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Wausau pilot. [volume] (Wausau, Wis.) 1896-1940, July 07, 1903, Image 2

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HOW DISEASE IS BEING CONQUERED.
By Dr. Andrew Wilson.
1 An announcement o* much scientific interest
K appeared in the newspapers recently in the shape
tjl of details concerning a remedy for that common
r j and often dangerous ailment, scarlet fever. Its
Pj promulgator, a l>r. Moser, of Vienna, is sanguine
W concerning its value in cutting short the ailment'
J. He lias selected a certain microbe which occurs in
scarlet fever, and which he regarus as likely
to represent the germ of the disease. This organ
ism is artificially cultivated so as to insure the purity of
its stock, and to avoid the possibility of the intrusion of
other species ( f germs. When a pure culture has been
obtained it is used to inoculate an animal. Asa result,
there appears to be developed in the animal’s blood a pecu
liar principle which is known as an "antitoxin.” The word
“serum” is a term applied to the fluid part of the blood in
al> animals- it is. indeed, the blood minus its corpuscles.
Hence it is in the serum that the antitoxin is found, and
this last is developed as the direct result of the growth and
multiplication in it of the germs used for Inoculation.
When the antitoxin taken from the animal’s blood is
used as an injection into the tissues of a human being
attacked by the disease, it has the effect of modifying the
ailment. The development oi the microbes in the body of
one animal produces a principle which is fatal to their
growth in the body of another and different animal. Vac
cination itself exemplifies such a process, for smallpox
matter, modified by its transition through the calf, appears
as vaccine lymph, which is used for protection against
smallpox attack. So that, in reality, we are thus causing
microbes that are capable of producing disease to fight their
own kith and kin.
It is work of tills kind which we may hope has been
accomplished for the cure of scarlet fever. We have
serums now in use for the cure of diphtheria, typhoid
fever, cholera, lockjaw and plague. That for diphtheria
lias had a long and extensive trial both in hospitals and
In private practice. The results have been most gratify
ing. The disease, a terrible malady, as we all know, can
he mastered by the use of the serum in a fashion possible
under no previous nu.de of treatment. Many a poor little
sufferer lias had ample cause to bless the progress of bac
teriological science which has placed the antitoxin in the
physicians’ hands. The anti-typhoid serum is still on its
trial, but here aga'n the outlook is hopeful. There is like
wise a cholera antitoxin, the use of which has been tested
with success in
THE NEED Of RILES OF ETIQUETTE.
By Mrs. Humphry.
—I To those who desire to make their way In so
fj ciety, its laws must he known and observed. It Is
wj a fairly laudable ambition, that of attaining and
f,l holding a respectable rank in life; and if the
iU minutiae of the process appear to be childish and
j T Killy to minds occupied with matters of more mo-
JL rnent, they are really no more so than the first
ste P® • any other pursuit—the faltering notes of
he student of piano or violin, the tottering steps
of the child learning to walk, the unwieldy stitches set in
by the novice at the needle.
“Good manners are the fruit of noble mind.” somebody
says; but what measure of mental nobility will suffice to
Instruct the unlearned In the mysteries of the dinner table?
Good maimers are much more the fruit of being accustomed
to move ii: wealthy circles than any direct consequence
of possessing a noble mind.
Etiquette naturally divides Itself into two sections: one
that deals with good manners of the superficial, every day
kind; and the other that concerns tactful behavior. A man
or woman may be perfectly equipped with the outward
forms of courtesy and yet convey studied Insults by look
or tone, or manner. In fact. It has often been said that no
one cun be so execrably rude as a woman of the highest i
society who can administer a snub In a manner ly which J
no fault can be found on the scoro of politeness.
So far as superficial manners are concerned, those that 1
OLDEST LIVING MINISTER
NEARS THE CENTURY MARK
Rev. William Howe, D. IX, of 910
Massachusetts avenue, Cambridge,
Mass., Is 97 years old. It is believed
Bthat Dr. Ilowe is
the oldest living
clergyman in this
country. For a man
of his age he Is re
markable active.
Only a few weeks
ciated at the funer-
I the we 1 known j
Dr. Ilowe observ
rkv. wm. iiowe. ed bis 90th blth
day last year by preaching for fifty
minutes without notes at the Broad
way Baptist Church. Cambridge.
He was bom ir Worcester, and re
ceived an academic education in Am
lierst academy. He graduated from
Colby University, then named Water
ville College, in 1833. and from the
Newton Theological Seminary In 18“ C.
Following his studies at Newton he
establ. tvd a circuit of eight mission
schools in Boston. One was In a sail
loft on Commercial street, from which
developed the Baptist Bethel on Han
over street. From another mission on
Friend street came the Union Baptist
church. Dr. Howe was ordained to
the ministry at Dr. Malcom’s church,
then on Federal street, now the pres
ent Clrrendon Street church. From
JBO3 to 1870 be was pastor of the
Broadway Baptist church. Cambridge.
He was one of the originators of the
Boston Associated Charities, aud was
a member of the Redon School Board.
TEA GROWING IN T7XAS.
Said to Be as Promising as Fruit in i
California.
L. Seabrook. of Port Lavaca, one of j
the Southern Pacific immigration (
workers, states that practical steps will ;
be taken to start tea culture in the
vicinity of Port Lavaca, says the Gal- j
veston (Tex.) News.
“Tea growing in this country is no I
longer an experiment.” said lie. “The j
crop is now regularly cultivated for i
the markets on the coast of South
Carolina and is found to be highly
profitable and lias come to stay. Tee j
Is a plant that thrives to best advant
age in coast countlr. s. where there is j
a dense atmosphere, aud as there are
many similar points in a climatic sense
between the Carolina lowland region
and the Texas e. asi It lias long been
thought that the crop c juUl be made to
pay with us.
“The first experiment will be made
on lands of the Placeio Canal and Ir
rigation Company, e.ght miles above
Port Lavaca, and .uSQSieu by Ross
Clark.
“There Is a greater rainfall on the
Carolina coast than at Port Lavaca,
and the rule is that the atmosphere Is
more humid, but the company has an
ample rice irrigation plant aud in dry
spells the rainfall will be supplement
ed with artificial water. Dr. Shepard,
the famous Carolina tea grower, be
lieves in irrigation and recommends
It. If the crop proves a success at
’ rt Lavaca, and doubtless it will, a
1 or supply In the picking season can
depended upon, for negro women
and children can be had In adjoining
counties, and Mexican labor, also wo
men and children, can be brought in
lrom Corpus OUristi aud other points
farther south on the coast.
“The experiment to be made near
Port Lavaca will be watched with in-
are taught In the nursery and the schoolroom; that deal
with bows and smiles, knives and forks, demeanor in the
street, and politeness in the home; we are probably as well
behaved as ever we were; but it is in our general conduct
that we see n, as a nation, to be deteriorating.
Just think of the difference there is between the con
ditions of society at the beginning of the twentieth cen
tury aud tlmse that existed in the seventies. Croquet was
just beginning to give way to lawn tennis. Golf was un
dreamed of as a game in which women might Join As to
| cricket, hockey, and football, they were then men’s games.
But now girls play them all. Girls pride themselves on
being manly, just as our nice young mothers and our grand
mothers before them prided themselves on being gentle,
feminine creatures. They overdid It. They thought it the
- correct thing to scream if they saw a mouse, and to faint
if a finger bled. And our girls overdo the manliness just
as our mothers overdid the femininity. Are good manners
generally declining? Or is it only here nnd there that we
notice a roughness, and because it contrasts with the rest,
accuse the whole? Is it really true that men are less pol
! ished, women louder of voice and more self-assertive?
PROBLEM OF THE DUST OF THE AIR.
By Andrew Wilson.
The publication of Tyndall’s Instructive book
mi entitled “The Floating Matter of the Air” marked
p j an era not only in respect of science at large but
jf/j also in respect of many problems of public health.
M The demonstration of the air as a “stirabout” of
P floating dust particles opened the eyes of those
JL who read to the enormous dust cloud which is
comprised in the great air ocean that surrounds
—■ i i.* our globe. “Dust and disease” has become a
phrase which we accept because of the demonstration that
the latter often arises out of the former. We are safe in
saying that if we could abolish dust we should find many
diseases to disappear. It would be a gross mistake to sup
pose that dust is universally daugerous. Much of it con
sists of mineral particles; some of it is represented by
shreds of our clothing; some of it Is dead particles derived
from the bodies of animals and plants; some of it represents
the germs or spores of molds and yeasts and other form of
lower plank life; aud some of it finally consists of disease
producing microbes, of the universal diffusion of dust
nothing need be said. We only escape contact with It if
we go to the mountain tofts, or flush our lungs with the
air of the open sea. When we enter the abodes of men
our Invasion by dust particles is full aud complete. Iu a
cubic meter of air taken from the open sea or mountain
tops there were found only six or ten germs. In old houses
in Paris the quantity found was 79,000 and over.
In our great centers of population we have to face a
perpetual bombardment by dust particles of all species.
Sweeping arrangements of ordinary kind only distribute
them. The same may be said of the household sweeper
and the familiar duster. There is displacement of dust,
but no destruction. Even the corners of our rooms and the
crevices of our cornices are harbors of refuge for the dust
atoms, that is why in hospitals there are no angles in
the walls, but rounded surfaces instead. The plan of the
housewife who uses damp tea leaves preparatory to her
swooping down with her broom or sweeper is a concession
to an old Idea. For so long as dust Is kept wetted It is
not dangerous. It is found that flushing the streets is a
vastly superior process to sweeping them. The dust cart
should be a thing of the past. Especially in summer should
flushing be carried out. It J3 then that dirt dries and be
comes dust. It Is then also that we get food tainted, and
especially milk, with the result that the little children die
off in thousands from infantile cholera, due to the tainting
of their food. If to water disinfectants are added we ren
der ourselves doubly safe. In the future we shall find
,the housewife dealing witth dust as science rqcoimuends. I
read also of a system of cleaning carpets and other things
by sucking the dust out of them by a vacuum process. Let
us bethink ourselves of a crusade against dust. Once
undertaken, the grievous time represented by the “spring
cleaning” may become a thing of the past.
THE WEALTH OE THE WORLD IS
ESTIMATED TO BE $400,000,000,000
THE total wealth of the world, while not exactly known, has been esti
mated at $400,000,000,000, saj s (lunton's Magazine. This is probably
an underestimate of tbe actual amount of money and property in
semi-civillzed lands. Of this total the greater part is owned by Ameri
cans and Europeans. The United States has somewhere near $ 100.000,000,(1 A),
or about one-fourth of the whole. The united kingdom is the richest country
of Europe, its wealth being estimated at £11,800,000,000 or £302 per capita.
Of the total England's share was £10.002,000,000; Scotland’s £1,094,000,000;
Ireland’s, £650.000,000. In American money (at $4.80 pound sterlingi Great
Britain's wealth in 1595 was $50,GG8.800,000. A recent estimate ma kes it
$59,000,000,000, or 5’,442 per capita (in 1901). The annual income of Eng
land’- population it* sa'd to be $5,000,000,0<X), while the yearly saving Is
$1,948 000,000. It should be remembered that a large amount of British
capital '.s also invested in the colonies ot the empire and in foreign lands.
France is the next richest nation of Europe. Mulhall estimated its wealth
in 1895 ; £9,090,000,000. or £252 per capita. A recent estimate of France’s
wealth makes $48,000,000,000. or $1,257 per capita (1901). According to Mul-
Uall Germany’s wealth in 1895 was £8.052,000,000. or £l5O per capita. Prus
sia's share was more than half (£4.940.000,000); Bavaria’s, £949,000,000; Sax
onj’s. £450.000.000; AVurtteniburg’s. £37,00.000, while the smaller German
-tiles had £ 1.337.000,000. According to a more recent estimate Germany’s
wealth is $40,000,000,000, or $709 per capi a (1901) German money loaned or
invested abroad amounts to $8,000,000,000 or ir.or< Russia’s wealth in 1895,
as Mulhall estimated it. amounted to £0.425.000,000. or £Ol per capita. A
recent estimate places Russia’s wealth at $32,000,000,000, or about $290 per
capita (estimating the population iu 1891 at 108,000.000).
terest over the State, for its success
will mean anew and highly profitable
crop added to the list and big increase
in the land values of the coast coun
try.”
Mr. Seabrook said the facts are to
be had and that tea farming as a
moneymaking means will equal any
fruit orchard in Florida or California.
GOATSKIN CHURNS USED
BY THE PERSIAN NOMADS
A method so primitive that it is al
most unknown elsewhere is still used
by the Persian nomads In churning
their butter.
In the shelter of the goatskin tent
is swung a crusade receptacle, also
of goatskin, in which the milk is
dumped. Then it is rooked gently by
hand until the separation of the fat
from the milk is complete, when the
.esult&nt oily mass, unsalted as Is
Cnt'RXIXQ !>■ PERSIA
aiI oriental butter, is ready for the
consumer.
There are few more interesting peo
ple, In these days of rapid progress,
than the Persian nomad. His home
is where night overtakes him. and he
| sleeps when weariness suggests that
|he fall. Ordinarily his roof Is heav
| en‘s starry dome, but In case of sterms
I he crawls into tbe shelter of his little
j goatskin tent, where a surprisingly
! large family can be made comfortable.
| The Persian, like the Moor, does
! not encourage the establishment of
j prisons, death being a juicker aid less
! expensive method of punishing crimi
• rt?la- Torture In countless fo~ms is so
common a sight as to attract little at
tention. and when death supervenes
the body lies where it falls until taken
away by relatives.
The Rector’s Family.
It lias been said that in his foot
ball days the late Archbishop of Can
terbury, “never care! how hard his
shins Avere kicked,” and that he carried
this characteristic indifference to
knocks l v o after life. But it must not
be supposed that he did not know
when he avo j kicked. None knew
better, and apropos is a story n Am the
Manchester Guardian.
Soon after Doctor Temple was ap
pointed Bishop of Exeter he visited
one of the churches in his diocese for a
confirmation. He stopped at the rec
tory overnight. The eldest girl who
Avas just old enough to come down to
dinner, was an ictive, capable girl,
and of great assistance to her mother.
During the meal the latter spoke proud
ly of her daughter’s usefulness In the
parish.
“Wherever I go.” observed Doctor
Temple. “I find a rector, a di-rector.”
indicating the mother, “and a mis
dlrector,” indicating the daughter.
“And when your lordship comes."
retorted the mother, with profound
obeisance, “we have a co-rector.”’
“Well thrust!" returned Doctor Tem
ple. with a hearty laugh.
Plague of Rats at Lisbon.
Lisbon, the Portuguese capital, has
been attacked by a rat plague, and
all means to check the pest have
proven futile. The municipal doctors
think they have found a way out of the
difficulty. They have inoculated some
rats with an infectious virus, harmless
to man. and have let them loose Many
rats ate now feeling the effects of the
virus, and It is expected that the city
will soon be rid of the plague.
Oxygen May He Cheap.
Signor Marconi, the inventor of wire
less telegraphy, is said to have dis
covered a method by which oxygen
may be extracted from air at a very
slight expense.
Foreigners Must Register.
The Spanish govemreat has revived
the regulation requiring foreigners resi
dent in or visiting Sp'An to register
their names at their consulates, ,
About the safest get-rich-quick
; scheme is to marry an heiress.
AGRICULTURE IN RUSSIA.
A VAST COUNTRY DEPENDENT
ON HER NATURAL RICHES.
Agricultural Interests Must be Devel
oped in the Centra! and Southern
Districts, Leaving the North, Whejre
the Soil is Poor, to the Factories,
Russia is and always must be chiefly
dependent on her natural richness so
long as criminal improvidence and
reckless housekeeping have not wholly
exhausted them, and among these fhe
direct produce of the soil and the agri
culturists’ labor would be almost inex
haustible were the money employed in
creating artificial branches of national
income used in introducing and teach
ing the peasantry improved methods
of cultivation, in preventing the im
poverishment of the soil, or rather in
reclaiming It, for the impoverishment
is an accomplished fact, and in effect
ing the irrigation and canalization
which the destruction of the forests
has rendered necessary by causing
countless springs and small lakes to
dry up. Such at least must be the
programme for the centre and south,
leaving factories for the north, where
the best that can be done with the soil
is to coax from it crois sufficient to
feed the tillers from year's end to
year’s end.
In the last quarter of a century Rus
sian industry has increased fourfold.
While in 1877 the total sum of manu
facturing industry hardly reached 540,-
000,000 it had in 1897 mounted to
1,800.000,000, and now-, in 1891, it has
attained and may soon pass the two
millaird mark. Some branches have
increased twenty-five fold; 74,000,000
worth of steel was made in 1897, while
1877 had only 3,000,000 worth to show.
There is no doubt that Russian in
dustry has taken abnormally gigantic
strides. But how is it meanwhile with
farming? It is at a standstill, to say
the worst. The destruction of forests
for fuel and for railway sleepers has
denuded Central Russia. Hand in
hand with this destruction, droughts
are getting to be a chronic evil, and
so are famines. At the same time the
rapid increase of population makes the
land allotments more and more insuffi
cient, and the country people, growing
poorer and poorer, stop buying things
Under such conditions most of the un
dertakings rest all their hopes on gov
vernment orders and fail if orders are
not forthcoming in time.
And still we push on, and on; still
we go on “promoting” and “floating”
new companies, draining the country’s
savings where there are any left, and
when these give out calling in foreign
capital. The result is production out
running demand, and w r hen that is the
case only one end is possible.
There is no need to dwell on the rev
olution effected in the rural economy
of the country by the transition from
serf labor to hired labor, for Americans
—at least southerners— iave gone
through much the same experience
during the same years, too. There is
this difference, that Russian landlords
were compelled to give up the largest
part of their lands and received the
price of them in a lump. It would
seem at first sight as though, being
thus placed In possession of a hand
some capital, cash dowi, they had a
chance to start farming on their great
ly restricted domains on broad, ra
tional principles and according to the
most up-to-date methods. That is
theory. Practically, it was the last
thing they could have done.
Most of the estates lay under heavy
mortgages, the amount cf which being
deducted from the redemption pay
ments left the owners in many cases
but a slender cash residue. Then—
and that was the worst of the situation
—most of them knew very little about
farming and less about management,
thrift and business generally. The
money somehow slipped through their
fingers and they were left with lands
which, to only too many, were more a
hindrance than a means of support.
Many began to sell their lands piece
meal —to vil'age communes, to wealthy
shopkeepers, to individual peasants of
the genus known as “fists” (usurers,
buyers of anything and everything
that promises a sure profit), making,
of course, disastrous bargains. Some
rented to farmers for money or on
shares (the latter arrangement gener
ally proving unsatisfactory); some
sent a bailiff to managed the estate,
collect the income, aid send them as
much of It as he chose. A few braced
up for real work and went to live on |
their estates, sensibly expecting to
learn as they went, and to gather the
prosperity which mother earth keeps
in store for those who do not hold
themselves above devoting their best
powers to the care of her.
What has been accomplished, under
untold difficulties, by these few, is
more than sufficient to show what im
mense results might be achieved if
what is now the exception became the
rule. Unfortunately, such a course re
quires. first of all, some of the very
qualities in which the average Russian
character is conspicuously deficient—a
stubborn will, great pei-severance and
contempt of obstacles, patience under
rebuffs, and under the thousand and
one worries horn of misdirected con
servatism in some quarters and the
wholesale ignorance of the masses.
All these things have to be fought and
conquered, and that they can be con
quered, slowly it is true, and by bits,
the few who hold out are showing.
The average Russian, generous and
well-meaning, takes held enthusiasti
cally. works resolutely for a time, but
is quickly discouraged. Stolidity, ill
will, lack of comprehension, wound ;
him most of all, lame him, and he goes
away. Few. indeed, are content to
plough and sow and tend the crop
which they cannot live to harvest.
But there are such. —Z. Ragozin. in the
New York Commercial Advertiser.
The Home of ‘Sparrow Jack.”
There is a little old house in Ger
mantown. at the northwest corner of
Main and Upsai streets, that is in a
certain sense historical. In this
housa, some thirty-thy years ago.
lived “Sparrow Jack,” and the build
ing. therefore, has the name of “Spar
row Jack's home.” Jack was an Eng
lishman. John Bardsley, and through
the influence of William F. Smith, a
Germantown councilman, he was sent
to England to bring over a lot of Eng
lish sparrows, the Idea being that tbe
sparrows would destroy the caterpil
lars that infested the trees. The
f?w sparrows Bardsley imported are
the ancestors of tae millions that now
thrive in Philadelphia. The im
porter was highly praised for his
work during the first year or two. and
his nickname of ‘ Sparrow Jack” was
a title of honor in •ahieh he took great
pride. Later on, however, as the
sparrows began to become a nuisance,
the nickname came to have a re
proachful significance and in the end
it became a term of opprobium.—
IN THE PROPERTY RuOM.
A Varied Collection of Articles in the
Old Boston Museum.
Some idea of the varied collection
of objects which accumulate in the
property room of a theatre is to be ob
tained from a description of the con
tents of the old Boston Museum prop
erty room. In a general way the
public has learned to know that the
“property man” of a theatre is one
who looks after such details of the pro
ductions as concern chairs and tables,
the bottles that the people pour their
liquor from, and the pen and ink used
by the heroine to indite her loving
messages.
The master of properties must still
be a resourceful person, but in the old
days, where the frTquent changes of
bills necessitated additional “props”
every week or to. the ingenuity ef this
functionary was often taxed to the ut
most.
The apothecary’s shop in “Romeo
and Juliet” wasn't a circumstance to
the old property-manufacturing shop
in the cellar of the museum, where
may be seen the skulls and crossbones
stuffed animals of both wild and do
mestic species, wings for witches,
angels and devils, and other curious
things that can’t be enumerated in a
column The animals, botn real and
of papier mache, repose on shelves all
around the walls, a wierd, grinning,
motley troupe of once indispensable
stage characters that would have
brought their possessor to the stake
in witchcraft days, and all destined for
the dirt heap within a few days.
There are the wolves’ heads with
gleaming teeth, fangs and eyes, that
were wont to be thrust beneath the
door of the log cabin which the stout
arm of Prank Mayo held in place in
the thrilling honeymoon scene in
“Davy Crockett.” The big bellows
with which Tilly Slowboy once blew
the fire in “The Cricket on the Hearth”
hangs upon the wall, and the cradle in
which she rocked the baby lies in the
corner. In another corne ura stack
ed old rusty muskts, including some
flintlocks that defended the breast
works in Dr. Jones’ centennial drama.
“The Battle of Bunker Hi!l,“ twenty
eight years ago.
From the center of the ceiling sus
pended by strings hang three mangy
looking stuffed animals that were once
features in everything the moral les
sons taught by the waxwork tableaus,
sold more than a decade ago. For
sixty years these animals, a domestic
cat, a dog and a monkey, have been
comrades, blit they must now go the
way of all else identified with the mu
seum.
The eat and dog. now naif hairless
and showing repulsively their dried-up
gums and loosened teeth, used to be
pictures of ease and contentment when
representing the sole objects of the
affection of the old maid and the old
bach in a wax tableau.
The monkey had his mission to fill
i also, but what it was is now forgotten.
Of late years he has been hung by a
movable string before the door of the
room in such a way that he would
drop with a dull thud on the breast
of any one entering the door, a start
ling experience for an unsuspecting
stranger, which has contributed to the
enjoyment of the property man’s life,
however.
In another part of the cellar is
stored a raft of stage furniture of
every kind. There are-ILo seat3 of
Caesar and Brutus from the senate
house, the royal chairs of Macbeth and
his restless helpmate, the big, glitter
ing chair in which John Wilkes Booth
was crowned as Richard 111., and the
gracefully formed mediaval chairs in
which Hamlet has oft pondered the
proposition, “To be or not to he.”
There are stacks of spears and hal
berds and Roman standards, and a pa
thetic souvenir in the shape of a rude
effigy of burlap stuffed with excelsior,
which is recognized as the dummy
used in the burial of Ophelio, over
which the queen strews flowers and
weeps and says, "Sweets to the sweet,
fair maid.’’—Boston Globe.
How the Fish Was Drowned.
A German scientist —he could only
have been German —once conceived,
we are told, a plan to train a fish to
live out of water. He placed a thriv
ing little carp in a small tank and
with infinite patience and great exact
ness removed from the tank one
spoonful of water every day, at the
same time increasing gradually the
amount of oxygen in the water. In
time the water barely covered the
carp, and still it tnrived. The quan
tity of water continued to diminish,
and, by slowly adapting its method of
breathing to the new conditions, the
fish began to breathe air and, indeed,
became quite terrestrial in its habits
before the tank was entirely dry. The
scientist had grown to love the carp.
He fed it from his own hand, and now
that it was living in the same ele
ment with himself, he took it from
the tank knd left it as free to follow
its own devices as was the family oat.
The little fish also loved its meter.
It followed him about from place to
place, flopping along after him, stop
ping only occasionally to leap lor a
passing fly. One day the scientist
was crossing a bridge. The carp, as
usual, was at hi3 heels, enjoying the
pleasant air of the country side and
uttering from time to time a little
sound expressive of delight and con
tentment. About the middle of the
bridge a fat house-fly was sunning
itself on the rail. The carp spied the
fly and jumped for it, but miscalculat
ing the distance, went over the rail
into the river—and was drowned. —
The Great Rural World.
An Electric Germ Killer.
Louis Johnson, an employee of the
Minneapolis Water Works Depart
ment, has devised a plan whereby
typhoid fever snd other germs that
make their abode in the city water
can be killed by an application of air
and electricity. His system, which
was tested at the east side pumping
station, provides for the aeration ol'
the water and the electrocution of the
germs by a strong current from the
dynamo. The test was a success, for
Dr. Corbett, the city bacteriologist,
said that at least 70 per cent, of the
germs were destroyed, and it is pos
sible the execution was greater. A
miscroscopic examination will deter
mine this point.
Water from the intake i3 run through
an eight-inch pipe into a tank on the
floor of the pumphouse. While run
ning through the pipe the water is
aerated by two air pipes. While the
water is in the pipe it is subjected to
an electric current of 400 volts, and
Mr. Johnson say3 this is responsible
for the disappearance of the germs.
Samples ta’ren from the tank several
days ago snowed a disappearance of
germ life of eighty-five per cent. Ac
cording to the claims cf the inventor,
water permeated with g?rms can be
run through the pipe and tank and
made almost pure in a few second*.
—Minneapolis Journal.
THE 81-CENIENNIAL OF JOHN WESLEY,
THE FOUNDER OF METHODISM.
JOHN* WESLEY.
From an Engraving Belonging to the Northwestern Christian Advocate.
Methodist churches all over the world recently celebrated the 200th anni
versary of the birth of John Wesley. In every country under the sun where
the apostles of Methodism have penetrated, special meetings will lie held,
where the most gifted orators in the denomination paid glowing tribute to
the great reformer.
John Wesley was born in the rectory at Epworth, England, on .Tune 17,
1703. Asa boy young Wesley received his schooling at home, for, although
Mrs. Wesley was the mother of nineteen children—of whom John was the
fifteenth—she had little re.viect for the educational methods of the day. and
insisted on teaching her own children. At the age of 11 Wesley was ad
mitted to the Chartis-liouse school in London, where he spent six years.
At the age of 17 he entered Oxford University, and when 23 he was ap
pointed Greek lecturer and moderator ol’ Lincoln College. In 1727 he grad
uated as master of arts, this being the only college degree he ever received,
though he was the greatest theologian and perhaps the greatest scholar of
his time.
While Wesley was in Lincoln College he was the acknowledged leader of
a band of Oxford students called the Holy Club. These young men adopted
certain rules or methods for their daily guidance, and in ridicule were called
Methodists. They devoted much of their time to visiting the sick, the poor
and the prisoners In jail. Like all great reformers, Wesley had much force
of character. During the two years which he spent in the new-world colony
of Georgia, at the invitation of Lord Oglethorpe, he devoted himself to ills
work as a minister and to the education of the children, starting the first
Sunday school known.
D. D. Thompson, in his biography of Wesley, says: “The four men
who have made the deepest impression upon the religious history of the
world'have been Moses. St. Paul, Martin Luther and John Wesley, and of
these, as a social reformer. Wesley was excelled only by Moses and St. Paul.”
Dr. Rlgg, in his character sketches of Wesley, says: “No single man
for centuries has moved the world as Wesley lias moved It.”
As regards his physical being. Wesley is described as having been a
charming man, handsome, with fine face, smooth forehead, aquiline nose,
bright, piercing eyes, and one who was scrupulously neat in person and
habit. His manner was sprightly and studiously courteous, his laughter
winning, and his conversation delightful.
John Wesley never, withdrew from the Established Church, He organ
ized, however, the Methodist Episcopal Church in America and provided
for the continuance of his societies in England, and these became the Wes
leyan Church. His labors extended over a long period of great usefulness
before his death occurred in London. March 2, 1701. His followers have
since divided on questions of government, though united in doctrine, until
there are now about thirty branches of the Methodist family. At the time
of Wesley’s death there were about 130,000 Methodists and 541 itinerant
preachers. Now there are about 8,000,000 members, about 50,000 Itinerant
ministers, and about 80,000 lay preachers.
POVERTY INEXCUSABLE.
Bo Says a Man Who Claims to Live
Well on Five Cents a l>ajr.
Every little while some magazine or
paper prints an article to the effect
that we are spending too tuuc-h for our
■■■■ v food; that by
- swearing off on
this, ami living on
1 & J that, we can not
only the bettor eti-
V JH' ' liberty and the
y pursuit of liappl
neß8 ’ lmt ran lay
T Jfl tlie ar ti c i eß so es-
A. a. sawders. sential to our un
limited joy. As most of these are un
tried theories, however, we continue
beefsteak and dodging creditors. But
there is no longer any excuse for our
perversity of comfort. We are now
confronted by tried and proven facts,
not mere theories, and If anyone should
be too poor by next Christmas to buy
his wife a present he will have none
to blame for his Impoverished condi
tion but himself; for after several
years of personal experience, A. A.
Sanders, of New York City, says that
a man can live well and be strong and
hearty for only five cents a day, and
there is no longer any excuse for pov
erty.
Mr. Sanders became a vegetarian
about ten years ago because of ill
health. Two years ago be and his two
sous adopted their present system of
living, which they pronounced Ideal.
Arising at an early hour—four o'clock
in summer and five in winter - they
take a cold bath, and depart for the
business of the day. Mr. Sanders us
ually rides his wheel to and from his
place of business in the city, a dis
tance of six miles. The young men
quite frequently walk, making the
trip in one hour and ten minutes. At
noon they take an hour’s rest, but no
lunch. In the evening they partake
of their one meat of the day, consist
ing principally of raw foods such as
fruit nuts, and some form of grain.
Their list of food articles includes
wheat, oats, beans, corn, lentils, onions,
raisins, dates, prunes, nuts and evap
orated fruits such as peaches, apples
and apricots during the winter, with
the addition of all fresh fruits and
vegetables in the summer time; milk, ;
butter and eggs, like meat, are never
used. These vegetables. Mr. Sanders
asserts, furnishes them the best of liv
ing at an average expense of but five
cents each per day.
Housekeeping is an easy proposition
where this kind of living is adopted, as
most of the foods are eaten raw. The
beans, lentils, peas, cereals and the j
evaporated apples are thoroughly soak
ed and then slightly steamed in the
way of preparation. Prunes, apricots
and peaches are eaten raw after being
soaked fonty-eight hours; but .no sea- |
sonir.g as* sweetening of any kind is
used in preparing any of the foods.—
Utica Globe.
HISTORIC FLAG PRESERVED
IN THE TORONTO LIBRARY
Almost green with age. tattered a jd
scarcely reeogr.izable, hangs now one
of the most remarkable of flags in Dr. •
Bain's office in the public library of
Toronto, Canada. It is the flag that,
floated over Navy island at the time
of the upper Canada rebellion of 18H7,
and which, perhaps, flew from the
mast of the famous Caroline. It is
a canvas square, with a history, one
which almost caused a great war.
C'apt. Drew, who was in command of
the improvised fleet, made up of lake
schooners, which captured the Caro
line, set her afire, and sent her adrift
over Niagara FalLs, was compelled to
return to England, and took the flag
with him.
Somehow It hung for about forty
years quite obscurely In the Royal
i
THE CAKGLJJJE'S FLAG.
United Service Institution, In White
hall, Ixmdon. When this Institution's
museum was rebuilt recently tbe flag
was taken down and laid aside. Per
haps Its space was given to trophies
nnd relics of more current interest,
such as the South African colors and
captured Boer emblems. By the kind
assistance of Gen. Robinson, late gov
ernor of the Chelsea hospital, the re
quest of the board of management of
the Toronto Public Library was ac
ceded to in the kindest manner, and
the flag was sent here.
Safest Building in History.
There xvas one famous building of
antiquity, it is said, in Leslie’s Month
ly, which, acording to the records, was
never once damaged by lightning dur
ing its thousand years of existence,
although placed high on a hill above a
city In a mountain region where thun
derstorms are very frequent. It vr.<j
the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem.
The temple was overlaid within f nd
without by plates of gold. Now geld
is one of the best of electric conduc
tors, and Ir tills way the whole build
ing was protected with a perfection
and thoroughness that has never been
attempted before or since.
.Revenge.
The burglar softly opened the door
of the suburbanite's sleeping apart
ment, slipped inside, and searched the
room thoroughly, but found nothing
worth stealing. “Darn him!” he solil
oquised; “I'll get some satisfaction out
of him, anyway!” Thereupon he set
the alarm clock on the bureau for the
hour of three, and softly departed
Keep It in the Kitchen.
Anew arrival had ' vine into the fam
ily circle, and Tom, aged five, was
taken to see the “little stranger.” He
looked the Infant over with a calm,
critical regard, and then, turning to
them who accompanied him, he said,
very decidedly:
•Jane, you can keep that In the
kitchen.”
BIG BUILDING BOOM.
LARGE CITIES OF THE COUNTRY
NEARLY ALL BUSY.
Millions of Dollars Worth of New
Structures Going Up— High Wages
Paid in the building Trades—Some
Interesting Figures.
The United States can boast of a
building boom. From practically every
section ef the country the reports indi
cate that never before was there so much
construction work under way as at pres
ent. The rise lias been gradually dating
notably from 1808.
The percentages of increase in the
large cities, while indicating the general
movement, do not represent fairly the
real gains, for the reason that the great
est ratio of improvement is to be found
in the country and smaller cities, from
which exact figures are unobtainable. In
Chicago architect* complain of lack of
local business, but say their out of-towu
work compensates for it. To the general
rule of prosperity there are some excep
tions among the large cities. Chicago
building for May of this year fell 37 per
cent from the figures of May, 1002, and
smaller decreases are reported from some
other cities.
In Chicago, in the first five months of
this year, there were erected 2,334 build
ings, at a cost of !(513,003,310; in the
same period last year there were built
2,522 buildings, at a cost of J 24.001.205.
Labor and material prices curing 1003
in Chicago have been higher than at
any previous time, and this lias tended
to keep down the figures. Fear of labor
complications lias also entered into the
situation. In spite of all these consid
erations an immense amount of work has
been done.
Labor troubles in New York and Oma
ha have had a very depressing effect.
For the first quarter of 1003 Manhattan
erected 203 new buildiugs and spent $20,-
503,074 for new structures and the al
terations of old ones. The corresponding
quarter of 1002 showed 020 buildings
that cost $21,587,552. In New York
there was a big change in the number of
buildings, the sky-scraper fiats taking the
place of smaller buildings.
In Brooklyn in 1903 there have been
erected 1 191 buildings, at a cost of $7,-
300.315. Last year, in all the twelve
months, there were put up 3,173 build
ings costing $18,548,002.
One ef the cities showing the greatest
gain is St. I amis. There have been few
labor troubles hi the World’s Fair city,
but many dela.-s in securing structural
steel. No less than 1.342 buildings have
been erected in five months at a cost of
$0,207,070. Washington lias built 850
buildings this year, costing $1,110,370.
Birmingham put up 108 buildings at a
cost of $l,800.(xX). Cincinnati's expendi
tures are $323,005 for the five months.
Baltimore erected 1,437 buildings costing
$3,912,811; Indianapolis 205, costing
$470,000; New Orleans 158 buildings
costing $134,000, and Omaha 120 build
ings at a cost of $344,502. Boston makes
the worst showing, with only 70 build
ings at n cost of $103,800. This is the
smallest number of buildings erected in
the Hub in many years.
Wati in Building; Trndes.
It is interesting to note the wages paid
in some of the building trades. Here
is n list of the rates per hour:
Masons --Chicago, 00 routs; Minneapolis,
55; Cleveland, 80; l’lttsburg. 00; Denver,
to 08A*; st. Louis, 55; Kansas City, bo
to 0244; Tacoma, 0244; Cincinnati, 45 to
7>oVj; Philadelphia, 00; New York, 05; San
Francisco, 75; Ituffalo, 45.
Plasterers Chicago, 5044; Cleveland. 50;
Minneapolis, 50>4; Pittsburg, 50%; Denver,
f>s; St. Louis, 8214; Washington, 50; Kansas
City, 50; St. Paul, 5644; Tacoma, 6244; Phil
adelphia, 15; Milwaukee, 40; New York,
6244; Providence, 43%; Hun Francisco, 67%;
Buffalo, 50.
Plumbers Chicago, 5044; Minneapolis, 50;
Cleveland, 43%; Pittsburg, 50; Denver,
53T4; St. Louis, 0244; Washington, 50; Kan
sas City, 50; Tacoma, 50%; Cincinnati,
43%; Philadelphia. 40; Milwaukee, 43%;
New York, 5344; Han Francisco, 50%; Buf
falo, 3744-
Carpenters Chicago, 50; Minneapolis.
3744; Cleveland, 35; Pittsburg, 43%; Den
ver, 45; St. Louis, 45; Washington, 40%;
Kansas City, 35 to 3744; Tacoma, 45; Cin
cinnati, Philadelphia and Milwaukee, 35;
New York, 50%; San Francisco, 00; Buffalo,
3344.
Painters Chicago, 40; Minneapolis, 35;
Cleveland, 85; Pittsburg, 40; Denver, 43%;
Bt. Louis, 45; Washington, 3744; Kansas
City, 35; Tacoma, 3744; Cincinnati, 35; Phil
adelphia, 3744; Milwaukee, 35; New York,
5044; San Francisco, 43%; Buffalo, 8744.
Electricians Chicago, Cleveland, Pitts
burg. Bt. Louis and New York pay 50 cents
per hour. In Denver the rate Is 4r> and oth
er cities pny is follows: Minneapolis, 30;
Washington, 43%; Kansas City, 374.; Ta
coma. 3744; Cincinnati, 34%; Philadelphia,
40; San Francisco, 43%.
Laborers nnd Hod Carriers Chicago, 30;
Minneapolis. 22: Cleveland, 2844; Pittsburg,
3144; Denver, 8744; Ht. Louis, 3744; Wash
ington, 25; Kansas City, 30; Tacoma, 2844
to 3744; Cincinnati. 20 to 35; Phludrlpliln,
18% to 33; Milwaukee, 25 to 30; Near York,
25 to 40%; San Francisco, 3144 to 43%; Buf
falo, 17 to 20.
ylSipi*'
Northwestern traveling men have filed
petitions fir anew mileage ticket.
Mark Fed has been appointed general
agent of !he Great Northern at St. Louia.
During the summer the California lim
ited trains of the Santa Fe will run semi
weekly only between Chicago, Kansas
City, Los Angeles and San Francisco.
Twelve mile* will be taken off the Big
Four's mileage between Indianapolis and
St. Louia by the new cut-off between
Hillsboro and Hast St. Louis, now un
der construction.
The telegraphers of the Illinois Central
and Yaioo and Mississippi Valley Rail
road have completed anew schedule oi
wages* for the two systems and will de
mand an increase over present wages.
According to an unconfirmed report
from New York, the managers of the
Gould system are considering to build an
extension from Memphis. Tenn., to Bir
mingham, Ala., to connect with the Sea
board Air Line.
Operators and station men on the
western end of the Erie have not taken
kindly to the order requiring them to
buy and wear uniforms. Out of twenty
five all but two refused to obey, on the
ground that they could not do so on the
salaries they receive.
A rumor concerning the railroad situa
tion in Tennessee is that the Seaboard
Air Line will reach Chattanoogn over
the Chattanooga Southern by building a
14-miie extension from the East and
West Railroad of Alabama to connect
with the Chattanooga Southern ut Gads
den.
Employe* of the Pennsylvania Rail
road numbering 3,500, all connected with
the Philadelphia terminal division, have
asked for a reduction of the working day
from twelve to eight hours. The
branches of the service making the de
mand are the trainmen, car inspector*
and baggagemen.
Papers are being prepared in Denvif
to be tiled in Wyoming for the incorpora
tion of the Sonora, Chihuahua and Mon
terey Railroad with a capital of $20,000,-
600. The promoters are mostly resi
dents of Denver. The Mexican govern
ment has given the company valuable
concessions and viii materially assist in
building the road.
At the meeflog of the freight claim
agents and Waffle managers of railroads
belonging the Freight Claim Associa
tion who assembled at Detroit 221 rail
roads, with a mileage of 174,000 miics.
were represented. The report of the sec
retary-treasurer showed that the total
membership of the association i* 22L

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