, walking every step of the way across the eontineut In 1874 he was appointed governor of Idaho territory by President. Orant and <lurlng the latter part of President Harrison’s administration ho served as minister to Turkey. During the early 90’s Mr. Thompson was presl dent of seventeen national hanks In the northwest at one time. William F. Farlin, one of Montana s first pioneers. Is dead at tho Slaters hospital In Butte. Ho was born iu M< adville, Pa. In 1838, at the age of 19, he went to Montana. In Septem ber, 1843, Mr. Farlin located at Dacotah, the first lode claim in the Montana mining records. He joined n party of explorers and July 3 of tho next year discovered the Yellowstone river of the National park and on the sth of the same month the Great falls. In the fall of 18U4 Mr Farlin camped at the foot of the now famous Parrot hill of Butte. Here lie built the fourth cabin of the district and located the rich claims of tho Gray Rook, the Anglo-Saxon and tho Trevonla, as well as tie I.n Plata. Shortly after , •this he located what became known as tho city of Butte. He held all of the valuable property which is at prom nt turning out millions a month for both the Amalgamated Copper company and Senator W. A. Clark. He died in moderate circumstances, though once wealthy.