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■HE REAL JAPAN
FROM THE STUDIES C& OBSER VATIONS OF THE WORLD’S FOREMOST STUDENT OF MAN KIND WHILE LIVING IN JAPAN AS A JAPANESE By- PROF. FREDERICK STARR Tori-no-Machi and Shinto Miracles We nearly lost Tori-no-machi. We liad made a note regarding 4t, but it had been laid aside and forgotten. Call ing November 8, upon a binder to or der some covers for Japanese books, he stated that It would be necessary for him to see the books. Upon our suggestion that he should come to the house on the morrow, he apologized, saying that we could hardly expect him to come then, as he must go, be ing a tradesman, to Tori-no-machi. Upon our professing ignorance regard ing that place and function, he remind ed us that it was then and there that he would get his kuraade for the com ing year. To further elucidate he went -at once and brought us the kumade which had given him prosperity during •the year then ending. One glance at It was enough. We decided that not only he, but we would go to Tori-no rmachi on the morrow. The word tori means bird. The fes tival of Tori-no-machi is celebrated at ’bird shrines on the days of the bird in [November —this year, the 9th and 21st. The festival begins at midnight, and ■ends 24 hours later. We were warned that, if we wished to make photo graphs, it would be well to be upon the spot early, as the later hours of the day would be too crowded for any thing to be done. Long before we reached the immediate neighborhood of the shrine we met people with joy ous faces, carrying their kumade for the year. The kumade is a symbolical object brought from the temple pre 'dncts, which gives good luck in busi ness enterprises through the succeed ing year. A few steps more, and we found ourselves actually in the midst of the kumade trade —a perfect net work of narrow alleys and ways close ly crowded on both sides with booths ■filled from top to bottom with the most brilliant and tawdry constructions of card and wood and twisted straw. Here were kumade of all sizes and prices, and different enough to meet the demands of every taste. Trade was in good blast, and the scene was not onl> lively, but noisy. Turning a corner, we found ourselves facing the Temple of the Bird, and hurried to ward it in order to see the devotion of the people before we gave further attention to the talismans on sale. It was a Shinto temple, but of those which show the influence of Buddhism in its details and arrangements. Just before we reached it, we passed the ■dancing platform—found iu connection with all Shinto temples—for kagura. A kagura dancer was then performing. People as they approached the altar, clapped their hands and bent their uncovered heads in prayer. They then pressed forward to throw money into the contribution trough, and to hand to the attendant priest offerings for the temple. Passing into the shrine Itself, we found the altar loaded w r ith gifts —rice cakes, vegetable products of different kinds, and things of value that could be used to the advantage of the gods. On both sides of the altar were great piles of mamori or charms, all of which no doubt were sold long before the festival ended. Priests and other venders of these charms were seated just outside the temple. The favorite mamori were parses made of yellow' cloth, bearing a stamped pic ture of the bird to which the temple was consecrated —the eagle; inside •these yellow purses are either folded strips of paper with good luck words printed on them, or imitations of an cient gold pieces stamped in thin brass. Having seen the temple and offer ings and supplied ourselves with ma mori, we were ready to look more closely at the kumade in the booths Who can .describe them? The word kumade in its simplest meaning signi fies a rake. The symbolism is, of course, that with it one may rake in fortune and wealth during the year. But in most kumade the fact that it Is a rake which one has purchased is quite forgotten; while the rake is there, it is generally so covered w T ith other symbolic objects that one may The Favorite Kumade; A Mass of Symbols. easily forget it. Here, for instance, is a booth which seems to display noth ing but fans; but behind the fans is the framework of the simple rake. These fans always have as their cen tral decoration the mask or face of the curious goddess Otafuku, or Uzume the “abundant-happiness woman.” She is always represented with a narrow forehead, with tw r o spots of black, and with a broad face and puffed out cheeks. The story runs that on one occasion the sun goddess w'as so offended that she took refuge in a dark and dismal cave, the mouth of which was closed, by a great rock which no one could move. The other gods—for at that time there were no humans —were in despair. They de vised various schemes for appeasing the angered goddess. Finally, as part of the arranged plan, Uzume danced. It is stated that her dancing was far from modest, but it pleased the spec tators, who roared with laughter. This piqued goddess, hearing sounds of joy, and anxious to see what was going on, slightly moved the closed rock and looked out. Instantly a strong-armed god seized the rock thus started, and held it from closing; the sun goddess, yielding to the prayers of her com panions, issued again from her retreat, and the world’s happiness was se cured. Uzume is thus ever a symbol of happiness, but on her fans there is other symbolism; there are the two great gods, Daikoku and Ebisu —the gods of ■wealth and productivity; there are the three happy plants—the plum, the pine, and the bamboo; there is the stork flying high in heaven, and there is the mushroom “best of foods,” and intimately associated with Uzume in the popular mind. With such a kumade, who could fail to have a prosperous year? But if one’s taste is otherwise, he has varied possibili ties of choice. In fact, it -would be difficult to find more striking examples of the symbol ism in which Japan so much delights than in these kuirade. Some of the more gaudy ones are a mass of strange figures w'hich the novice would need to have explained in de tail for his comprehension When we had finished it was nec essary to take a jinrickisha in order to transport the stuff which we bad bought. Passersby cried out in sur prise at the fortune w'hich we might well expect, and cook and the old lady were overwhelmed with satisfaction as they thought of the good times coming. And yet, when we looked over the great stock, we felt that some thing was stilt lacking; therefore, quite late in the afternoon, we again hurried to Tori-no-machi. The place had been transformed. So great was the present crowd that policemen were stationed at every little turn ing. Ropes had been stretched to di vide the narrow alleys into two, and movement was permitted only in one direction in these separated sections; crowded as the booths had seemed dur ing the morning, new ones had been erected, and all were blazing with lights from candles, lamps, torches and gas-jets. Talking of night celebrations and il luminations, there was an interesting festival two nights ago at the Kudan. where prayers were said for souls of those fallen in battle. We were told that the illumination would be well worth seeing. To the Kudan, then, w r e went. A great open space on the level summit of a hill had been taken possession of by booths and shacks and pavilions. It may be that all those in the merry throng had said their prayers for the souls of those lost in battle, but if they had, there was no sign of sadness on their part. The whole place was a blaze of light. At scores of little booths, toys and foods, fruits and books and cheap things of every kind were sold. But of course the thing for w'hich the crowd had gathered was the shows, the line of which w'ould do fair credit to the Mid way Plaisance, or the Pike. Just now the cinematograph is all the rags, and we were told that 30 moving picture theaters were in progress at one time; besides these, however, were circuses, and theaters, dancing performances and acrobats. There was one show which made but little outside clamor. But the mo ment that we saw its placarding wo hurried to pay the entrance fee and entered. It was an enclosure open to the air of heaven; the brilliant lights to which we had been accustomed were lacking here; a few gas-jets em phasized the darkness. There was, lurid light from two bonfires blazing on the ground, over one of which, a great caldron of water was boiling, a fair crowd had gathered, perhaps 150< persons, really filling all the available space for spectators. Beside a few coolies who were assisting in the preparation, the performers before us w'ere four white-robed priests of tho old religion. We were about to witness the famous “miracles,” —once purely religious possibly, now frequently a show in -which there still lingers a* considerable amount of religious fer-i vor and devotion. Percival Lowell, of! course, has described them adequate ly, and many a less able writer has described them since. There may be an element of craft and deception in the whole performance, but it is al ways interesting, and we were glad of our first opportunity to witness it. First, is the sword ladder, the least interesting of the four; the priest who was to perform the miracle and an assistant, after tedious preparation, advanced to the front of the ladder, which consisted of wooden sides, in which were set six or seven sharp swmrds. The audience had already had demonstration of the sharpness of their edges; onesw T ord had been passed from hand to hand, that all might see and feel. With the assistant, the per former engaged in earnest prayer, ac companied by the sLange finger-twist ing so characteristic of many oriental ceremonies. At the close of all these preparations the priest mounted the ladder firmly, step by step, on the sharp edges of the swmrds. Arrived at the summit he called for a shell trumpet, on which he blew a blast and then descended. This act caused no great enthusiasm, and indeed seemed rather commonplace. The next was more striking. The priest was a gentle-faced, bearded, long-haired enthusiast. Stating to the audience his purpose, be stood be fore them on a platform and made strange passes with his open hands from his shoulders down the sides of his trunk to his thighs; curious trem ors passed through his body and his fingers went through the strange twistings. He then seized a large needle and with the utmost delibera tion thrust it through the fleshy por tion of his upper right arm. The act would have been startling enough if it had been done hurriedly; as it w r as, the flesh of the spectators crept with the deliberateness of the perform ance. A second was thrust through the same arm with the same delibera tion; a third was thrust through the thick muscle of the left arm, and a fourth; a fifth was thrust through the lobe of the right ear. This was done with not the least appearance of pain. Meantime the assistants had been piling wood under the caldron of boil ing water. The performer this time was a strong and healthy man, with none of the air of dreamy abstraction which had marked his predecessor. Standing on the same platform before the audience, he proceeded to make some rotary movements with his open hands. He too, played, with the fin ger-twistings. Meantime the water had been thoroughly stirred —prob- ably to demonstrate to the audience that it w'as hot throughout—the priest then seized two great boughs, heavy w r ith leaves, and advanced to the cal dron, from which the cover had been removed; he was stripped to the waist; dipping the boughs into the thoroughly boiling liquid, he brought out great quantities of it upon them and splashed it thoroughly over his head and shoulders, and upon his chest and back. This he kept up ac tively until two-thirds of the w r ater, certainly, had thus been used. Public interest, however, was now centered in the preparation for the next and final act, the fire-w'alk. The as sistants brought forward chips and light kindling; this was carefully laid over a space upon the ground some four or five feet wide by perhaps 12 feet in length. \ After the w T hole space had been cov ered v/ith this lighter stuff, heavier kindling and small logs of firewmod were carefully placed. All w r as then lighted and hot coals from the neigh boring fires thrown into every chink. The needle-sticker, with tans in both hands, ran along the sides of the w r ood bed tkus laid, and blew the coals into a blaze. Soon the space was a roaring fire. When it was at its height, two priests wmlked along it, throwing salt into the flames. We had expected that this would deaden the fire to a degree that only a bed of coals, and that smoldering, w'ould be left. On the contrary, while it to some degree reduced the flames, the fire was still blazing when prepara tions w r ere made for the culminating act. Two priests girt up their gar ments, made their prayers, and stood ready far the moment. Popular in terest and excitement were at their height. Suddenly, with a cry of ex ultation the forward priest stepped firmly into the fire and with rapid step walked on the hot coals and through the flames, the full length of the fiery bed. When he was midway of his walk, the second gave the same cry and followed him. Three times the two made the walk across the bed of fire, and w'hen the act was finished the coals were still glowing and the flames still mounting to a foot or more in height, 1 (.Copyright, 1910, by W. G. Chapman.) ININE i THOSE SHORT COATS INNUMERABLE EDITIONS TO CHOOSE FROM, Serious Consideration Demanded on the Part of the Woman Who In tends to Make a Long or Short Journey. When the short-coated suit for trav eling Is to be decided upon, which of the many editions are you going to choose? The problem confronts wom ankind, and a certain discretion must be exercised or there will appear some figures In our midst that will bring down well-deserved ridicule up on the heads of the offenders. Just as soon as a woman considers her figure in relation to the garments that she purchases will there be a marked decimation of the ranks of Indifferently, nay, execrably, dressed followers of fashion. Whether you be tall, slender or of generous proportions, the question of the short coat assails you. Which shall It be? The slender, sylphlike creature is indeed fortunate in this age of sup pressed curves, for her figure is able to wear the short coat without the annoying consideration of the pros and the cons. Her coat may be belted in with a wide patent leather belt, and the peplum can be varied in line, cut away at the front or turned up at the corner in military style at the front lines or back. The slenderness at. the hips is the point that allows this. The short woman must be judicious when selecting her coat. That model that emphasizes length of line must be chosen. The long revers, the point ed line at the bottom, the disposition of trimming in long, narrow vertical lines —these are the main guide-posts. Stout women are less fortunate since the curtailed coat has been re instated. Sleeves must not be too full; the lengthened narrow collar, small buttons and a lack of trim mings should characterize the coats cf the heavier figures. RENOVATING THE SETTLE Old-Fashioned Bench With a Back Can Be Easily Converted into a Porch Couch. If you are lucky enough to own one .)f the long, old-fashioned settles that are little more than wooden benches with high, open back, it can be con verted into a novel couch for a porch or the living room of a country house. Fasten to each arm of the couch the inverted lid of a large flower barrel. This lid should have an inch-high rim. If the dimensions are too large to fit securely to the arm a prop can be add ed on the outer edge. This prop may be a strip of w r ood fastened to the seat of the couch diag onally, or a broomstick handle can be nailed to the lid to form a leg. The lids at each end of the settle make convenient and ornamental shelves for books, workbags and vases of flowers. • When the couch is cov ered the lids can be adjusted in their natural position. To finish the settle scrape off the paint and varnish and give all the woodwork three coats of dark green, dark red or white paint, ending with a coat of enamel. For the seat, make a thin mattress stuffed witn hair or some patent fill ing. Cover with gay cretonne or den im. Arrange the cover so it buttons at the back for greater ease in wash ing. A flat pillow or two can be cov ered with the same material. SATIN STITCH EMBROIDERY Found Most Suitable for Marking Many Articles When Bold Let ters Are Needed. Avery distinct monogram worked entirely in satin stitch is shown here. It is suitable for marking many ar ticles v/hen bold letters are needed. The thickest parts must be padded to raise the work; three or four rows of running out with soft cotton will be needed for these, and two for the nar j rower carts. Stitched straps are excellent for all forms. Embroidered plastrons must bo placed in advantageous position, always keeping well in mind the fact that decoration must not be obstrus ive, but a harmonious part of the whole scheme. On the short coat they may be widely used. Side panels of braid, embroidery of; stitched material give grace, but a certain thickness of the body which it were wise for the stout woman to eschew. The variation of the fasten ing is another note that must be ta ken into consideration when the short coat Is decided upon. One more point. Look well at the skirt with which the short Jacket is, to be worn. Remember that here lies the effect that will accentuate the short lines, or serve to mitigate the change that undoubtedly results from this season's note. Whether the jackets of shorter, length will be able to extend on intoi the next season is a moot point, but, while they are here they must be! chosen with due regard for the women within. LATEST “CHARLOTTE.” The one shown above Is made oa spotted net, edged with pale blue' satin, soft bow of satin. When intended for indoor use the settle may be left unpainted, though a coat or two of paint to make ends and couch alike will cost little, if the w r ork is done at home. Fasten a thin mattress to seat and back and fit to the settle a cover of striped linen, such as Is used for sum mer furniture coverings. The two toned gray effects are cooling and do not soil so quickly as the more popu lar white. The inverted lids are supplied with P separate cover of the linen. Where the leg prop to the lid is used the covering is fitted around it to give the effect of a winged couch, the covered lid extending beyond it. None of the woodwork of the settle shows the cover reaching to the floor all around. If making such a cover is beyond your skill, it can be done more cheaply by having an upholsterer cut and fit it while you do the sewing and binding. Try This, Girls. The debutante of the season will have no difficulty in getting together the coveted six boxes of w'edding ‘cake, which means that the seventh will be her own, for the list of brides to-be is long, and wedding receptions are in plenty, accordingly. The su perstition holds that no box must be opened. Each one must be tied to iisj predecessors in order of date, and each one must be legitimately given to the owner as an invited guest —no cards transferable, so to speak. This charm never falls, it is said. NEW SHAPE IN FELT HATS Large, Flat Hats With Slightly Droop ing Brims and Low Crowns, the Latest. The expected turn of the wheel o t fashion has brought into the millinery field a different shape of hat. From the upturned brim there is a depar ture lor summer wear in the form of large, flat hats, with slightly drooping brims and low crowns. Seme of the brims are slightly nar rower at the front, while a decided, element of comfort is evident in the deep bandeaux, that resemble a skull cap, at the back of the hat, vanish ing at the front into a thin rim of buckram. These are so fitted that no hatpins are necessary. A wreath of flowers, nowhere rising above the crown, is the simple trim ming used on the majority of the flat shapes. There can be the introduc tion of a velvet flower, if a note of contrast be needed. Some of these new models are of fine straw’, leghorn or of frames cov ered with satin and veiled with chif fon. Asa change from the towering turbans or the shapes that eclipse the features, the low, flat hats, resting on the softness of naturally arranged hair, come as a welcome relief. Constipation Vanishes Forever Prompt Relief—Permanent Core CARTER’S LITTLE UVER PILLS " jv •ble—a dt surely A FSTCn'C but gesdon— improve tKo complexion brigKtc* the eyes. Small Pill, Small Dose, Small Price) Genuine mutw Signature ■” ■ —^ HAVE YOU MONEY TO LOAN ON FIRST MORTGAGES that will net you 7% on high grade Washington real estate Orth two" ■" 1 n rifi n hnlf to flje MOatGflSE LOANS imes the I amount oft-- ■ ■ 'the loan? Washington property is mcreasiug in value rapidly. If you want to make a sound invest ment, write us. Our reputation speaks for itself. THE HEGE HEAL ESTATE CO. (In corporated), SPOKANE. WASH. MICROBA THEIR IDEAS. First Woman—A smart woman can fool a man all his life. Second Woman—And a smart man can only fool a woman until sho finds It out. In tho Desert. Here Is a glimpse of the horrors of a western desert taken from tho Gold- Bid (Nev.) News: “Another desert victim is reported, and Archie Camp bell, manager of the Last Chance mining property, near Death valley, came to Goldfield yesterday to en deavor to establish the Identity of tho unfortunate. “Mr. Campbell encountered the un known man on the desert in a fright ful condition. He was In the last stages of desert exhaustion, devoid of clothing, sunburned, blistered and crazed, with his tongue swollen enor mously, a pitiable object, and unable to speak. “Ho was tenderly conveyed to ca.np but kind aid came too late, for an hour after he had absorbed the first cup of water he expired.” Quaint Table Manners. Jerome S. McWade, the Duluth mil lionaire, talked at a dinner about the delights of a backwoods vacation. “I go to a quaint backwoods village every summer,” he said, “and number less are the quaint people I meet there. “Old Boucher, for instance, the jan itor of the village church. Is most amusing with his quaint ways. I had old Boucher to lunch one day, and the cold lobster was served with a mayonnaise sauce. When my servant offered this sauce to Boucher, the old man stuck his knife in it, took up a little on the blade, tasted it, then shook his head and said: “ ‘Don’t choose none/ ” And They Wondered! Judge Nicholas Longworth, who used to sit on Ohio’s supreme bench, looked unnaturally grave, and a neighbor, In recognition of his facial depression, named a pet owl “Judge Longworth.” It was the very next day that an ex cited maid broke up his wife’s garden party. “Oh, madam,” said she. “Ma dam! Judge Longworth has laid an egg.” Summer Comfort There’s solid satisfac tion and delightful re freshment in a glass of Iced Postum Served with Sugar and a little Lemon. Postum contains the natural food elements of field grains and is really a food drink that relieves fatigue and quenches the thirst. Pure. Wholesome, Delicious “There’s a Reason** POSTUM CEREAL CO., Ltd., ' Battle Creek, Mich.