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PRES'DENT RCOSEVELT’S MESSAGE TO CONGRESS
To the Senate and House of Representa tives: Tlie country is to he congratulated on the amount of substantial achievement which has marked the past year both as regards our foreign and as regards our domestic policy. With f. nation as with a man the most important things are those of the house hold, and therefore the country is es pecially to be congratulated on what has been accomplished in the direction of providing for the exercise of supervision over the great corporations and combi nations of corporations engaged in in terstate commerce. The Congress has created the Department of Commerce and Labor, including the Bureau of Cor porations, with for the first rime author ity to secure proper publicity of such proceedings of these great corporations as the public has the right to know. It has provided for the expediting of suits foe the enforcement of the federal anti trust law; and by another law it has secured equal treatment to all producers in the transportation of their goods, thus taking a long stride forward in making effective the w/irk of the Interstate Coin u.' roe Commission. The establishment of the Department of Commerce and Labor, with the Bu reau of Corporations thereunder, marks a real advance in the direction of doing all that is possible for the solution of the questions vitally affecting capitalists and wage workers. The preliminary work of the Bureau of Corporations, in the department has shown the wisdom of its creation. Publicity in corporate affairs will ti ad to do away with ignor ance, and will afford facts upon which intelligent action may be taken. The Department of Commerce and La bor will be not only the clearing house for information regarding the business transactions of the nation, but the execu tive arm of the government to aid in strengthening our domestic and foreign markets, in perfecting our transportation facilities, in building up our merchant marine, in preventing the entrance of undesirable immigrants, in improving commercial and industrial conditions, and in bringing together on common ground those necessary partners in industrial progress—capital and labor. Capital and Labor. The consistent policy of the national government, so far. as it has tne power, is to hold in check the unscrupulous man, whether employer or employe; but to refuse ti> weaken individual initiative or to hamper or cramp the industrial de velopment of the country. We recognize that this is an era of federation and com bination, in which great capitalistic cor porations and labor unions have become factors of tremendous importance in all industrial centers, llearty recognition is given the far-reaching, beneficent Work which lias been accomplished through both corporations and unions, and the line as between different corporations, as between different unions, is drawn as it is between different individuals; that is, it is drawn on conduct, the effort being to treat both organized capital and or ganized labor alike; asking nothing save that the interest of each shall be brought into harmony with the interest of the general public, and that the conduct of each shall conform to the fundamental rules of obedience to law, of individual freedom, and of justice and fair dealing towards all. Whenever either corpora tion, labor union or individual disre gards the law or acts in a spirit of arbi trary and tyrannous interference with the rights of others, whether corpora tions or individuals, then where the fed eral government has jurisdiction, it will see to it that the misconduct is stopped, paying not the slightest heed to the posi tion or power of the corporation, the union or the individual, but only to one vital fact —that is, the question whether or not the conduct of the individual or aggregate of individuals is in accordance with the law of the land. Every man must be guaranteed his liberty and his right to do as he likes with his property or his labor, so long as he does not in fringe the rights of others. No man is above the law and no man is below it; nor do we ask any man's permission when we require him to obey it. Obedi ence to the law is demanded as a right; not asked as a favor. Government Finances. Prom all sources, exclusive of the postal service, the receipts of the govern ment for the last fiscal yeur aggregated $00,i>96.074. The expenditures for the same period were $5U<1,<199.007, the sur plus for the fiscal year being $54,297,667. The indications are that the surplus for the present fiscal year will be Very ouiujl, if indeed there be any surplus. From July to November the receipts f -om cus toms were, approximately, nin million dollars less than the receipts from the •nine source for a corresponding portion of last year. Should this decrease con tinue at the same ratio throughout the fiscal year, The surplus would lie reduced by. approximately, thirty million dollars. Should the revenue from customs suffer much further decrease during the fiscal year, the surplus would vanish. A large surplus is certainly undesirable. Two years ago the war taxes were taken off with the express intention of equalizing the governmental receipts and expendi tures. and though the first year thereaf ter still showed a surplus, it now seems likely that a substantial equality of reve nue and expenditure will be attained. Such being the case, it is of great mo ment both to exercise care and economy in appropriations, and to scan sliarply any change in our fiscal revenue system which may reduce our income. The need of strict economy in our expenditures is emphasized by the fact that we cannot afford to be parsimonious in providing lor what is essential to our national well being. Careful economy wherever possi ble will alone prevent our income from falling below the point required in order to meet our genuine needs. . The integrity of our currency is be yond question, and under present condi tions it would be unwise and unneces sary to attempt a reconstruction of our entire monetary system. The same lib erty should be granted the Secretary of the Treasury to deposit customs receipts us is granted him in the deposit of re ceipts from other sources. In tny mes sage of Dee. 2. 1902. I called attention to certain needs of the financial situation, nnd 1 again ask the consideration of the Congress for these questions. Merchant Marine. A majority of our people desire that steps be taken in the interests of Amer ican shipping, so that we may once more resume our former position in the ocean carrying trade. But hitherto the differ ences of opinion as to the proper method of reaching this end have been so wide that it has proved impossible to secure the adoption of any particular scheme. Ha ving in view thx c facts, I recom mend that the Congress direct the Sec retary of the Navy, the Postmaster Gen eral and the Secretary of Commerce and Lal>or. associated with such a representa tion from the Senate and House of Rep resentatives as the Congress in its wis dom may designate, to serve as a com mission for the purpose of investigating and reporting to the Congress at its next session what legislation is desirable or necessary for the development of the American merchant marine and Ameri can commerce, and incidentally of a na tional ocean mail service of adequate auxiliary naval cruisers and naval re serves. While such a measure is desira ble in any event, it is especially desira ble at this time, in view of the fact that our present governmental contract for ocean mail with the American Line will expire in 1905. Moreover, lines of cargo ships are of even more importance than fast mail lines; save so far as the latter can be depended upon to furnish swift auxiliary cruisers in time of war. The establishment of new Urn's of cargo ships to South America, to Asia, ami else where would le much in the interest of our commercial expansion. Immigration. We cannot have 100 much immigration of the right kiud. and we should have ueuq at all of the wrong kind. The need is to devise some system by which unde sin-b!e immigrants shall be kept out en tirely. while desirable immigrants are properly distributed throughout the coun try. The special investigation of the sub ject of naturalisation under the direction . f the Attorney General, aud the conse quent prosecutions, reveal a condition of affairs calling for the immediate atten t*.or. of the Congress. Forgeries and per jur.es of shameless and flagrant charac ter have been perpetrated, not only in the dense centers of population, but throughout the country; and it is estab lished beyond doubt that very many so cailed citizens of the Fnitod States have no title whatever to that right, and are asserting and enjoying the benefits of the same through the grossest frauds. The body politic cannot be sound and healthy if many of its i astituent mem bers claim their stand:' g through the prostitution of the hig. i vat and calling of citizenship. It sliou.d mean some thing to become a citizen of the United States; and in the process no loophole whate\ or shuu’d be left open to fraud. In my last annual message, in connec tion with the subject of the due regula tion of combinations of capital which are or may become injurious to the public, I recommended a special appropriation for the better enforcement of the anti-trust law as it now stands, to be expended un der the direction of the Attorney Gen eral. Accordingly the Cot ;res.s appro priated the sum of five hundred thousand dollars, to be expended under the direc tion of the Attorney General in the em ployment of special counsel and agents in the Department of Justice to conduct proceedings and prosecutions under said laws in the courts of the United States. I now recommend, as a matte,* of the ut most importance and urgeue , the exten sion of the purposes of tint, appropria tion, so that it may be available, under the direction of the Attorney General, and until used, for the due enforcement of the laws of the United States in gen eral and especially of the civil and crim inal laws relating to public iands and the laws relating to postal crimes nnd offenses and the subject of natuxaliza tion. Recent investigations have shown a deplorable state of affairs in these three matters of vital concern. By various frauds and by forge-r es and periurios, thousands of acres of he public domain, embracing lands of dif ferent character and extending through various sections of the country, have been dishonestly acquired. It is hardly necessary' to urge the importance of re covering these dishonest acquisitions, stolen from the people, and of promptly and duly punishing the offenders. Postal Frauds. I speak in another part of this mes sage of the widespread crimes by which the sacred right of citizenship is falsely asserted and that “inestimable heritage” perverted to base ends. By similar means—that is, through frauds, forgeries and perjuries, and by shameless briberies —the laws relating to the proper conduct of the public service in general and to the due administration of the Postofflce Department have been notoriously vio lated. and many indictments have been found, and the consequent prosecutions arc in course of hearing or on the eve thereof. For the reasons thus indicated, and so that the government may be pre pared to enforce promptly and with the greatest effect the due penalties for such violations of law. and to this end may be furnished with sufficient in strumentalities and competent legal assistance for the Investigations and trials which will be necessary at many different points of the country. I urge upon the Con gress the necessity of making the said ap propriation available for Immediate use for all such purposes, to be expended under the direction of the Attorney-General. Steps have been taken by the State De partment looking to the making of bribery an extraditable offense with foreign pow ers. The need of more effective treati' I *’ covering this crime Is manifest. The ex posures and prosecutions of official cor ruption In St. Louis, Mo., nnd other cities and States have resulted In a number of givers and takers of bribes becoming fugi tives In foreign lands. Bribery has not been included in extradition treaties here tofore, as the necessity for It has not aris en. While there may have been as much official corruption in former years, there has been more developed and brought to light In the Immediate past than in the preceding century of our country's history. It should be the policy of the United States to leave no place on enrth where a corrupt man fleeing from this country can rest In peace. There is no reason why bribery should not be Included In al! treaties ns extraditable. Alaskan Boundary. For several years past the rapid develop i tnent of Alaska and the establishment of growing American Interests In regions there tofore unsurveyed and Imperfectly known brought into prominence the urgent neces sity of a practical demarcation of the boun daries between the jurisdictions of the United States and Great Britain. Although the treaty of 1525 between Great Britain nnd Russia, the provisions of which were copied in the treaty of 1867, whereby Rus sia conveyed Alaska to the United States, was positive as to the control, first by Rus sia and later by the United States, of a strip of territory along the continental main land from the western shore of Portland Canal to Mount St Elias, following and surrounding the Indentations of the coast nnd Includin', the Islands to the westward. Its description of the landward margin of the strip was Indefinite, resting on the sup posed existence of a continuous ridge or range of mountains skirting the coast, as figured In the chnrts of the early navigators. It had at no time been possible for either party In Interest to lay down, under the authority of the treaty, a line so obviously exact according to Its provisions ns to com mand the assent of the other. For nearly three-fourths of n century the absence of tangible local interests demanding the ex ercise of positive jurisdiction on either side of the border left the question dormant. A permanent disposition of the matter finally became Imperative. After unavailing attempts to reach an un derstanding through a Joint High Commis sion. followed by prolonged negotiations, conducted in an amicable spirit, n conven tion between the United States and Great Britain was signed, January 24. 1003, pro viding for an examination of the subject by a mixed tribunal of six members, three on a side, with a view to Its final dispo sition. Ratifications were exchanged on March 3 last, whereupoki the two Govern ments appointed their respective members. Ou the twentieth of October a ma jority of the tribunal reached and signed an agreement on all the questions submitted by the terms of the convention. By this award the right of the United States to the control of a continuous strip or border of the mainland shore, skirting nil the tide water Inlets und sinuosities of the coast, is confirmed. The result is satisfactory In every way. It Is of great material advantage to our people in the Far Northwest. It has re moved from the field of discussion nnd possible danger a question liable to become more acutely accentuated with each passing year. Fiually, It has furnished n signal proof of the fairness nnd good will with which two friendly nations can approach and determine Issues Involving national sov ereignty. Claims Against Venezuela. It will be remembered that during the second session of the last Congress Great Britain. Germany, and Italy formed an alli ance for the purpose of blockading the ports of Venezuela and using such other means of pressure as would secure a settle ment of claims due. as they alleged, to cer tain of their subjects. Their employment of force for the collection of these claims was terminated by an agreement brought about through the offices of the diplomatic repre sentatives of the I'nited States at Caracas and the Government at 'Washington, there by ending a situation which was bound to cause Increasing friction, and which Jeopar dised the peace of the continent. T'nder this agreement Venezuela agreed to set apart a certain percentage of the customs receipts of two of her ports to be applied to the payment of whatever obligations might be ascertained by mixed commis sions appointed for that purpose to be dne from her. not only to the three powers al ready mentioned, whose proceedings against her had resulted In a state of war. but also to the United States, France. Spain. Bel gium. the Netherlands. Sweden and Norway, and Mexico, who had not employed force for the collection of the claims alleged to be due to certain of their citizens. A demand was then made by the so-called blockading powers that the sums ascertain ed to be due to their citizens by such mixed commissions should be accorded pay ment In full before anything was paid upon the claims of any of t>-* so-called peace powers. Venezuela, on the other hand. Insisted that all her creditor* should be paid upon * bar?* of exact “;..s*lry I'nrfng the eff< ;U -v. r V-'-st this dispute it was suggested by **t; rowers In Interest that It should be teftTC* to me for de cision, but I was c'-early of the opinion that a far wiser course would be to sub mit the question to the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague. It seemed to me to oiler an admirable opportunity to advance the practice of the peaceful settle ment f disputes between vatlons and to se cure for tile Hague Tribunal a meiaornble Increase of Its practical Importance. The nations interested In the controversy were so numerous and In many Instances so ’*w rful as to make It evident that benefi cent results would follow from their ap pearance at the same time before the bar f that august irtbunal of peace. Our hopes In that regard have been real ized Russia and Austria are represented in the persons of the learned and distin guished Jurists who compose the tribunal, while Great Britain. Germany. France. Spain. Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands. Sweden and Norway. Mexico, the United States, and Venezuela are represented by their respective agents and counsel. Then' seems good ground for the belief that there has l-een a real growth among the civilized nations of a sentiment which will permit a gradual substitution of other methods than the method of war In the settlement of disputes. !t U not pretended that as vet we are near a position tn which It will be possible wholly to prevent war. or that a Just regard for national Interest and honor will tn alt eases permit of the settlement of International dispute* by ar bitration; but by a mixture of prudence and firmness with wisdom we think it is possible to do away with much of the provo cation and excuse for war, and at least tn many cases to substitute tome other and more rational method for the settlement of disputes. Relations with Turkey and China. Ea.-ly in July, haring received intelligence, which happily turned out to be erroneous, of the assassination of our Vice Consul at Beirut, I dispatched a small squadron to that port for such service as might be found necessary on arH vu ). Although the attempt on the life of our Vice Consul liau uot been successful, yet the outrage wts symptomatic of a state of excitement uud disorder which demanded immediate at tention. The arrival of the vessels had the happiest result. A feeling of security at once took the place of the former alarm and disquiet; our officers were cordially welcomed by the consular body and the leading merchants, and ordinary business resumed Its uctivity. The Government of the Sultan gave a considerate hearing to the representations of our minister; the of ficial who was regarded is responsible for the disturbed condition of affairs was re moved. Our relations with the Turkish Oovernmeut remain frie.ully; our claims funded on inequitable tieatment of some oi our schools and missions appear to be In process of amicable adjustment. The signing of anew commercial treaty with China, which took place ai Shanghai on the Bth of October, is u cause for satis faction. This act, the result of long dis cussion and negotiation, places our com mercial relations w r lth the great Oriental Empire on e nure satisfactory footing than they have ever heretofore enjoyed. It pro vides not only for the ordlnury rights and privileges of diplomatic and consular offi cers, but also for an important extension of our commerce by Increased facility of access to Chinese ports, and for the relief of trade by the removal of some of the obstacles which have embarrassed It In the past. The full measure of develop ment which our commerce may rightfully expect can hardly be looked for until the settlement of the present abnormal state of things lu the Empire; but the founda tion for such development has at last been laid. Rural Free Delivery. The rural free-dellvery service has been steadily extended. The attention of the Congress is asked to the question of the compensation of the letter carriers and clerks engaged In the postal service, espe cially on the new rural free-delivery routes. More routes have been Installed since the first of July last than In any like period In the Department's history. While a due regard to economy must be kept In mind lu the establishment of new routes, yet the extension of the rural free-dellvery system must be continued, for reasons of sound public policy. No governmental movement of recent years has resulted in greuter immediate benefit to the people of the country districts. Rural free delivery, taken In connection with the telephone, the bicycle, nnd the trolley, accomplishes much toward lessening the isolation of farm life uud muktng it brighter and more attractive. Rural free delivery Is not only a good thing in itself, but Is good because It is one of the causes which check this unwholesome tendency toward the urban concentration of our population at the ex pense of the country districts. It Is for the same reason thut we sympathize with und approve of the policy of building good roads. Alaska asd Insular Possessions. I call your special attention to the Ter ritory of Alaska. The country Is develop ing rapidly, nnd It has an ussured future. The mineral wealth is great and has as yet hardly been tapped. The fisheries. If wlse lv handled and kept under national con trol, will be a business as permanent as at.y other, and of the utmost importance to the people. The forests If properly guarded will form another great source of wealth. Portions of Alaska are fitted for farming and stock raising, although the methods must be adapted to the peculiar conditions of the country, Alaska is situ ated In the far north; but so are Norway nnd Sweden and Finland; and Alaska can prosper and play its part In the New- World just as those nations have prosper ed and played their parts In the Old World. Of our insular possessions the Philip pines and Porto Rico It Is gratifying to say that their steady progress has been such as to make it unnecessary to spend much time In discussing them. Yet the Congress should ever keep in mind that a peculiar obligation rests upon us to fur ther in every way the welfare of these communities. The Philippines should be knit closer to us by tariff arrangements. It would, of course, he Impossible sudden ly to raise the people of the Islands to the high pitch of industrial prosperity and of governmental efficiency to which ‘they will In the end by degrees attain: and the cau tion and moderation shown In developing them have been among the main reasons why this development has hitherto gone on so smoothly. Scrupulous care hns been taken In the choice of governmental agents, nnd the entire elimination of partisan poli tics from the public service. The condi tion of the Islanders Is In material things far better than ever before, while their governmental. Intellectual, and moral ad vance has kept pace with their material advance. No one people ever benefited an other people more than we have benefited the Filipinos by taking possession of the Islands. Public- Land Laws. Experience has shown that in the West ern States themselves, as well as in the rest of the country, there is widespread conviction that certain of the public-land laws and the resulting administrative prac tice no longer meet the present needs. The character nnd uses of the remaining pub lie lands differ widely from those of the public lands which Congress hud especially In view when these laws were passed. The rapidly Increasing rate of disposal of the public land is not followed b.v n corre sponding Increase in home building. There is a tendency to mass in large holdings public lands, especially timber and grazing • amis, and thereby to retard settlement. I renew nnd emphasize my recommendation of last year that so far ns they are avail able for agriculture In Its broadest sen ;o. nnd to whatever extent they mav be re claimed under the national irrigation law. the remaining public lands should be held rigidly for the home builder. The atten tion of the Congress is espeelallv directed to the timber and stone law. the desert land law, nnd the commutation clause of the homestead law, which in their opera tion have In many respects conflicted with wise public-land policy. The work of reclamation of the arid lands of the West Is progressing steadily and satisfactorily under the terms of the law setting aside the proceeds from the disposal of public lands. Surveys and ex aminations are progressing throughout the arid States nnd Territories, plans for re claiming works being prepared nnd passed upon by boards of engineers before approv al by the Secretary of the Interior. In Arizona and Nevada. In localities where such work is pre-eminently needed, con struction has already been begun. In other parts of the arid West various projects are well advanced toward the drawing tip of contracts, these being delayed In part by necessities of reaching agreements or un derstanding ns regards rights of way or acquisition of real estate. During the year ended June 30 last 25.- 566 persons were appointed through com petitive examinations under the civil-ser vice rules. This was 12,672 more than during the preceding year, and 40 per cent of those who passed the examinations. This abnormal growth was largely occa sioned b.v the extension of classification to the rural free delivery service and the ap pointment last year of over 9.000 rural carriers. A revision of the civil-service rules took effect on April 15 last, which has greatly Improved their operation. Army and Navy. The effect of the laws providing a Gen eral Staff for the Army and for the more effective use of the National Guard has been excellent. Great Improvement has been made In the efficiency of our Arrnv In recent years. Such schools ns those erected at Fort Leavenworth and Fort Ri ley and the Institution of fall maneuver work acconpllsh satisfactory results. The good effect of these maneuvers upon the National Gtard Is marked, and ample ap propriation should be made to enable the guardsmen of the severe! States to share In the benefit. The government should as soon as possible secure suitable perma nent camp sites for military maneuvers In the Tarioui sections of the country. The service thereby rendered not only to the Regular Army, but to the National Guard of the several States, will be so great as to repay many times over the relatively small expense. We shonld not rest satis fied with Wfbat h*a been done, however. The only people who are contented with a system of promotion bjr mere seniority are those wuo are contented with the triumph of medloirity over excellence. On the "tber hard a system which encouraged the exercise of social or political favoritism In promotions would be even worse. But It would surely be eagy to devise a tne'hod of promotion from grade to grade In which the opinion of the higher officers of the service upon the candidate* should be de ctslve upon the standing and promotion of the latter. Just such a system now ob tains at West Point. I heartily congratulate the Congress upon the steady progress In building up The American Navy. We can not afford a let up lu this great work. To stand still means to go back There shonld be no cessation in adding to the effective units of the fighting strength of the fleet. Meanwhile the Navy department sud the officers of the Navy ate doing well their part by providing con st ..nt service ac sea under conditions akin to those of actual warfare. Our officers and enlisted men are learning to handle the battle ships, cruisers, aud torpedo boats with high efficiency in fleet and squadron formations, and the standard of marksman ship is being steadily raised. It is eminently desirable, however, that there should be provided a naTal general staff on lines similar to those of the Gen eral Staff lately created for the Army. isthmian Canal. By the act of June 28. ISW2. e Congress authorized the President to enter into treaty with Colombia for the building of the canal across the Isthmus of Panama; it being provided that In the event of failure to se cure such treaty after the lapse of area * enable time, recourea should be had to building a canal through Nicaragua. It has not been necessary to consider thli alterna tive, as I am enabled to lay before the Semite a treaty providing for thj building of the canal across the Isthmus of Panama. This was the route which commended itself to the deliberate judgluent of the Congress, and we can now acquire by treaty the right to construct the canal over this route. The question now, therefore. Is not by which route the isthmian canal shall be built, for that question has been definitely and irre vocably decided. The question Is simply whether or not we shall have an isthmian canal. When the Congress directed that we should take the Panama route under treaty with Colombia, the essence of the condi tion, of course, referred not to the Govern ment which controlled that route, but to the route Itself; to the territory across which the route lay, not to the name which for the moment the territory bore on the map. The purpose of the law'was to author ize the President to make a treaty with the power In actual control of the Isthmus of Panama. This purpose has been fulfilled In the year 1846 this Government en tered into a treaty with New Granada, the predecessor upon the Isthmus of the Re public of Colombia and of the present Re public of Panama, by which treaty It was provided that the Government and citizens of the United States should always have ? n< ? °P en fight of way or transit across the Isthmus of Panama by any modes of communication that might be constructed, while In return our Government guaranteed the perfect neutrality of the above men tioned Isthmus with the view that the free transit from the one to the other sea might not be Interrupted or embarrassed The treaty vested In the United States a substantial property right carved put of the rights of sovereignty and property which New Granada then had and pos sessed over the said territory. The name of New Granada has passed awav and Its territory has been divided. Its successor the Government of Colombia, has ceased t/,’ °t\'n any property In the Isthmus. Anew Republic, that of Panama, which was at one time a sovereign State, and at another time a mere department of the successive confederations known as New Granada and < olombln, has now succeeded to the rights which flvst one and then the other formerly exercised over the Isthmus. But us long ns the Isthmus endures, the mere geograph ical fact of Its existence, and the peculiar Interest therein which is required by our position perpetuate the solemn contract which binds the holders of the territory to respect our right to freedom of transit across It, and binds us In return to safe guard for the Isthmus and the world the exercise of that Inestimable privilege The true Interpretation of the obligation upon which the United States entered in this treaty of 1846 has been given repeatedly in the utterances of Presidents and Secre taries of State. Secretary Cass In 1858 of ficially stated the position of this Govern ment ns follows: “The progress of events has rendered the lnteroceanlc route across the narrow portion of Central America vastly Important to the commercla 1 world, nnd especially to the United States, whose possessions extend along the Atlantic and Pacific cousts, and demand the speediest and easiest modes of communication. While the rights of sov ereignty of the States occupying this region should always be respected, we shall ex pect that these rights be exorcised in a spirit befitting the occasion aid the wants and circumstances that have iriseu. Sov ereignty has Its duties as well as its rights, and none of these local govern ments, even if administered with more re gard to the just demands of other na tions than they have been, would be per mitted, In a spirit of Eastern Isolation, to close the gates of intercourse on the great highways of the world, and Justify the act by the pretension that these avenues of trade and travel belong to them und that they choose to shut them, or, what Is al most equivalent, to encumber them with such unjust relations as would prevent their general use.” Seven years later, in 1865, Mr. Seward in different communications took the followin'' position: "The United States have taken and will take no interest In any question of internal revolution In the State of Panama, or any State of the United States of Colombia, but will maintain a perfect neutrality In connection with such domestic altercations. The United States will, nevertheless, hold themselves ready to protect the transit trade across the Isthmus against Invasion of either domestic or foreign disturbers of the peace of the State of Punamn. • * Neither the text nor the spirit of the stip ulation In that article by which the United States engages to preserve the neutrality of the isthmus of Panama, Imposes an ob ligation on this Government to comply with the requisition (of the President of the United States of Colombia for a force to protect the Isthmus of Panama from a bodv of Insurgents of that country). The pur pose of the stipulation was to guarantee the Isthums against seizure or Invasion by a foreign power only.” Attorney-General Speed, tinder dateasof November 7, 1865, advised Secretary Seward as follows: . “From this treaty it can not be sup posed that New Granada invited the United States to become a party to the intestine troubles of that Government, nor did the United States become bound to take sides In the domestic broils of New Granada. The United States did guarantee New Granada In the sovereignty and property over the territory. This was as against other and foreign governments.” For four hundred years, ever since shortly after the discovery of this hemisphere, the canal across the Isthmus has been planned. For two score years It has been worked at. When made It is to last for the ages. It Is to alter the geography of a continent anil the trade routes of the world. We have shown by every treaty we have negotiated or attempted to negotiate with the peoples in control of the Isthmus and with for eign nations in reference thereto our con sistent good faith in observing our obliga tions; on the one hand to the peoples of the Isthmus, and on the other hand to the civilized world whose commercial rights we are safeguarding and guaranteeing by our action. We have done our dut.* to otli ers In letter and In spirit, and wo have shown the utmost forbearance In exacting our own rights. Last spring, under the act above referred to, a treaty concluded between the repre sentatives of the Republic of Colombia and of our Government was ratified by the Sen ate. This treaty was entered Into at the urgent solicitation of the people of Colom bia and ufter a body of experts appointed by our Government especially to go Into the matter of the routes across the Isthmus had pronounced unuulmously lu favor of the Panama route. In drawing up this treaty every concession was made to the people and to the Government of Colombia. We were more than just In dealing with them. Our generosity was such as to make it a serious question whether we had not gone too far In their Interest at the expense of our own; for In our scrupulous desire to pay all possible heed, not merely to the real but even to the fancied rights of our weaker neighbor, who already owed so much to eCf protection and forbearance, we yield ed In all possible wavs to her desires In drawing up the treaty. Nevertheless the Government of Colombia not merely re pudiated the treaty, but repudiated it In such Vianner as to make It evideut bv the time the Colombian Congress adjourned that not the scantiest hope remained of ever get ting a satisfactory treaty from them. The Government of Colombia made the treaty, and yet when the Colombian Congress was* called to ratify it the vote against ratifi cation was unanimous. It does not appear that the Government made any real effort to secure ratification. Revolution in Panama. Immediately after the adjournment of the Congres-. a revolution broke out In Panama. The people of Panama had long been discontented with the Republic of Co lombia. and they had been kept quiet only b.v the prospect of the conclusion of the treaty, which was to them a matter of vi tal concern. When It became evident that the treaty was hopelessly lost, the people of Panama rose literally as one man. Not a shot was fired by a single man on the Isthmus In the interest of the Colombian Government. Not a life was lost In the accomplishment of the revolution. The Co lombian troops stationed on the Isthmus, who had long been unpaid, made common cause with the people of Panama, and with astonishing unanimity the new Repub lic was started. The duty of the United States 1n the premises was clear. In strict accordance with the principles laid down by Secretaries Cass and t-eward In the of ficial documents above qaoted, the Ulifted State* gave noMce that It ’voold perm the Uniting of no expedition*ry force, t_ .• r rival of which wjubi m an chaos and d-* j structlon along tbs line T 'he railroad ar-J of the proposed cacal, axd au interruption of transit as r.n lnevitbl ccs*qaence. The de fccto Gsvtwusl Manama was recognized in the fallowing telegrar l to Mr. Ehrman: "Tne people of Panama have, by apparently unanimous movement, dissolved their pq'lticc! connection with the Republic of Colombia and resumed their Independence. When yon are satis fied that a de facto government, republican In form and without substantial opposition from its own people, has been established in the State of Panama, yon will enter Into relations with it as the responsible government of the territory an.'. !„ok to It for ail due action to protect the persons and property of citizens of the United States and to keep open the Isthmian trait- i sit. In accordance with the obligations of existing treaties governing the relations of the United States to that territory." The Government of Colombia w not! fied of our action by the following tele gram to Mr. Beaupre: The popie f Panama having, by an apparently nnani mous movement, dissolved their political connection with the Republic of Colombia and resumed their Independence, and hav ing adopted a government of their own. re publican In form, wtth which the Govern ment of the United States of America ha* entered Into relations, the President of the United State*, in accordance with the ties of friendship which have so long and so happily existed between the respective nations, most earnestly commends to the Government of Colombia and of Panama the peaceful and equitable settlement of all gpaatioa* at Issue between them. EU holds that he is bound not merely by treaty obligations, but by the interests of civili zation. to see hat the peaceful traffic of the world across the Isthmus of Panama shall uot longer be disturbed by a constant succession of unnecessary and wasteful civil ware.” When these events happened, fifty-seven years bad elapsed since the United'States had .uttered into its treaty with New Gram.da During that time the Govern men.s of New Granada and of its sue eesfjr, Colombia, have been in a constant sta.e of flux. There have been revolu tions. rebellions, Insurrections, riots, and other outbreaks, numbering 53 for the 57 years. It Is a fact that one of them lasted for nearly three years before It was quell ed; another for nearly a year. In short, the experience of over half a century has shown Colombia to be utterly Incapable of keeping order on the Isthmus. Only the active interference of the United States has en ibled her to preserve so much as a sembb.noe of sovereignty. Had it not been for the exercise by the United States of the police power in her Interest, her connection with the Isthmus would have been sundered long ngp. In 1856. in 1860, In 1873, in 1885. In 1901. and again in 1902, sailors and marines from United States war ships were forced to laud In order to patrol the Isthmus, to protect life and p'operty, and to see that the transit across the Isthmus was kept open. In 1861, In 1885. and In 1900. the Colombian Govern ment asked that the United States Govern ment would laud troops to protect its In terests and maintain order on the Isthmus. Colombia’s Latest Proposition. Perhaps the most extraordinary request Is that which has just been received and which runs as follows: "Knowing that revolution has already commenced In Panama tan eminent Colom bian) says that if the Government of the United States will land troops to preserve Colombian sovereignty, and the transit. If requested by Colombian charge d'affaires, this government will declare martial law; and, by virtue of vested constitutional authority, when public order Is disturbed, will approve by decree the ratification of the canal treaty as signed; or, if the Gov ernment of the United States prefers, will call extra session of the Congress—with new and friendly members next May 1o approve the treaty. (An eminent Colom bian) has the perfect confidence of vice president, he says, and if it became neces sary will go to the Isthmus or send repre sentative there to adjust matters along above lines to the satisfaction of the peo ple there.” This dispatch Is noteworthy from two standpoints. Its offer of Immediately guaranteeing the treaty to us is In sharp contrast with the positive nnd contemptu ous refusal of the Congress which has just closed Its sessions to consider favorably such a treaty; it shows that the govenf ment which made the treaty really had .ab solute control over the situation, but'did not choose to exercise this control. The dispatch further calls on us to restore or der and secure Colombian supremacy in the Isthmus from which the Colombian Gov ernment has just by Its action decided to bar us by preventing the construction of the canal. Control of Great Importance, The control, In the Interest of the com merce anil traffic of the whole civilized world, of the means of undisturbed transit ncross the Isthmus of Panama hns become of transcendent Importance to the United States. We have repeatedly exercised this control by Intervening lu the course of do mestic dissension, and by protecting the territory from foreign Invasion. In 1853 Mr. Everett assured the Peruvian minister that we should not hesitate to maintain the neutrality of the Isthmus tu the case of war between Peru and Colombia. In 1864 Colombia, which has ulways been vigi lant to avail Itself of its privileges con ferred by the treaty, expressed Its expec tation that in the event of war between Peru and Spain the United States would carry into effect the guaranty of neutrali ty. There have been few administrations of the State Department In which this treaty has not, either by the one side or the other, been used as a basis of more or less Important demands. It was sulil by Mr. Flsjh In 1871 that the Department of State had reason to believe that an at tack upon Colombian sovereignty on the Isthmus had, on several occasions, been averted by warning from this government. In 1886, when Colombia was under the menace of hostilities from Italy In the Cerruti ease. Mr. Bayard expressed the se rious concern that the United States could not but feel that a European power should resort to force against a sister republic of this hemisphere, as to the sovereign nnd uninterrupted use of a part of whose terri tory we are guarantors under the solemn faith of a treaty. The abovi recital of facts establishes beyond question: First, that the United States has for over half a eeutury pa tiently and in good faith curried out Its ob ligations under the treaty of 1846; second, that when for the first time It became pos sible for Colombia to do anything In re quital of the services thus repeatedly ren dered to It for fifty-seven yet rs by the United States, the Colombian Government peremptorily nnd offensively refused thus to do its part, even though to do so would have been to its advantage and Immeasur ably to the advantage of the State of Pan ama. at that time under its jurisdiction; third, tlint throughout this period revolu tions, riots nnd factional of every kind have occurred one after the other in almost uninterrupted succession, some of them lasting for months and even for years, while the central government was unable to put them down or to make peace with the rebels: fourth, that these disturbances Instead of showing any sign of abating have tended to grow more nu merous and more serious in the immediate past; fifth, that the control of Colombia over the Isthmus of Panama could not be maintained without the armed intervention and assistance of the United States. In other words, the Government of Columbia, though wholly unable to maintain order on the Isthmus, has nevertheless declined to ratify a treaty the conclusion of which opened the only chance to secure Its own stability nnd to guarantee permanent peace on, and the construction of a canal across, the Isthmus. i nder such circumstances the Govern ment of the United States would have been guilty of folly and weakness, amount ing In their sum to a crime against the na tion. had It acted otherwise than it (lid when the revolution of Nov. 3 last took place la Pannm.. This great enterprise of building the lnteroceanlc canal cannot be hold up to gratify the whims, or out of respect to the governmental Impotence, or to th“ even more sinister and evil political peculiarities, of people who, though they dwell afar off, against the wish of the actual dwellers on the Isthmus, assert an unreal supremacy over the territory. The possession of a territory fraught with such peculiar capacities ns the Isthmus In ques tion carries with It obligations to man kind. The course of events has shown that this canal cannot be built by private enter prise, or by any other nation than onr own; therefore it must be built by the United Stat ;s. Must Niw Deal with Panama. Every effor v . has been made by the Gov ernment of th United States to persuade Colombia to follow a course which was essentially not only to our Interests nnd to the world, but to the Interests of Colombia Itself. These efforts have failed; and Co lombia, by her persistence In rcpnlslng the advances that have been made, has forced us, for the sake of our own honor, and of the interest and wcll-belijg. not merely of our own people, but or the people of the Isthmus of Panama and the people of the civilized countries of the world, to take de cisive steps to bring to an end a condition of affairs which had become intolerable. The new Republic of Panama Immediate ly offered to negotiate a tieaty with. us. This treaty I herewith subm t. By It our Interests are better safeguarded than In the treaty with Colombia which was ratified by the Senate at its last session. It Is better In its terms than the treaties offered to us by the Republics of Nicaragua and Costa R'tca. At last the right to begin this great undertaking is made available. Panama has done her part. All that remalna Is for the American Congress to do its part and forth with thla Republic will enter upon the execution of a project colossal In Its size and of well-nigh incalculable possibilities for the good of this country and the na tions of mankind. By the provisions of the treaty the United Ptates guarantee* and will maintain the In dependence of the Republic of Panama. There la granted to the United States In perpetuity the use. occupation and control of a atrip tea f~V.x. wide and extending three nauttc>< ml tew Into the sea at either terminal, with all land* lying outside of the lone necessery for the construction of tne canal or fot its auxiliary works. .nd with the Islands in the Bay of Panama. The cities of Panama and Colon are not embraced In the canal tone, bn* the United States assnmes their sanitation and. in case of need, the maintenance of order therein: the Cnltcd States enjoys within the granted limits all the riehts. power, and anthorlty which ft would T#i*ess were It the sovereign of the territory to the exclusion of the exer cise of sovereign rights by the Republic. All railway end canal property riehts belonging to Panama and needed for the canal pass to the Putted States. Including any property of the respective companies In the cities of Panama and Colon: the works, property, and personnel of fhe canal and railways are exempted from taxation as well in the cities of Panama and Colon as In the canal zone and its dependencies. Free immigra tion of the personnel and importation of ’•jipiies for the construction and operation of‘*be canal are granted. Provision Is made for the use of military force raid the build ing of fortifications l>v the United States for the protection of the transit. In other details, particularly as to the acquisition of the interests of the New Panama Canal Company and the Panama Railway by the United States and the condemnation of pri vet. Property for the n.ses of the canaL. the stipulations of the Kay Herran treaty are closely followed, while the compensation to be given for these enlarged grants remains the same, being ten millions of dollar; pay able on exchange of ratifications: and. be ginning nine years from that date, an in r.uai payment of $250,000 during the life of the convention. THEODORE ROOSEVELT. CANAL IS THE ISSUE. MADE THE LEADING FEATURE OF PRESIDENT S MESSAGE. President Declares Policy of United States Is Far from Conquest—Other Features Ace Capital and Labor, la eluding Status of Trust Legislation. Washington correspondence: President Roosevelt's annual message to Congress is a long document and dis cusses with great detail the questions of government which the executive has con sidered during the last twelve months. Most of his subjects have reached an acute stage during his own administra tion, and the President is able to discuss them from an. inside point of view in every case. The Panama canal nud the labor and trust topics furnish the chief executive an abundance of material on which to advise Congress as to the gen eral condition of the country. The most interesting thing in the mes sage is the treatment of the isthmian caual question, which was forced on the administration Nov. 3 by the revolution in Panama. The President follows the line of the statement given out by Sec retary Hay at the time, showing that the I nited States took not a single stop on the isthmus beyond the line marked out for it by its treaty obligations. The President justifies his course and the policy of the administration. The United States not only had obligations to perform under the treaty of New Grenada in keeping peace on the isthmus and providing for open and uninterrupt ed traffic across the nock of land. Mr. Roosevelt says, but it had a greater duty, on the higher ground that this gov ernment is the trustee of the world for the isthmus. Greater than any other question is that of the construction of the canal, which has been in content! 'utiou for cen turies and which not only the national interests of the United States require, but which the wo-ld demands. The Pres ident’s message is couched in language which leaves no doubt that he regards what lias happened as final, and there is no suggestion of retracing the steps which have been taken. The President endeavors to show that this government was not particeps crim inis to the revolution on the isthmus. Capital and Labor. The events of the last year bearing on the right of labor to boycott and in timidate, and the right of corporations to annul laws on the statute books, give the President an excellent opportunity to discuss questions which are uppermost in the minds of every business man and every labor leader in the United States. The treatment of this great subject forms a large part of the message. In the direction of the relations be tween capital and labor, the President has a good deal to report to Congress, part of which is official and part of which is only incidental to the work of the President. Since the last message to Congress was written the coal strike has been completely settled by an arbitration set on foot by the President himself and agreed to by the owners and miners alike. This gives the President an op portunity not only to congratulate the country on the termination of this st ri ous condition of affairs but to point out this case as an evidence that the prin ciple of arbitration can be applied suc cessfully to the gravest kind of disputes between capital and labor, even those involving the interests of the entire country. In the message there is further refer ence to the suits instituted against the Northern Securities Company for the purpose of testing the anti-trust laws. It is shown, also, that under the emer gency legisl'atiofi by the lust Congress, which provided for expediting such cases, the issue now has been carried direct to the Supreme Court, so that a decision on this great question as to the power of corporations mny soon be decided. • No Discrimination Allowed. Then, again, the President laid down in the dispute which arose in the bindery of the government printing office the principle that while labor organizations had a right to exist among government employes, those organizations had no right to put their rules above tlie laws of the land, and that no man could be excluded from the government service because he did or did not belong to a la bor union. In addition to all this the Department of Commerce and Labor lias been created and has been preparing to go into the lnrge economic questions much more fully than ever was attempt ed before. All these things make it fitting that the President should state his position, which, it is claimed, is not one of hostil ity to either business or industry, but rather of friendliness to both classes, so long as they work within the law and treat each other fairly and lawfully. Suggestions which have been made as to legislation nre very carefully guard ed. The President recommends no rad ical legislation regarding the trusts, but there is laid before Congress a full state ment as to the condition of State and federal laws. As no effort has yet been made to obtain from corporations the secrets of their business and capitaliza tion the President asks for uo change in the law creating the new department. Financial legis’ation is not specifically recommended. The subject is commend ed to Congress with a view to arriving at some agreement as to the needs of the banks and the business world. The postal frauds nre only touched on in a general way, the President's com ment on the Bristow report having cov ered the ground so far ns the situation at this time seemed to warrant. The recommendation of Messrs. Be^parte and Conrad as to extending the statute of limitations to five years, however, is made to Congress. Praise for the Army. The great work which Secretary Root has performed in placing the army on its present footing, so that, to use the words of one of the best-known military experts of the country. “We have an army ir> time of peace of 60.000 men, and an army in time of war of 170,000. which can be increased to 300,000 with the right sort of machinery* behind it." conies :-i for a word of from the Preaident. There m st*o a recommendation for a further and steady increase of the fight ing strength of the navy. Citizens of Clevelsnd, Ohio, formally presented a handsome bronze ship's bell to the new cruiser Cleveland at Ports mouth, N. H. A brief speech of pres entation by W. B. Mathes. chairman of the presentation committee, an accept ance by Commander Cogswell of the cruiser and music by the naval band comprised the ceremonies. Police Judge Coles, the first of the three city officials of Galena. Kan., to be tried on the charges of malfeasance in office, preferred by two disgruntled “jointists." was found guilty. He has appealed. Giosseppi Impazzatti. a wealthy mnea r-r.i n.\< ' '. ■ ■ - plicated in the Hennessey case twelve years ago which resulted in the lynch ing of eleven Italians. A list found on his breast indicated that other Italians are doomed. Commissioner of Pensions Ware has decided that the Mexican war veterans on the rolls at S.B a month are entitled to an increase to sl2 a month despite a conflict of decla rations of what consti tutes the sixty days' service required of these veterans. GOVERNMENT POSTAL AFFAIRS. Bristow’s Report Shows Reform and Big Appropriation Needed. Fourth Assistant Postmaster General Bristow’s annual report for the fiscal year ended June 30. 1003. says the gov ernment nas been robbed for years by contractors and dishonest postal officials, but that a reformation is scheduled. “An investigation, which is still in progress, has shown that for a number df years supplies for the free delivery service have not been purchased with an eye single to the pub'ic interests,” says Mr. Bristow. "Both 'n the matter of quality and the cosr of equipment the ruling has been individual gain. This applies to articles furnished under regu lar contract, such as street collection boxes and carriers’ satchels, as well as to those bought in the open market under exigency privilege, which has been much abused. “Favored contractors, abetted by a trusted but unfaithful official, hnve cor rupted the public service. An early and thorough, reformation will be undertaken along the line of service equipment with the prospective result of improved ser vice at reduced cost. Fraudulent con tracts have been abrogated. In the re letting of contracts honest competition will hnve fair nnd free play.” Mr. Bristow makes recommendations as follows: An appropriation to construct inspec tors lookouts in postoffices wherever nesessary in the opinion of the Post master General, that the interstate com merce law be amended so as to prohibit common carriers from aiding nnd abet ting in the green goods, lottery or any other scheme carried on partly by mail and partly by common carrier in viola tion of the postal laws; that special agents and postal inspectors be desig nated rurr.l agents; that the provision that rura' carriers shall not be prohibit ed from cuing an express package busi ness be repealed: that the maximum of a rural carrier be increased to $730 per annum for a route of twenty-five miles or more in length and that a law he en acted requiring assistant postmasters, cashiers and other employes to give bonds to postmasters direct and holding post masters responsible under their own bonds. The estimated expenditure for both city and rural free delivery service dur ing the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1904, aggregates about $47,000,000. There are now in operation 19.39(5 rural free delivery routes. It is estimat ed that 3,200 additional routes can he es tablished out of the appropriation now available, the total to be in operation or ordered established by March 1, 1904. To maintain the service on these routes during the fiscal year from July 1, I<HV4, to June 30, 1903, will require $13,500,- 000. FRED STRUBE CAUGHT. Illinois F licit ive Cnptutcil in Mis souri Confesses to Murder. Fred Strobe of Topeka, 111., wnnted on the charge of murdering Miss Alice Henningor. was arrested nt Mapon, Mo., @by Chief of Police James Woods. The crime was commit ted on the night of Nov. 14, six miles east of Havana. When arrested Strobe not deny his identity or guilt, but refused to talk. Afterwards he broke down and made a full confes sion of the crime FRED STRUBE. before p o i ice man Woods nnd City Attorney Nat M. La cey. lie said it was jealousy on his part which prompted the deed. He had been attentive to Miss Hen ninger for some time. She attended the marriage of a sister in Mason City, lowa, and while there met another man, in whom she became interested, and he noted a difference in her manner to ward him. On the evening of the crime he attended a box social in company with Miss Henninger and her sister. When they arrived at the Henninger home, on their return, he let the sister out and drove hurriedly on with Miss Henninger. He spoke of her cold man ner. She told him she could not marry him. This incensed him nnd he picked up a monkey wrench lying in the buggy and struck her twice. She fell to the ground nnd he leaped from the buggy and made sure she was dead. He then took the body to a nearby field, wrapped it in the lap robe and partly buried it in the sand. He proceeded to Beardstown, nnd from there went to Quincy, where he crossed the river on the boat and got into Mis souri. He sold his horse nnd buggy, then went to Ivirksville nnd later to Macon County. Strube was returned to Illinois nnd placed in jail at Springfield, the authori ties fearing lie would be lynched if taken immediately to the scene of his crime. By the beef trust arithmetic when cat tle go down meat should go up. Ice is forming on the ponds slmost in sufficient thickness to attract the atten tion of the fooikiller. If Senator Smoot loves pence of mind he may wish he were at home with those wives he has not got. Some of the Chicago rioters who met the police suddenly discovered that the running was also good. That New York woman whose hair is turning green should be careful to keep away from the cows. In Panama they must be of the opin ion that the $10,000,000 is burning a hols in Uncle Sam's pocket. They are now curing consumption with the Fin?en rays. Is there no way they can be used to attack the historical novel germ ? Those Paris airships would make much better time if they would come West and form a merger with an able Kansas cyclone. Some men are never so happy as when they can throw a brick regardless of the merits of the controversy into which :hey are butting. Panama may have thought that by making an offensive and defensive alli ance with J. Pierpont Morgan it con’d defy the earth. New York’s swell set may be pruned to 200, but Dnwie is even more exclusive, as his New York followers are repuied to number but 50. If Grand Rapids Aldermen continue to confess before it has been proved on them they may be thrown out of the Aldermen's union. It is a poor theatrical year ir New York. People find that losing money on Steel stocks i* about all the amuse ment they can afford. Mr. Schwab is issuing about as elo quent a line of silence jut now a* the country has heard for a long t:me. That Gen. Wood has routed an army of 2.000 Moros will l*c considered by some a sufficient answer to all the Cuban charges against him. According to a Massachusetts profes sor. love begms at the age of 3. tkiii that prove that the first three years or a man's life are wasted ■ Somehow these reports as to the large sums cleared by college football associa tions tend to give another Jolt to the theory that the wholesome spirit of col lege rivalry i* at the bottom of the foot ball craze. PERTINENT PARAGRAPHS FROM IHE PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE PRESIDENT BOOSKVELT Every man must be guaranteed hit liberty and his right to do as he likes with his property or his labor so long as he does not lufrlnye the rights of others. No man If above the law and no man below It: nor do we ask any man's permission when we requlia him to obey It. Whenever either corporation, labor tinion or Individual disregards the law or acts In a spirit of arbitrary and tyrannous Interference with tin rights of others, whether corpora tions or individuals, then where the federal government has jurisdiction It will see to it that the misconduct Is stopped. The Integrity of otir . urreney Is beyond question, and under present conditions It would be unwise and unnecessary to attempt a reconstruc tion of our entire monetary system. We can not hnve tor much Immi gration of the right kind, nnd we should have none at all of the wrong kind. it should mean something to be come a citizen of the United States; and In the process no loophole what ever should be left open to fraud. There can be no crime more serious than bribery. Other offenses violate cue law, while corruption strikes at the foundation of all law. The exposure nnd punishment of public corruption Is an honor to a na tion, not a disgrace. No one people ever benefited an other people more than we have ben efited the Filipinos by taking pos session of the islands. This great enterprise of building the lnteroeeanlc canal run not be held up to gratify the whims, or out of respect to the governmental Im potence. or even to the more sinister and evil political peculiarities of a people who, though they dwell afar off. yet, against the wish of the actual dwellers on the Isthmus, as sert an unreal supremacy over luo territory. ARMY IN GOOD SHAPE. Secretary Root's Am,.in! Report Com mends General (itaff. Secretary Root devotes n large por tion of his annual report of the opera tions of the War Department to the or ganization and work of the general staff. He quotes the statute and regulations by which the geneiul staff is authorized, and continues: “It will be perceived that we are here providing for civilian control over the military arm, blit for civilian control to he exercised through a single military expert of high rank, who is provided with an adequate corps of professional as sistants to aid him itt the performance of his duties. In this way it is hoped that the problem of reconciling civilian control with military efficiency with which we have been struggling for so many years will he solved, “It is gratifying lo report that the new system of control lias been accompanied by most harmonious effort and cheerful good will on the part of the members of the general stuff, the chiefs of all the War Department bureaus and the officers of the army nt large.” Following the same line of policy the report says the Secretaries of War and the Navy entered into an agreement for a joint army and navy board to secure joint action nnd co-operation of the two branches of the service. Of the results expected, the Secretary says; "The common understanding and mu tual assistance between the two services, which it is within the power of this board to bring about, may lie made to cover a wide range. If the two forces nre ever to he called upon to co-operate, the time to determine what each shall do nnd the time for each to learn what the other can do, is before the exigency arises. ” The full sirength of the regular nnny Oct. 15, 1903, was "3.0X1 officers and 55,- 500 enlisted men, of whom 843 officers and 14,0(57 men were on duty in the Philippines. There were also in the ser vice 20 officers nnd 520 enlisted men in the Porto Rico regiment, 99 officers and 4.805 enlisted Philippine scouts, nnd 2,807 hospital corps men. Tlipse figures show a net decrease during the year of 11.978. The Secretary commends the net to promote the efficiency of the militia nnd providing for calling it into the service of the national government in time of war. The total number of organized mili tia available for this purpose is 9,120 commissioned officers and 81,007 men. New York leads with 13.8t>9 men, Penn sylvania conies second with 9,0<5S and Illinois third with <5.(509. The Secretary favors a further reduc tion of the troops in the Philippines, but docs not think it desirable until the con struction of bnrracks nnd quarters in the United States has made further progress. The total expenditures of the depart ment for th"> year ended June 30. 1003. were $108,577,7*52, of which tbc military establishment took $70.141,<522. the civil establishment $2,028,372 and public works, including fortifications and na tionnl defenses, $30,341,947. The esti mates for the present fiscal year nggre gate $125,989,485. of whi-h 771,986,515 is for the army and $40,175,618 for pub lic works. Aside from such actio,- as may be needed for const defense, the Hecretory says he does not think any important leg islation regarding the army will be ad visable for some time to come, and not until the army ahall have time to work out the new methods under the direction of the general staff. Note* of Current Event*. It is reported that the pri<-e of steel rails has been cut from S2B to $24 per ton. The private car Lone Star, owned by E. H. R. Green, sen of Hetty Green, has been burned at Terrell, Texas. AfTairs at Beirut, Syria, having assum ed a normal condition, the united squad ron *ent there jhas been ordered to leave. The Utah State board of pardons has commuted to life imprisonment the sen tence of death imposed on Nathan F. Haworth for the alleged murder of Thoa. Sandal in Ibid*. Haworth was to have been shot to death I>ec. 11. Two freight triins on the Missouri, Kansas and T-x/.s collided a mile south of Foresion. Texgs, killing two person*. The dead: Clifford Hawes and William Johnson, both of Foreston. William Austin, aged 64, died at Em poria, Kan., of paralysis of the spine. Though once worth a million, he leaves nothing for hi* girl wife, and his friends had to bury him. His fortune w-as Jos! in poor business investments. McLaughlin Bros., lumber dealers, lo cated at Hinton. O. T-. are pieparing to export about 1,500 black walnut >ogs from the Seminole nation to Hamburg, Germany. The log* will lie used in Ger uany for making fine furniture.