Newspaper Page Text
HOW DISEASE IS BEING CONQUERED.
By Dr. Andrew Wilson. 1 An announcement o* much scientific interest K appeared in the newspapers recently in the shape tjl of details concerning a remedy for that common r j and often dangerous ailment, scarlet fever. Its Pj promulgator, a l>r. Moser, of Vienna, is sanguine W concerning its value in cutting short the ailment' J. He lias selected a certain microbe which occurs in scarlet fever, and which he regarus as likely to represent the germ of the disease. This organ ism is artificially cultivated so as to insure the purity of its stock, and to avoid the possibility of the intrusion of other species ( f germs. When a pure culture has been obtained it is used to inoculate an animal. Asa result, there appears to be developed in the animal’s blood a pecu liar principle which is known as an "antitoxin.” The word “serum” is a term applied to the fluid part of the blood in al> animals- it is. indeed, the blood minus its corpuscles. Hence it is in the serum that the antitoxin is found, and this last is developed as the direct result of the growth and multiplication in it of the germs used for Inoculation. When the antitoxin taken from the animal’s blood is used as an injection into the tissues of a human being attacked by the disease, it has the effect of modifying the ailment. The development oi the microbes in the body of one animal produces a principle which is fatal to their growth in the body of another and different animal. Vac cination itself exemplifies such a process, for smallpox matter, modified by its transition through the calf, appears as vaccine lymph, which is used for protection against smallpox attack. So that, in reality, we are thus causing microbes that are capable of producing disease to fight their own kith and kin. It is work of tills kind which we may hope has been accomplished for the cure of scarlet fever. We have serums now in use for the cure of diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera, lockjaw and plague. That for diphtheria lias had a long and extensive trial both in hospitals and In private practice. The results have been most gratify ing. The disease, a terrible malady, as we all know, can he mastered by the use of the serum in a fashion possible under no previous nu.de of treatment. Many a poor little sufferer lias had ample cause to bless the progress of bac teriological science which has placed the antitoxin in the physicians’ hands. The anti-typhoid serum is still on its trial, but here aga'n the outlook is hopeful. There is like wise a cholera antitoxin, the use of which has been tested with success in THE NEED Of RILES OF ETIQUETTE. By Mrs. Humphry. —I To those who desire to make their way In so fj ciety, its laws must he known and observed. It Is wj a fairly laudable ambition, that of attaining and f,l holding a respectable rank in life; and if the iU minutiae of the process appear to be childish and j T Killy to minds occupied with matters of more mo- JL rnent, they are really no more so than the first ste P® • any other pursuit—the faltering notes of he student of piano or violin, the tottering steps of the child learning to walk, the unwieldy stitches set in by the novice at the needle. “Good manners are the fruit of noble mind.” somebody says; but what measure of mental nobility will suffice to Instruct the unlearned In the mysteries of the dinner table? Good maimers are much more the fruit of being accustomed to move ii: wealthy circles than any direct consequence of possessing a noble mind. Etiquette naturally divides Itself into two sections: one that deals with good manners of the superficial, every day kind; and the other that concerns tactful behavior. A man or woman may be perfectly equipped with the outward forms of courtesy and yet convey studied Insults by look or tone, or manner. In fact. It has often been said that no one cun be so execrably rude as a woman of the highest i society who can administer a snub In a manner ly which J no fault can be found on the scoro of politeness. So far as superficial manners are concerned, those that 1 OLDEST LIVING MINISTER NEARS THE CENTURY MARK Rev. William Howe, D. IX, of 910 Massachusetts avenue, Cambridge, Mass., Is 97 years old. It is believed Bthat Dr. Ilowe is the oldest living clergyman in this country. For a man of his age he Is re markable active. Only a few weeks ciated at the funer- I the we 1 known j Dr. Ilowe observ rkv. wm. iiowe. ed bis 90th blth day last year by preaching for fifty minutes without notes at the Broad way Baptist Church. Cambridge. He was bom ir Worcester, and re ceived an academic education in Am lierst academy. He graduated from Colby University, then named Water ville College, in 1833. and from the Newton Theological Seminary In 18“ C. Following his studies at Newton he establ. tvd a circuit of eight mission schools in Boston. One was In a sail loft on Commercial street, from which developed the Baptist Bethel on Han over street. From another mission on Friend street came the Union Baptist church. Dr. Howe was ordained to the ministry at Dr. Malcom’s church, then on Federal street, now the pres ent Clrrendon Street church. From JBO3 to 1870 be was pastor of the Broadway Baptist church. Cambridge. He was one of the originators of the Boston Associated Charities, aud was a member of the Redon School Board. TEA GROWING IN T7XAS. Said to Be as Promising as Fruit in i California. L. Seabrook. of Port Lavaca, one of j the Southern Pacific immigration ( workers, states that practical steps will ; be taken to start tea culture in the vicinity of Port Lavaca, says the Gal- j veston (Tex.) News. “Tea growing in this country is no I longer an experiment.” said lie. “The j crop is now regularly cultivated for i the markets on the coast of South Carolina and is found to be highly profitable and lias come to stay. Tee j Is a plant that thrives to best advant age in coast countlr. s. where there is j a dense atmosphere, aud as there are many similar points in a climatic sense between the Carolina lowland region and the Texas e. asi It lias long been thought that the crop c juUl be made to pay with us. “The first experiment will be made on lands of the Placeio Canal and Ir rigation Company, e.ght miles above Port Lavaca, and .uSQSieu by Ross Clark. “There Is a greater rainfall on the Carolina coast than at Port Lavaca, and the rule is that the atmosphere Is more humid, but the company has an ample rice irrigation plant aud in dry spells the rainfall will be supplement ed with artificial water. Dr. Shepard, the famous Carolina tea grower, be lieves in irrigation and recommends It. If the crop proves a success at ’ rt Lavaca, and doubtless it will, a 1 or supply In the picking season can depended upon, for negro women and children can be had In adjoining counties, and Mexican labor, also wo men and children, can be brought in lrom Corpus OUristi aud other points farther south on the coast. “The experiment to be made near Port Lavaca will be watched with in- are taught In the nursery and the schoolroom; that deal with bows and smiles, knives and forks, demeanor in the street, and politeness in the home; we are probably as well behaved as ever we were; but it is in our general conduct that we see n, as a nation, to be deteriorating. Just think of the difference there is between the con ditions of society at the beginning of the twentieth cen tury aud tlmse that existed in the seventies. Croquet was just beginning to give way to lawn tennis. Golf was un dreamed of as a game in which women might Join As to | cricket, hockey, and football, they were then men’s games. But now girls play them all. Girls pride themselves on being manly, just as our nice young mothers and our grand mothers before them prided themselves on being gentle, feminine creatures. They overdid It. They thought it the - correct thing to scream if they saw a mouse, and to faint if a finger bled. And our girls overdo the manliness just as our mothers overdid the femininity. Are good manners generally declining? Or is it only here nnd there that we notice a roughness, and because it contrasts with the rest, accuse the whole? Is it really true that men are less pol ! ished, women louder of voice and more self-assertive? PROBLEM OF THE DUST OF THE AIR. By Andrew Wilson. The publication of Tyndall’s Instructive book mi entitled “The Floating Matter of the Air” marked p j an era not only in respect of science at large but jf/j also in respect of many problems of public health. M The demonstration of the air as a “stirabout” of P floating dust particles opened the eyes of those JL who read to the enormous dust cloud which is comprised in the great air ocean that surrounds —■ i i.* our globe. “Dust and disease” has become a phrase which we accept because of the demonstration that the latter often arises out of the former. We are safe in saying that if we could abolish dust we should find many diseases to disappear. It would be a gross mistake to sup pose that dust is universally daugerous. Much of it con sists of mineral particles; some of it is represented by shreds of our clothing; some of it Is dead particles derived from the bodies of animals and plants; some of it represents the germs or spores of molds and yeasts and other form of lower plank life; aud some of it finally consists of disease producing microbes, of the universal diffusion of dust nothing need be said. We only escape contact with It if we go to the mountain tofts, or flush our lungs with the air of the open sea. When we enter the abodes of men our Invasion by dust particles is full aud complete. Iu a cubic meter of air taken from the open sea or mountain tops there were found only six or ten germs. In old houses in Paris the quantity found was 79,000 and over. In our great centers of population we have to face a perpetual bombardment by dust particles of all species. Sweeping arrangements of ordinary kind only distribute them. The same may be said of the household sweeper and the familiar duster. There is displacement of dust, but no destruction. Even the corners of our rooms and the crevices of our cornices are harbors of refuge for the dust atoms, that is why in hospitals there are no angles in the walls, but rounded surfaces instead. The plan of the housewife who uses damp tea leaves preparatory to her swooping down with her broom or sweeper is a concession to an old Idea. For so long as dust Is kept wetted It is not dangerous. It is found that flushing the streets is a vastly superior process to sweeping them. The dust cart should be a thing of the past. Especially in summer should flushing be carried out. It J3 then that dirt dries and be comes dust. It Is then also that we get food tainted, and especially milk, with the result that the little children die off in thousands from infantile cholera, due to the tainting of their food. If to water disinfectants are added we ren der ourselves doubly safe. In the future we shall find ,the housewife dealing witth dust as science rqcoimuends. I read also of a system of cleaning carpets and other things by sucking the dust out of them by a vacuum process. Let us bethink ourselves of a crusade against dust. Once undertaken, the grievous time represented by the “spring cleaning” may become a thing of the past. THE WEALTH OE THE WORLD IS ESTIMATED TO BE $400,000,000,000 THE total wealth of the world, while not exactly known, has been esti mated at $400,000,000,000, saj s (lunton's Magazine. This is probably an underestimate of tbe actual amount of money and property in semi-civillzed lands. Of this total the greater part is owned by Ameri cans and Europeans. The United States has somewhere near $ 100.000,000,(1 A), or about one-fourth of the whole. The united kingdom is the richest country of Europe, its wealth being estimated at £11,800,000,000 or £302 per capita. Of the total England's share was £10.002,000,000; Scotland’s £1,094,000,000; Ireland’s, £650.000,000. In American money (at $4.80 pound sterlingi Great Britain's wealth in 1595 was $50,GG8.800,000. A recent estimate ma kes it $59,000,000,000, or 5’,442 per capita (in 1901). The annual income of Eng land’- population it* sa'd to be $5,000,000,0<X), while the yearly saving Is $1,948 000,000. It should be remembered that a large amount of British capital '.s also invested in the colonies ot the empire and in foreign lands. France is the next richest nation of Europe. Mulhall estimated its wealth in 1895 ; £9,090,000,000. or £252 per capita. A recent estimate of France’s wealth makes $48,000,000,000. or $1,257 per capita (1901). According to Mul- Uall Germany’s wealth in 1895 was £8.052,000,000. or £l5O per capita. Prus sia's share was more than half (£4.940.000,000); Bavaria’s, £949,000,000; Sax onj’s. £450.000.000; AVurtteniburg’s. £37,00.000, while the smaller German -tiles had £ 1.337.000,000. According to a more recent estimate Germany’s wealth is $40,000,000,000, or $709 per capi a (1901) German money loaned or invested abroad amounts to $8,000,000,000 or ir.or< Russia’s wealth in 1895, as Mulhall estimated it. amounted to £0.425.000,000. or £Ol per capita. A recent estimate places Russia’s wealth at $32,000,000,000, or about $290 per capita (estimating the population iu 1891 at 108,000.000). terest over the State, for its success will mean anew and highly profitable crop added to the list and big increase in the land values of the coast coun try.” Mr. Seabrook said the facts are to be had and that tea farming as a moneymaking means will equal any fruit orchard in Florida or California. GOATSKIN CHURNS USED BY THE PERSIAN NOMADS A method so primitive that it is al most unknown elsewhere is still used by the Persian nomads In churning their butter. In the shelter of the goatskin tent is swung a crusade receptacle, also of goatskin, in which the milk is dumped. Then it is rooked gently by hand until the separation of the fat from the milk is complete, when the .esult&nt oily mass, unsalted as Is Cnt'RXIXQ !>■ PERSIA aiI oriental butter, is ready for the consumer. There are few more interesting peo ple, In these days of rapid progress, than the Persian nomad. His home is where night overtakes him. and he | sleeps when weariness suggests that |he fall. Ordinarily his roof Is heav | en‘s starry dome, but In case of sterms I he crawls into tbe shelter of his little j goatskin tent, where a surprisingly ! large family can be made comfortable. | The Persian, like the Moor, does ! not encourage the establishment of j prisons, death being a juicker aid less ! expensive method of punishing crimi • rt?la- Torture In countless fo~ms is so common a sight as to attract little at tention. and when death supervenes the body lies where it falls until taken away by relatives. The Rector’s Family. It lias been said that in his foot ball days the late Archbishop of Can terbury, “never care! how hard his shins Avere kicked,” and that he carried this characteristic indifference to knocks l v o after life. But it must not be supposed that he did not know when he avo j kicked. None knew better, and apropos is a story n Am the Manchester Guardian. Soon after Doctor Temple was ap pointed Bishop of Exeter he visited one of the churches in his diocese for a confirmation. He stopped at the rec tory overnight. The eldest girl who Avas just old enough to come down to dinner, was an ictive, capable girl, and of great assistance to her mother. During the meal the latter spoke proud ly of her daughter’s usefulness In the parish. “Wherever I go.” observed Doctor Temple. “I find a rector, a di-rector.” indicating the mother, “and a mis dlrector,” indicating the daughter. “And when your lordship comes." retorted the mother, with profound obeisance, “we have a co-rector.”’ “Well thrust!" returned Doctor Tem ple. with a hearty laugh. Plague of Rats at Lisbon. Lisbon, the Portuguese capital, has been attacked by a rat plague, and all means to check the pest have proven futile. The municipal doctors think they have found a way out of the difficulty. They have inoculated some rats with an infectious virus, harmless to man. and have let them loose Many rats ate now feeling the effects of the virus, and It is expected that the city will soon be rid of the plague. Oxygen May He Cheap. Signor Marconi, the inventor of wire less telegraphy, is said to have dis covered a method by which oxygen may be extracted from air at a very slight expense. Foreigners Must Register. The Spanish govemreat has revived the regulation requiring foreigners resi dent in or visiting Sp'An to register their names at their consulates, , About the safest get-rich-quick ; scheme is to marry an heiress. AGRICULTURE IN RUSSIA. A VAST COUNTRY DEPENDENT ON HER NATURAL RICHES. Agricultural Interests Must be Devel oped in the Centra! and Southern Districts, Leaving the North, Whejre the Soil is Poor, to the Factories, Russia is and always must be chiefly dependent on her natural richness so long as criminal improvidence and reckless housekeeping have not wholly exhausted them, and among these fhe direct produce of the soil and the agri culturists’ labor would be almost inex haustible were the money employed in creating artificial branches of national income used in introducing and teach ing the peasantry improved methods of cultivation, in preventing the im poverishment of the soil, or rather in reclaiming It, for the impoverishment is an accomplished fact, and in effect ing the irrigation and canalization which the destruction of the forests has rendered necessary by causing countless springs and small lakes to dry up. Such at least must be the programme for the centre and south, leaving factories for the north, where the best that can be done with the soil is to coax from it crois sufficient to feed the tillers from year's end to year’s end. In the last quarter of a century Rus sian industry has increased fourfold. While in 1877 the total sum of manu facturing industry hardly reached 540,- 000,000 it had in 1897 mounted to 1,800.000,000, and now-, in 1891, it has attained and may soon pass the two millaird mark. Some branches have increased twenty-five fold; 74,000,000 worth of steel was made in 1897, while 1877 had only 3,000,000 worth to show. There is no doubt that Russian in dustry has taken abnormally gigantic strides. But how is it meanwhile with farming? It is at a standstill, to say the worst. The destruction of forests for fuel and for railway sleepers has denuded Central Russia. Hand in hand with this destruction, droughts are getting to be a chronic evil, and so are famines. At the same time the rapid increase of population makes the land allotments more and more insuffi cient, and the country people, growing poorer and poorer, stop buying things Under such conditions most of the un dertakings rest all their hopes on gov vernment orders and fail if orders are not forthcoming in time. And still we push on, and on; still we go on “promoting” and “floating” new companies, draining the country’s savings where there are any left, and when these give out calling in foreign capital. The result is production out running demand, and w r hen that is the case only one end is possible. There is no need to dwell on the rev olution effected in the rural economy of the country by the transition from serf labor to hired labor, for Americans —at least southerners— iave gone through much the same experience during the same years, too. There is this difference, that Russian landlords were compelled to give up the largest part of their lands and received the price of them in a lump. It would seem at first sight as though, being thus placed In possession of a hand some capital, cash dowi, they had a chance to start farming on their great ly restricted domains on broad, ra tional principles and according to the most up-to-date methods. That is theory. Practically, it was the last thing they could have done. Most of the estates lay under heavy mortgages, the amount cf which being deducted from the redemption pay ments left the owners in many cases but a slender cash residue. Then— and that was the worst of the situation —most of them knew very little about farming and less about management, thrift and business generally. The money somehow slipped through their fingers and they were left with lands which, to only too many, were more a hindrance than a means of support. Many began to sell their lands piece meal —to vil'age communes, to wealthy shopkeepers, to individual peasants of the genus known as “fists” (usurers, buyers of anything and everything that promises a sure profit), making, of course, disastrous bargains. Some rented to farmers for money or on shares (the latter arrangement gener ally proving unsatisfactory); some sent a bailiff to managed the estate, collect the income, aid send them as much of It as he chose. A few braced up for real work and went to live on | their estates, sensibly expecting to learn as they went, and to gather the prosperity which mother earth keeps in store for those who do not hold themselves above devoting their best powers to the care of her. What has been accomplished, under untold difficulties, by these few, is more than sufficient to show what im mense results might be achieved if what is now the exception became the rule. Unfortunately, such a course re quires. first of all, some of the very qualities in which the average Russian character is conspicuously deficient—a stubborn will, great pei-severance and contempt of obstacles, patience under rebuffs, and under the thousand and one worries horn of misdirected con servatism in some quarters and the wholesale ignorance of the masses. All these things have to be fought and conquered, and that they can be con quered, slowly it is true, and by bits, the few who hold out are showing. The average Russian, generous and well-meaning, takes held enthusiasti cally. works resolutely for a time, but is quickly discouraged. Stolidity, ill will, lack of comprehension, wound ; him most of all, lame him, and he goes away. Few. indeed, are content to plough and sow and tend the crop which they cannot live to harvest. But there are such. —Z. Ragozin. in the New York Commercial Advertiser. The Home of ‘Sparrow Jack.” There is a little old house in Ger mantown. at the northwest corner of Main and Upsai streets, that is in a certain sense historical. In this housa, some thirty-thy years ago. lived “Sparrow Jack,” and the build ing. therefore, has the name of “Spar row Jack's home.” Jack was an Eng lishman. John Bardsley, and through the influence of William F. Smith, a Germantown councilman, he was sent to England to bring over a lot of Eng lish sparrows, the Idea being that tbe sparrows would destroy the caterpil lars that infested the trees. The f?w sparrows Bardsley imported are the ancestors of tae millions that now thrive in Philadelphia. The im porter was highly praised for his work during the first year or two. and his nickname of ‘ Sparrow Jack” was a title of honor in •ahieh he took great pride. Later on, however, as the sparrows began to become a nuisance, the nickname came to have a re proachful significance and in the end it became a term of opprobium.— IN THE PROPERTY RuOM. A Varied Collection of Articles in the Old Boston Museum. Some idea of the varied collection of objects which accumulate in the property room of a theatre is to be ob tained from a description of the con tents of the old Boston Museum prop erty room. In a general way the public has learned to know that the “property man” of a theatre is one who looks after such details of the pro ductions as concern chairs and tables, the bottles that the people pour their liquor from, and the pen and ink used by the heroine to indite her loving messages. The master of properties must still be a resourceful person, but in the old days, where the frTquent changes of bills necessitated additional “props” every week or to. the ingenuity ef this functionary was often taxed to the ut most. The apothecary’s shop in “Romeo and Juliet” wasn't a circumstance to the old property-manufacturing shop in the cellar of the museum, where may be seen the skulls and crossbones stuffed animals of both wild and do mestic species, wings for witches, angels and devils, and other curious things that can’t be enumerated in a column The animals, botn real and of papier mache, repose on shelves all around the walls, a wierd, grinning, motley troupe of once indispensable stage characters that would have brought their possessor to the stake in witchcraft days, and all destined for the dirt heap within a few days. There are the wolves’ heads with gleaming teeth, fangs and eyes, that were wont to be thrust beneath the door of the log cabin which the stout arm of Prank Mayo held in place in the thrilling honeymoon scene in “Davy Crockett.” The big bellows with which Tilly Slowboy once blew the fire in “The Cricket on the Hearth” hangs upon the wall, and the cradle in which she rocked the baby lies in the corner. In another corne ura stack ed old rusty muskts, including some flintlocks that defended the breast works in Dr. Jones’ centennial drama. “The Battle of Bunker Hi!l,“ twenty eight years ago. From the center of the ceiling sus pended by strings hang three mangy looking stuffed animals that were once features in everything the moral les sons taught by the waxwork tableaus, sold more than a decade ago. For sixty years these animals, a domestic cat, a dog and a monkey, have been comrades, blit they must now go the way of all else identified with the mu seum. The eat and dog. now naif hairless and showing repulsively their dried-up gums and loosened teeth, used to be pictures of ease and contentment when representing the sole objects of the affection of the old maid and the old bach in a wax tableau. The monkey had his mission to fill i also, but what it was is now forgotten. Of late years he has been hung by a movable string before the door of the room in such a way that he would drop with a dull thud on the breast of any one entering the door, a start ling experience for an unsuspecting stranger, which has contributed to the enjoyment of the property man’s life, however. In another part of the cellar is stored a raft of stage furniture of every kind. There are-ILo seat3 of Caesar and Brutus from the senate house, the royal chairs of Macbeth and his restless helpmate, the big, glitter ing chair in which John Wilkes Booth was crowned as Richard 111., and the gracefully formed mediaval chairs in which Hamlet has oft pondered the proposition, “To be or not to he.” There are stacks of spears and hal berds and Roman standards, and a pa thetic souvenir in the shape of a rude effigy of burlap stuffed with excelsior, which is recognized as the dummy used in the burial of Ophelio, over which the queen strews flowers and weeps and says, "Sweets to the sweet, fair maid.’’—Boston Globe. How the Fish Was Drowned. A German scientist —he could only have been German —once conceived, we are told, a plan to train a fish to live out of water. He placed a thriv ing little carp in a small tank and with infinite patience and great exact ness removed from the tank one spoonful of water every day, at the same time increasing gradually the amount of oxygen in the water. In time the water barely covered the carp, and still it tnrived. The quan tity of water continued to diminish, and, by slowly adapting its method of breathing to the new conditions, the fish began to breathe air and, indeed, became quite terrestrial in its habits before the tank was entirely dry. The scientist had grown to love the carp. He fed it from his own hand, and now that it was living in the same ele ment with himself, he took it from the tank knd left it as free to follow its own devices as was the family oat. The little fish also loved its meter. It followed him about from place to place, flopping along after him, stop ping only occasionally to leap lor a passing fly. One day the scientist was crossing a bridge. The carp, as usual, was at hi3 heels, enjoying the pleasant air of the country side and uttering from time to time a little sound expressive of delight and con tentment. About the middle of the bridge a fat house-fly was sunning itself on the rail. The carp spied the fly and jumped for it, but miscalculat ing the distance, went over the rail into the river—and was drowned. — The Great Rural World. An Electric Germ Killer. Louis Johnson, an employee of the Minneapolis Water Works Depart ment, has devised a plan whereby typhoid fever snd other germs that make their abode in the city water can be killed by an application of air and electricity. His system, which was tested at the east side pumping station, provides for the aeration ol' the water and the electrocution of the germs by a strong current from the dynamo. The test was a success, for Dr. Corbett, the city bacteriologist, said that at least 70 per cent, of the germs were destroyed, and it is pos sible the execution was greater. A miscroscopic examination will deter mine this point. Water from the intake i3 run through an eight-inch pipe into a tank on the floor of the pumphouse. While run ning through the pipe the water is aerated by two air pipes. While the water is in the pipe it is subjected to an electric current of 400 volts, and Mr. Johnson say3 this is responsible for the disappearance of the germs. Samples ta’ren from the tank several days ago snowed a disappearance of germ life of eighty-five per cent. Ac cording to the claims cf the inventor, water permeated with g?rms can be run through the pipe and tank and made almost pure in a few second*. —Minneapolis Journal. THE 81-CENIENNIAL OF JOHN WESLEY, THE FOUNDER OF METHODISM. JOHN* WESLEY. From an Engraving Belonging to the Northwestern Christian Advocate. Methodist churches all over the world recently celebrated the 200th anni versary of the birth of John Wesley. In every country under the sun where the apostles of Methodism have penetrated, special meetings will lie held, where the most gifted orators in the denomination paid glowing tribute to the great reformer. John Wesley was born in the rectory at Epworth, England, on .Tune 17, 1703. Asa boy young Wesley received his schooling at home, for, although Mrs. Wesley was the mother of nineteen children—of whom John was the fifteenth—she had little re.viect for the educational methods of the day. and insisted on teaching her own children. At the age of 11 Wesley was ad mitted to the Chartis-liouse school in London, where he spent six years. At the age of 17 he entered Oxford University, and when 23 he was ap pointed Greek lecturer and moderator ol’ Lincoln College. In 1727 he grad uated as master of arts, this being the only college degree he ever received, though he was the greatest theologian and perhaps the greatest scholar of his time. While Wesley was in Lincoln College he was the acknowledged leader of a band of Oxford students called the Holy Club. These young men adopted certain rules or methods for their daily guidance, and in ridicule were called Methodists. They devoted much of their time to visiting the sick, the poor and the prisoners In jail. Like all great reformers, Wesley had much force of character. During the two years which he spent in the new-world colony of Georgia, at the invitation of Lord Oglethorpe, he devoted himself to ills work as a minister and to the education of the children, starting the first Sunday school known. D. D. Thompson, in his biography of Wesley, says: “The four men who have made the deepest impression upon the religious history of the world'have been Moses. St. Paul, Martin Luther and John Wesley, and of these, as a social reformer. Wesley was excelled only by Moses and St. Paul.” Dr. Rlgg, in his character sketches of Wesley, says: “No single man for centuries has moved the world as Wesley lias moved It.” As regards his physical being. Wesley is described as having been a charming man, handsome, with fine face, smooth forehead, aquiline nose, bright, piercing eyes, and one who was scrupulously neat in person and habit. His manner was sprightly and studiously courteous, his laughter winning, and his conversation delightful. John Wesley never, withdrew from the Established Church, He organ ized, however, the Methodist Episcopal Church in America and provided for the continuance of his societies in England, and these became the Wes leyan Church. His labors extended over a long period of great usefulness before his death occurred in London. March 2, 1701. His followers have since divided on questions of government, though united in doctrine, until there are now about thirty branches of the Methodist family. At the time of Wesley’s death there were about 130,000 Methodists and 541 itinerant preachers. Now there are about 8,000,000 members, about 50,000 Itinerant ministers, and about 80,000 lay preachers. POVERTY INEXCUSABLE. Bo Says a Man Who Claims to Live Well on Five Cents a l>ajr. Every little while some magazine or paper prints an article to the effect that we are spending too tuuc-h for our ■■■■ v food; that by - swearing off on this, ami living on 1 & J that, we can not only the bettor eti- V JH' ' liberty and the y pursuit of liappl neß8 ’ lmt ran lay T Jfl tlie ar ti c i eß so es- A. a. sawders. sential to our un limited joy. As most of these are un tried theories, however, we continue beefsteak and dodging creditors. But there is no longer any excuse for our perversity of comfort. We are now confronted by tried and proven facts, not mere theories, and If anyone should be too poor by next Christmas to buy his wife a present he will have none to blame for his Impoverished condi tion but himself; for after several years of personal experience, A. A. Sanders, of New York City, says that a man can live well and be strong and hearty for only five cents a day, and there is no longer any excuse for pov erty. Mr. Sanders became a vegetarian about ten years ago because of ill health. Two years ago be and his two sous adopted their present system of living, which they pronounced Ideal. Arising at an early hour—four o'clock in summer and five in winter - they take a cold bath, and depart for the business of the day. Mr. Sanders us ually rides his wheel to and from his place of business in the city, a dis tance of six miles. The young men quite frequently walk, making the trip in one hour and ten minutes. At noon they take an hour’s rest, but no lunch. In the evening they partake of their one meat of the day, consist ing principally of raw foods such as fruit nuts, and some form of grain. Their list of food articles includes wheat, oats, beans, corn, lentils, onions, raisins, dates, prunes, nuts and evap orated fruits such as peaches, apples and apricots during the winter, with the addition of all fresh fruits and vegetables in the summer time; milk, ; butter and eggs, like meat, are never used. These vegetables. Mr. Sanders asserts, furnishes them the best of liv ing at an average expense of but five cents each per day. Housekeeping is an easy proposition where this kind of living is adopted, as most of the foods are eaten raw. The beans, lentils, peas, cereals and the j evaporated apples are thoroughly soak ed and then slightly steamed in the way of preparation. Prunes, apricots and peaches are eaten raw after being soaked fonty-eight hours; but .no sea- | sonir.g as* sweetening of any kind is used in preparing any of the foods.— Utica Globe. HISTORIC FLAG PRESERVED IN THE TORONTO LIBRARY Almost green with age. tattered a jd scarcely reeogr.izable, hangs now one of the most remarkable of flags in Dr. • Bain's office in the public library of Toronto, Canada. It is the flag that, floated over Navy island at the time of the upper Canada rebellion of 18H7, and which, perhaps, flew from the mast of the famous Caroline. It is a canvas square, with a history, one which almost caused a great war. C'apt. Drew, who was in command of the improvised fleet, made up of lake schooners, which captured the Caro line, set her afire, and sent her adrift over Niagara FalLs, was compelled to return to England, and took the flag with him. Somehow It hung for about forty years quite obscurely In the Royal i THE CAKGLJJJE'S FLAG. United Service Institution, In White hall, Ixmdon. When this Institution's museum was rebuilt recently tbe flag was taken down and laid aside. Per haps Its space was given to trophies nnd relics of more current interest, such as the South African colors and captured Boer emblems. By the kind assistance of Gen. Robinson, late gov ernor of the Chelsea hospital, the re quest of the board of management of the Toronto Public Library was ac ceded to in the kindest manner, and the flag was sent here. Safest Building in History. There xvas one famous building of antiquity, it is said, in Leslie’s Month ly, which, acording to the records, was never once damaged by lightning dur ing its thousand years of existence, although placed high on a hill above a city In a mountain region where thun derstorms are very frequent. It vr.<j the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem. The temple was overlaid within f nd without by plates of gold. Now geld is one of the best of electric conduc tors, and Ir tills way the whole build ing was protected with a perfection and thoroughness that has never been attempted before or since. .Revenge. The burglar softly opened the door of the suburbanite's sleeping apart ment, slipped inside, and searched the room thoroughly, but found nothing worth stealing. “Darn him!” he solil oquised; “I'll get some satisfaction out of him, anyway!” Thereupon he set the alarm clock on the bureau for the hour of three, and softly departed Keep It in the Kitchen. Anew arrival had ' vine into the fam ily circle, and Tom, aged five, was taken to see the “little stranger.” He looked the Infant over with a calm, critical regard, and then, turning to them who accompanied him, he said, very decidedly: •Jane, you can keep that In the kitchen.” BIG BUILDING BOOM. LARGE CITIES OF THE COUNTRY NEARLY ALL BUSY. Millions of Dollars Worth of New Structures Going Up— High Wages Paid in the building Trades—Some Interesting Figures. The United States can boast of a building boom. From practically every section ef the country the reports indi cate that never before was there so much construction work under way as at pres ent. The rise lias been gradually dating notably from 1808. The percentages of increase in the large cities, while indicating the general movement, do not represent fairly the real gains, for the reason that the great est ratio of improvement is to be found in the country and smaller cities, from which exact figures are unobtainable. In Chicago architect* complain of lack of local business, but say their out of-towu work compensates for it. To the general rule of prosperity there are some excep tions among the large cities. Chicago building for May of this year fell 37 per cent from the figures of May, 1002, and smaller decreases are reported from some other cities. In Chicago, in the first five months of this year, there were erected 2,334 build ings, at a cost of !(513,003,310; in the same period last year there were built 2,522 buildings, at a cost of J 24.001.205. Labor and material prices curing 1003 in Chicago have been higher than at any previous time, and this lias tended to keep down the figures. Fear of labor complications lias also entered into the situation. In spite of all these consid erations an immense amount of work has been done. Labor troubles in New York and Oma ha have had a very depressing effect. For the first quarter of 1003 Manhattan erected 203 new buildiugs and spent $20,- 503,074 for new structures and the al terations of old ones. The corresponding quarter of 1002 showed 020 buildings that cost $21,587,552. In New York there was a big change in the number of buildings, the sky-scraper fiats taking the place of smaller buildings. In Brooklyn in 1903 there have been erected 1 191 buildings, at a cost of $7,- 300.315. Last year, in all the twelve months, there were put up 3,173 build ings costing $18,548,002. One ef the cities showing the greatest gain is St. I amis. There have been few labor troubles hi the World’s Fair city, but many dela.-s in securing structural steel. No less than 1.342 buildings have been erected in five months at a cost of $0,207,070. Washington lias built 850 buildings this year, costing $1,110,370. Birmingham put up 108 buildings at a cost of $l,800.(xX). Cincinnati's expendi tures are $323,005 for the five months. Baltimore erected 1,437 buildings costing $3,912,811; Indianapolis 205, costing $470,000; New Orleans 158 buildings costing $134,000, and Omaha 120 build ings at a cost of $344,502. Boston makes the worst showing, with only 70 build ings at n cost of $103,800. This is the smallest number of buildings erected in the Hub in many years. Wati in Building; Trndes. It is interesting to note the wages paid in some of the building trades. Here is n list of the rates per hour: Masons --Chicago, 00 routs; Minneapolis, 55; Cleveland, 80; l’lttsburg. 00; Denver, to 08A*; st. Louis, 55; Kansas City, bo to 0244; Tacoma, 0244; Cincinnati, 45 to 7>oVj; Philadelphia, 00; New York, 05; San Francisco, 75; Ituffalo, 45. Plasterers Chicago, 5044; Cleveland. 50; Minneapolis, 50>4; Pittsburg, 50%; Denver, f>s; St. Louis, 8214; Washington, 50; Kansas City, 50; St. Paul, 5644; Tacoma, 6244; Phil adelphia, 15; Milwaukee, 40; New York, 6244; Providence, 43%; Hun Francisco, 67%; Buffalo, 50. Plumbers Chicago, 5044; Minneapolis, 50; Cleveland, 43%; Pittsburg, 50; Denver, 53T4; St. Louis, 0244; Washington, 50; Kan sas City, 50; Tacoma, 50%; Cincinnati, 43%; Philadelphia. 40; Milwaukee, 43%; New York, 5344; Han Francisco, 50%; Buf falo, 3744- Carpenters Chicago, 50; Minneapolis. 3744; Cleveland, 35; Pittsburg, 43%; Den ver, 45; St. Louis, 45; Washington, 40%; Kansas City, 35 to 3744; Tacoma, 45; Cin cinnati, Philadelphia and Milwaukee, 35; New York, 50%; San Francisco, 00; Buffalo, 3344. Painters Chicago, 40; Minneapolis, 35; Cleveland, 85; Pittsburg, 40; Denver, 43%; Bt. Louis, 45; Washington, 3744; Kansas City, 35; Tacoma, 3744; Cincinnati, 35; Phil adelphia, 3744; Milwaukee, 35; New York, 5044; San Francisco, 43%; Buffalo, 8744. Electricians Chicago, Cleveland, Pitts burg. Bt. Louis and New York pay 50 cents per hour. In Denver the rate Is 4r> and oth er cities pny is follows: Minneapolis, 30; Washington, 43%; Kansas City, 374.; Ta coma. 3744; Cincinnati, 34%; Philadelphia, 40; San Francisco, 43%. Laborers nnd Hod Carriers Chicago, 30; Minneapolis. 22: Cleveland, 2844; Pittsburg, 3144; Denver, 8744; Ht. Louis, 3744; Wash ington, 25; Kansas City, 30; Tacoma, 2844 to 3744; Cincinnati. 20 to 35; Phludrlpliln, 18% to 33; Milwaukee, 25 to 30; Near York, 25 to 40%; San Francisco, 3144 to 43%; Buf falo, 17 to 20. ylSipi*' Northwestern traveling men have filed petitions fir anew mileage ticket. Mark Fed has been appointed general agent of !he Great Northern at St. Louia. During the summer the California lim ited trains of the Santa Fe will run semi weekly only between Chicago, Kansas City, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Twelve mile* will be taken off the Big Four's mileage between Indianapolis and St. Louia by the new cut-off between Hillsboro and Hast St. Louis, now un der construction. The telegraphers of the Illinois Central and Yaioo and Mississippi Valley Rail road have completed anew schedule oi wages* for the two systems and will de mand an increase over present wages. According to an unconfirmed report from New York, the managers of the Gould system are considering to build an extension from Memphis. Tenn., to Bir mingham, Ala., to connect with the Sea board Air Line. Operators and station men on the western end of the Erie have not taken kindly to the order requiring them to buy and wear uniforms. Out of twenty five all but two refused to obey, on the ground that they could not do so on the salaries they receive. A rumor concerning the railroad situa tion in Tennessee is that the Seaboard Air Line will reach Chattanoogn over the Chattanooga Southern by building a 14-miie extension from the East and West Railroad of Alabama to connect with the Chattanooga Southern ut Gads den. Employe* of the Pennsylvania Rail road numbering 3,500, all connected with the Philadelphia terminal division, have asked for a reduction of the working day from twelve to eight hours. The branches of the service making the de mand are the trainmen, car inspector* and baggagemen. Papers are being prepared in Denvif to be tiled in Wyoming for the incorpora tion of the Sonora, Chihuahua and Mon terey Railroad with a capital of $20,000,- 600. The promoters are mostly resi dents of Denver. The Mexican govern ment has given the company valuable concessions and viii materially assist in building the road. At the meeflog of the freight claim agents and Waffle managers of railroads belonging the Freight Claim Associa tion who assembled at Detroit 221 rail roads, with a mileage of 174,000 miics. were represented. The report of the sec retary-treasurer showed that the total membership of the association i* 22L