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ONCE UPON A TIME.
Heard I once my old nurse telling Stories by the fire at night. All about big, bearded giants .Till I shhered in affright; Then her voice came from a distance From a drowsy, far-off clime, Echoing the sweet old cadence, “Once upon a Time.” Read I once a golden story Of King Arthur’s wonder court, Lancelot and Guinevere, All the knights of brave report. [But amidst the loving, hating, jStill I heard the insistent chime, .Like a cuckoo clock repeating, “Once upon a Time.” Will our lives when we have lived them Seem like stories we have read Stories which our nurses told us As we lay all snug in bed? ■\\ ill they seem as vague as dreams are. All the days we thought sublime? Shall we hear the faint, low whisper, “Once upon a Time.” When the earth and day and sunlight •Grayly fade away, When the years that we have lived here Seem like one brief day; .Shall we hear again at twilight Echo of our nurse's rhyme. “Here you lived and loved and labored,” "Once upon a Time.” ■—Leslie's Monthly. AFTER THE OTHER MAN. 5 HEY were in the hall where a fire crackled on the broad hearth. The winter day was dying, and already the gloom of a bleak twilight was filling* the room< They drew their chairs close to the Are, and Yiall stretched out hi3 hands to the grateful heat. A gnst of wind rattled the sleet sharply against the dripping window Trail rose and stood for a moment looking out at the leaden sky. “The melancholy days are come,” he quoted gloomily. Bahbette roused herself from . the comfortable depths of the chair. “Come back to the fire, and have some tea,” she said. “This weather gives me the blues.” “I wish I might lay my own private, particular blues to the weather,” said .Trail bitterly. “What else?” she said lightly. “You’ll feel differently tomorrow when the sun shines again.” “Will the sun shine to morrow?” he asked “If it does, it won’t be the same sun.” “Tommy Vr.'ll,” she cried in ex asperated tones, as she stamped the floor with one little foot, “this is not a funeral.” “Not yours, anyway,” he said, as he resumed his seat near her. “You and the weather are a delight ful combination this afternoon!” she mocked. “I can’t see the weather home, so I’ll go myself,” he said, half rising. “Sit still, fool'sh!” she said. “Will ycu have one lump or two?” “My temper needs all there is In the bowl. I fear,” he said humbly. “It does.” she sad grimly. “Your mood is villainous.” “It’s a recent development,."’ he said, suggestively. “And possibly not incurable,” she supplemented. “O, there's a cure,” he said, eager ly. “So I’ve heard before,” she said, and laughed softly. “It’s real funny!” he sneered. “Crosspatch!” she said, still laugh ing. “Bah, ' he said, turning lo her, “is it your mother?” “I generally manage my own af ttirs,” she said. “Then he isn’t a millionaire?” he ask ed. “Poorer than a church mouse,” she confided. “O, Lord!” he said, in despair. She looked at him steadily. A sar donic smile curved her mouth. “Must have brains, then,” he pur sued. ‘•lntermittently," she said. “What on earth did you ever fall In love with him for?” he groaned. “Just because I shouldn’t, I sup pose,” she evolained. “He's the most fmprobable, Impractical, charming dreamer I ever knew. He writes me uios* deliciously foolish sonnets—” “I wrote you sonnets, too,” he re minded her. “His are ready charming,” she said, looking away. “I sec,” he said, coldly. There was silence for a time. “I hope you'll be very happy,” he said, at length. “Now. that’s like the old Tommy,” she said, warmly. “You'll probably forget me,” he con plained. “Never.” she said, stoutly. “And I shall never forget you. Bab,” tie said. “In fact, there are a thousand and one things I shan’t forget” She was silently staring at the fire. ’ We've had some high old times, any way.” he observed. She nodded. “The day we went fishing—remem ber It?" he weut on. “You wanted the wat<r lilies, and I got in beyond my •Ic-pth. How you laughed, you heart less little wretch!” “You laughed so absurd. Tommy,” she said, giggling at the recollection of him, “with your clothes all mud and your hat gone and your hair all drip ping. And you swore too. and it sounded funny because Ihe water got Into your mouth and made you gasp and sputter.” “I got the lilies, though.” “Of “ourse you did." she laughed. “And the day we went tramping.” be said. “Great Scott! Didn’t It rain! Do you remember that house on the Cloverty road, where I asked for shel ter for ycu, and they told me if I’d take my wife—didn’t you blush at that? —round to the back door, the ser vants would feed us? And we fed and dried out there like a couple of real tramps. It was ripping, wasn’t it?” She was silent. “Suppose you’ll have to forget all that now.” he said. “I shall always remember those times.” she said quietly. “You won't remember them as i do. though.” be said. ’Perhaps not,” she sighed “Look here,” he said, suddenly, “I need some more tea. This thing is get ting on my nerves.” She filled his cup and looked at him arehly. “Poor old Tommy.” she said softly. “Hang him!” he burst out. “H> 'a an interloper!” “Huah!” she said. “You mustn’t say that” “Of course not” he said, "I must conceal the murder In my heart and congratulate him.” He rose and stood with Ids back ts ffc* flra. - - -‘•u PALACE OF MACHINERY, ST. LOUIS WORLD’S FAIR—THIS BUILDING COVERS TWELVE ACRES ■ Among the vast structures that loom white and stately on the St. Louis Exposition grounds is the palace of machlnex-y, which covers twelve acres of space. Topped with gleaming towers, the vast building astounds the eye by its magnitude. In this palace will be housed all modern machinery kept whirl ing and whirring by tremendous motive power, and pandemonium will reign supreme after the great fair is opened. The palace of machinery demon strates on what a gigantic scale the whole fair will be, for It is but one of a dozen tremendous piles of staff that will astonish the millions wao visit the great show. “I’d better be going.” he said. “So soon?” she asked. “My temper is getting the best of me,” he growled. He pulled on his coat and picked up his hat. Then he turned to the girl by the fire. “Awfully pleasant afternoon of It,” he babbled, formally. “When shall I see you again?” she said. “I don’t know,” he replied. “I'm going away.” “Away?” There was a bit of dis may in her voice. “Foolish!” she chided. “You don’t know what he looks like. You don’t even know his name.” \ “I'll find him, and —and choke him,” he said, tersely. She burst Into a peal of laughter. “Tommy, you Idiot, you mustn’t—er —choke yourself. It would be suicide you know.” It was the turning point of his life. He embraced it stupidly. “Huh!” he gasped, and stood star ing at her flushed cheeks and down cast eyes. / It was dark when he finally left. The sleet still came down in long, slanting lines and the wind howled dolefully. “Hipping weather,” said Trail, as he stood at the door turning up his coat collar. “Isn’t it?” said the girl.—lndianapo lis Sun. CLOUDS OF GREAT EXTENT, They Are Frequently Kl K ht Mi Ira Long and One and Two Mile* High. Scientists have recently been meas uring the dimensions of the clouds and have arrived at some rather startling conclusions. The dimensions of single clouds, as far as the area covered by their base is concerned, vary, as any one can see, from the cloud .he size of a man’s hand to that which covers the entire visible heavens, hut the height of clouds can be observed more defin itely and can be estimated with con vincing f.yeuracy, and it is this height thrt largely determines their contents and characteristics. A great, cumulous thunderhead, tow ering up on the horizon like a huge, flamboyant iceberg, is often higher than the highest Alps would be if they wp.o piled on top of the Hima layas. I* is not unusual for these clouds to measure five, six or even eight miles ,from their flat, dark base, hovering a mile or two above the world, to their rounded, glistening summit, splendid in the sunlight And in these eight miles the changes of temperature are as great as those over many thousand miles of the earth's surface. These clouds contain strata of tem perature, na;- w belts of freezing cold alternating with large distances of rainy mist and frozen snow and ice particles. Hailstones, which are formed from a snow particle that fal> from the upper strata and Is froeen hard In the freezing belt and coated with added ice in the wet belt, are often THE CZAR AND HIS FAMILY. THE CZAR. CZARINA AND THEIR CHILDREN. Though possessed of tfle most autocratic power Czar Nicholas IL of Russia Is very democratic. Though having at his command the greatest military engine of the world, at least in potentiality, he yet is fo emost among the great rulers tn his advocacy of peace. Though in a position that demands display and even ostentation of a certain kind, he is retiring to the point of timidity and very domestic and home loving. These contradic tions between his situation and his character mark him as peculiar not only among the exars, but among royalties generally. While not particularly fosceful or marked by grcAt intellectual powers, he is singularly hamane and simple, and It Is these quaH Jes perhaps that Russia most needs in the present state of her development. It Is these characteristics which are also found in the Czarina. In her early training and her inclinations this granddaughter of Queen Victoria, formerly Princess Allr of Hesse, is more German and English than Slav. Thane was a time when her foreign habits of thought and sympathies were so apparent that ahe was not popular among the Russians, who are intensely nationalized and distrustful of all things foreign. This unpopularity has almost wholly disappeared, however, owing to the sweet and kindly dispo sition of the Csartna and her conscientious efforts to live up to the duties of her position. There ere four daughters in the Osar’s family, whose bright faces are familiar to the people of at Petersburg, through the streets of which they are driven dally for every glimpse of sunshine. Notwithstanding the fact that they are grand dnehessea, they are even more democratic than their parents •mi nod and smile at tbe panenby imril corrected and seated by their nurses. Among the people the little grand duchesses are exceedingly popular, and It la probable that not a re w of the subjects of the Csar regret the Salic law which does net permit a woaaa to occupy tbe throne, for it is one of the tragedies of the CaaPs Ufle that ha has no male heir to succeed him. Tbe Osaria only brother, the Grand Duke lAebtel, would take tbe throne if Nich olas should die. found with a series of layers in their formation, showing that they hare passed through this succession of cloud strata more than once on their way from the upper air to the earth. SENSES OF REPTILES. Hearing la Much Poorer than Sight, it Possible. In some aspects the reptile is su perior to man. A Vienna naturalist named Werner has recently reported the results of observations that he has been making for some time on the senses of inferior vertebrates. On certain points the conclusions of M. Werner are very surprising, and in all they are worthy of notice. Werner has observed 136 individuals, of which one-third were at liberty, and he took all possible precautions not to let the creatures know that they were watch ed. One general fact is very evident— reptiles and amphibians are strongly attracted by water. They go straight toward it, even when they are at dis tances so great that they could not di vine its presence by any of the senses known to us. It seems really that a sense of which we have no knowledge informs them of the direction in which water may be found. * * * There seems to be a sort of chemical attract tion, says M. Werner. But how does this act, and on what part of the crea ture? This remains a mystery. Iteptlles also seek the light, but in dependently of that; they are positive ly heliotropic, and in winter they often leave comfortable and warm retreats to seek the sunlight. Sight is generally not good with them. It is probably the finest sense they possess, but it would still appear to be very limited. The caymans and the crocodiles cannot distinguish a man at a distance of more than six times their length, ac cording to Werner. In the .vater Ashes see only at very close range— about half their own length. This will seem perhaps unlikely to anglers, al though soma of them can cite instances showing that flsh cannot see far. Snakes seem to have a very mediocre sense of sight. The boa, for example, does not see at more than a quarter or a third of its own length; different spe cies are limited to one-flfth or one eighth of their length. Frogs are better off; they see at fifteen r twenty times their length. Frog catchers know this from experience. Hearing is much poorer than sight, if possible. Most reptiles are notice ably deaf, except caymans and croco diles; the boa appears to be absolutely so.—Philadelphia Public Ledger. A Pqliar Problem. What Is the difference between a gardener, a billiard-marker, a gentle man and a verger? A gardener minds his peas. A billiard-marker minds his cues. A gentleman minds his p’s and q’s. A verger minds his keys and pews. —Woman’s Home Companion. Don't sty a man is shiftless: Be po lite, and say that he is too contented to ever get rich. A BIG PEAIRIE FIRE. THOUSANDS OF ACRES IN OKLA HOMA LAID WASTE. Several Residents Lose Lives in the Flames —Survivors Are Destitute of Food aud Clothing: in Cold-City of Lawton Barely Escapes Destruction. Driven by a terrific gale from tbe north, which at times reached a velocity of ninety miles an hour, a prairie fire swept over 75,000 acres in Comanche County, Oklahoma. Thursday night, in iUctlug d* mage estimated at $200,000 and causing a heavy loss of life. The c?*y oZ Lawton was saved only by great effort, while many farm houses were consumed. Kiowa County was also vis ited by a prairie fire, while damage is reported from all over the Southwest. Tbs losses from wind and fire report ed follow: Hobart. $40,000; Vins >n, SB,- 000; Lawton, *55,000; small country towns aggregate $50,000; farm property, SIOO,OOO. The loss of life is known to be large, but it is impossible at this time to give any accurate figures. A report has been received at Fort Sill that an entire Apache Indian village was swept clean. Three Thousand Square Miles Burned. Three thousand square miles of terri tory in Kiowa and Comanche counties were swept by the fires. Hundreds of people are homeless and the financial loss coven a wide extent of country. At Hobart, the county seat of Kiowa County, the fire ajproa<;hed from the east, destroying the stables and fifteen race horses, fifteen residences, two busi ness houses and various small buildings. Spreading to the southwest, the fire swept 75,000 acres of government mili tary and timber reserve and Indian school reserve. Spreading westward, the flames cov ered piles of the homestead district, de stroying houses, iarns and stock. It was in this district that five persons are re ported to have perished in attempting to protect their property. Late Thursday night the fire began moving southward toward Lawton. At midnight 5,000 people of the city were fighting the fire. The advance line of the fire was fully two miles in length. By hard work they saved the town. Stories are coming in of how families lay out on the prairie throughout the cold night after the storm had passed, with only thin clothes on. Hundreds of people are destitute and are suffering intensely from the cold and their burns. A prairie fire swept over part of Sa line County Thursday night. Reports rfjcived state that the fire raged in Ellsworth. Lincoln, Graham, Ellis, Rus sell and Salina counties. Two lives are reported lost. Prairie fires raging throughout west ern and southwestern Nebraska have been checked. Many animals lost their lives, and many barns were bujned. RUSH BATTLESHIPS TO EUROPE. Big United States Fleet to Be Sent Racing Across the Atlantic. Plans have been completed for putting the crack ships of the American navy through an endurance test, such as no warship of any nation has ever been sub jected to. Immediately after target practice at I-ensacola bay, about April 15, the battleship squadron of thP North Atlantic fleet, With several cruisers, without being given any time for over hauling or repairs in a navy yard, will be rushed across the Atlantic and into the Mediterranean at lively speed. They will visit Trieste, ViUafranche and Lis bon and will soturu early in August, again racing snross. They will then be dry docked aiy? prepared for the joint maneuvers next winter. The battleship squadron is composed of the Kearsnrge, Alabama, Maine, Mis souri, Massachusetts and Illinois. The only ship that may not make the trip is the Massachusetts. The lowa, which is undergoing repairs, will be sent along if she can be made ready. The cruiser Olympia and the new cruiser Cleveland will accompany the battleships, as will the Des Moines aud the Denver, if they are finished in time. The fleet will be in command of Rear Admiral Barker. The four cruisers will be left behind when the battleships start home and will constitute the Fluropean squadron, with Rear Admiral Coghlan in command, with the Olympia as his flagship. The battleships will try to beat the record recently made by Rear Admiral Evans on his practice cruise from the Philippines to Hawaii, when his battle ships covered the distance at twelve and three-quarters knots ai> hour and established anew naval record. Now let the rest of the canal problems be worked out with pick and spade. This war appears to be a contest be tween tbe long name and the short name. Evidently IDO4 will be known in more places than oue as the year of the big fire. Russia feels that it could use an un limited quantity of summer in its busi ness. If the Japs are mere imitators Russia doubtless thinks they are imitating Un cle Sam. Russia may be suffering from an over production of grand dukes, as titles do not win battles. Japan is like the measles, iu that Rus sia never knows where it is going to break out next. Hastily constructed breastworks of Russian names would hopelessly confuse the bravest enemy. Some war correspondents are wonders when it comes to predicting a battle after it has happened. Judging from the photographs, nothing short of a jar would introduce civiliza tion into Korea. Judging from the way the Czar is send ing grand dukes to the front he feels that he can spare a few. If Patti does not care to sing any more he 7 ekperier.’e in this country should enable her to practice Taw. Unless the Russians hurry more war ships east what will the Japanese navy do for exercise during the coming sum mer? Perhaps Santo Domingo figures that it is another Jap in because it is an island, but we shall orcak it speedily of that way of thinking. If the famous and popular Gen. Kuro patkin is wise he will bear in mind what once happened to the equally famous and popular Gen. Buller. Evidently in the books on strategy that Japan has been reading it is not in sisted that the enemy shall be notified three weeks in advance of a proposed attack. It will be observed that the great and good cousins of the Csar are offering him moral auyport, except those whose in terests lie in seeing his forces driven oat of the East. Japan certainly needs a few of the finishing touches of civilization, as it ap pears to be more anxious to win battles thaa to have the correspondents aend out brilliant accounts of its operations. If, as his wife declares in her petition for divorce, a Chicago man moved 110 times in seven year* the city should loek him up and charge him for rent of the streets. It is all right to move once a year, but no man should make a contin uous business of it without a franchise. DISASTROUS FLOODS. Brett Damage Has Beta Wrought and Several Drowned. From all parts of the country com* reports that the annua! spring hoods are raging. In some sections—princi pally in the East, where the snowfall has been the greatest in yours—many hare been drowned, a vast amount of damage has been done, the danger from rising water and ice gorges is increasing and hundreds of lives are imperiled. In Pennsylvania a 30-foot tiood swept down the north branch of the Susque hanna. Thousands of people hod from their homes to the mountains, while many others were caught before they conld escape. The railroads and the mines are submerged and every town jOfjng the river between Wilkesbarre and Bhnbury is inundated. It is expected that there may have been a heavy loss of life in the farming districts, where the floods came without the least warning. The Susquehanna river between Wilkesbarre and Banbury, a distance of sixty-four miles, is now one solid mass of ice. An lee gorge three miles north of Wilkes barre is threatening serious damage. At Burwood and Westmoor the resi dents were compelled to leave their homes in boats. Tbe railroad track t. Catawissa has been washed away. At Middleton the suffering is greater than in any other portion of the flooded re gion. The Borough Council has sub scribed SSOO for the relief of the flood sufferers and the Y. M. C. A. building has been transformed into a temporary hospital. At Harrisburg the situation in the flooded region is critical aud the people are preparing for the worst. In the Delaware valley rain fell in torrents and unless the weather should get suddenly colder one of the most destructive floods in the histoi; of the valley is predicted. Half a million dollars will not cover the damage done by the flood in the vicinity of AUentpwu. It was the worst experi enced in fifty years, though it raged for only twelve hours. From all over the eastern section of Pennsylvania come reporca of danger from the floods. Already the damage is enormous. York, Readiug, Allentown, Bloomsburg. Pottsville, Rupert, Lehigh ton and Sunbury are among the cities that have suffered worst. Loss of life is reported at many points. Floods menace cities and towns in every section of the East swept by the recent storm. Trenton has a flood that Is twenty-two feet above the normal height of the water. At Rochester the Genesee river has risen at an alarming rate. At Schenectady the city authori ties have been dynamiting the ice in the hope of breaking the gorge. THE WAR AND WHEAT. Explanation of the Rise in Price Does Not Fully Explain. In the speculative market the price of May wheat reached $1.09 on account of the war in the East, as market reports say. This explanation does not explain, however, as fully as it might, for May wheat is not actually on the market, and demand for it is not renl but merely speculative. Before May wheat is mar keted the war may be over and the ac tual demand for it may be only ordinary. Consequently the war in the East has very little to do with the present price of May wheat; it is being used as pre text for raising the price, or, to put it another wuy, it is being employed by those who want to run the price up, they taking the risk of the price they bet on. So far as the consumer Is concerned the war might as well actually increase the price of wheat, for the price fixed in the speculative market is made the basis of trude. For instance, the speculative price of wheat has already resulted in an advance of 75 cents a barrel In the price of flour, uotwlthstanuing the wheat from which the flour is made was pur chased at the price prevailing long be fore this Eastern war broke out. And this 75 cents increase has been demanded of the consumer without a single barrel of flour having been shipped to either of the belligerents in this Eastern war, so far ns the government reports show. This is the way a fictitious price on the specu lative market affects the consumer. The only way in which this war can legitimately affect the price of wheat is for it to he prolonged till both Russia and Japan exhaust their supplies, which wiil be for some years. When these lioumries begin to full short at home they will buy abroad and not till then, be cause of the risk of confiscation of each other’s orders. Brides, Russia will buy very little of this country so long as her people entertain the resentment they now have against Americans, ami Japan re quires foodstuffs that can better lie sup plied bv China. When one gets down to hard facts there is very little ground for expecting very much trade on account of this war, certainly not $2,000,000,000 worth as one paper predicts, though the war last years. Last year Kentucky railroads increas ed their mileage 134 miles, making total of 3.189 miles. An official of the Wisconsin Central says that road lias business for far more cars than can be furnished. New York Central earned 7’*> per cent on its $132,250,000 outstanding stock during the calendar year 1903. Mr. W. 11. Bancroft has been ap pointed general manager of the Union I'acific, with headquarters at Omaha, Neb. The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburg will add buffet sleeping cars to the equip ment of the night express trains between Pittsburg and Rochester, X..Y. A most remarkable showing is made by the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis. A remarkable growth in eara iugj and in prosperity has been achieved. The Texas railroad commission has is sued orders reducing the passenger fare for children on railroads in that State from 2 cents per mile to 1% cents per mile. One result of the new railroad line in Canada is to abolish half-rate tickets for clergymen, which heretofore have been universal on the railroads of the Do minion. The health authorities of Texas have order**.' that all sleeping cars passing through *he State be disinfected. This rule will make it necessary for passen gers on through sleepers to change cars in Texas. A railroad from Miian to Varese, baiit as a steam railroad, has been for some time forked experimentally by electric ity. The result has been so favorable that tweuty-one additional motor cars are to be built for it in Milan, tad it is said that the time for the run of forty mile* will be only forty five minutes. A bill is being urged in Congress call in* for a survey with a view to Rse con struction of the long-talked-of canal be tween the waters of the St. Johns river, in Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico. The total railway mileage in operation in the United States in 1902 was 203,132 miles, against 106.706 miles in 1890. 93.- 262 miles in 1880, 32.922 miles in 1870, 30.620 miles in 1800. and 9.021 miles in 1850. Mr. E. B. Waite, formerly chief of motive power of the New York Central, has returned from Europe, where he went to make careful study of electrical development in Germany, France and Belgium. Remains of senator hanna LYING IN STATE IN CLEVELAND KOREA AND ITS PEOPLE. country Has Never Recovered from Invasion of the Japanese, The people of Korea are not Japan ese, and they are not Chinese, says J. Sloat Fassett, in the Review of Re views. They are Mongolian, and havi a polysyllabic language with a phonet ic alphabet. They have a recorded his tory, of disputed authenticity, which claims for them a continuous existence as a Korean people of about 5,000 years, the earlier part of which of course is shrouded in the mists of tra ditlon and fable. As early as three centuries ago, the Koreans had made great progress in the arts. They built ships 200 feet long an<| covered them with plates of Iron, the iron beiDg hammered into small plates and fas tened by small spikes driven into the wood. They made woven fabrics and were very skillful in metal work, in the fashioning _of jewels and in the manufacture of pottery. They were far in advance of their Japanese neighbors, to whom they have taught the arts of metal working, pottery making aud silk weaving. Three cen turies age, Japan overran the country and devastated it, transferred whole colonies of artisans to Japan, and broke down forever the military power of Korea. Korea has produced but little literature. Korean students have been largely devoted to Chinese au thors. The native literature consists largely of descriptions of scenery and folklore. The people of 'Korea may be de- KING OF KOREA AT THE PALACE GATE, SEOUL. scribed generally as robust, amiable, Industrious, pleasure-loving and given rather to the arts of peace than the ardors of war. They are agricultural rather than commercial. They are kindly and generous. They have no national religion and never have had. Gonfucinianism. so far as regards the worship of ancestors, the reverence for ~~ . ~ rr~ MOUNTAIN BCENEBY IN KOBEA. parents and the dignity of family, has a stronger hold than any other form of religion. Buddhism has always had a languishing existence among them. There is a widespread belief among the people in witches. In spirits and in devils. There are relics of fetichlsm. The costumes of the men and the women do not differ widely from those in use thousands of years ago. The universal costume is cotton cloth, bleached and unbleached. In winter this Is padded with short staple cotton which grows in Korea and is carded j into pads for the purpose of qnllting! the clothing of the people. Their head gear Is remarkably varied in form. ] They have a or a differ ent kind of hat for almost every sta tion to life. All the unmarried men In Korea are called boys and wear their hair In braids down their backs. Mar riage may take place at any age from 12 upward and when a boy Is married be Is a man. The women of Korea have no legal status. A man may have one wife and her children are bis le gitimate heirs, but a Korean may hcve as many concubines as he may have the ability or the disposition to sup port. The position of Korea Is unique She la the youngest of the nations to come into diplomatic relations with the Western world. Her treaties with the United States and England were made In 1952; with Germrjoj In 1883, with Bft*—** and Italy *a U 684; la France In 1S8G; with Austria-Hungary in 1892. She has no well-established postal fa cilities or means of transportation and communication. She has only one short railroad, while others are projected, and only a few miles of telegraph lines, and these mostly controlled by foreigners. The means of transporta tion of men and goods Is man back, pony back, cow back, by means of se dan chairs and by two-wheeled, clumsy bull carts. She manufactures feebly ARCHWAY OUTSIDE SEOUL. an Insufficient supply of textile fab rics, of pottery aud of metal wares. She exports rice, ginseng and fish. Korea has never recovered from the blighting ravages of the Japanese con quest of three centuries ago. At no time since then has she had an army worthy the name. She has no military class, no military aspirations, no mill- tary aptitude, no military Instruction. Her present army, nominally of 7,000 men, is deservedly a laughing stock and an object of proper ridicule when .it is not an object of dread. Iler sol diers, poorly equipped and badly paid, instead of being a body for protection, become a band of desperadoes, of which the Emperor, the court and the people are desperately afraid. The Koreans are not cowards, but they are spirit-broken, resembling In this re spect the fellaheen of Egypt. Corrup tion and Intrigue have dwarfed even such tardy growth as has come to since the Western powers opened a way Into her ports and Interior. Her salvation for the future depends njion the insti tution of wise government at home and the neutralizing of ambitious projects of other nations abroad. She is de signed by nature to be a buffer state. Japanese Brains. The Japanese have attracted so much attention and admiration by their re markable progress In the ideas and practice of Western civilization, as well as by their native genius in art, that the results of an Investigation of the brain weight of the Japanese peo ple as compared with Europeans must interest everybody. For ten years Professor Taguchi, of Tokyo Univer sity, has been studying the brains of his fellovi-countrymen. He shows that with adults the brain weight compares favorably with that of Europeans of similar stature, and may even be slightly superior. There is one striking difference, however. In the fact that the Japanese brain grows more slowly dur ing infancy and early youth than is the case with Europeans. In Japan, as everywhere else, there Is found a posi tive relation between brain weight and stature —that Is, the larger brains, gen erally speaking, go with the larger bodies. Rent Paid In Peppercorns. A pepper mill is a uiece of silver not often seen on tables nowadays. English housekeepers, however, still use the pepper mill, and American silversmiths sometimes keep it to meet the demands of old-fasbloned families who prefer to grind their own pepper rather than risk tbs chances of adulteration. The pepper mill dates back to the time when pepper was a scarce commodity and was always ground at the table from the peppercorns. Pepper was so valuable In those dayc that rents were often paid In peppercorns, and the high prices they brought were among the Incentives that Induced explorers to brave the dangers of the unknown deep. If a short passage could be dis covered to the Indies, it was agreed by all that a wealth of pepper could be easily brought to Europe. Chestnuts are an important article of food to Italy. ’ HISTORY OF THE ANCHOR. Various Improvements That Have Been Made in its Shape. The ships' anchors in general use up to the beginning of the last cen tury consisted of a long, round iron shank, having two comparatively short straight arms or flukes, inclin ed to the shank at an angle of about 4i> degrees, and meeting It in a some what sharp point at the crown. in large anchors the bulky wooden stock was built up of several pieces, hooped ■.ogether, the whole tapering outward to the ends, especially on the aft or cable side. About the beginning of the last century a clerk in the Ply mouth naval yard Periug, by name, suggested certain improvements, the most important of which was making the arms curved instead of straight. At first sight this simple change may seem of little value, but consideration j will show that this is not the case. The holding power of an anchor de pends on two principal conditions, namely, the extent of useful holding surface and the amount of \ertieal penetration. The latter quality is necessary on account of th a nature of ordinary sea bottoms, the surface lay ers of which are generally less tena cious and resisting than is the ground a short distance below. In the year 1821 chain anchors be gan to supersede the hempen cne3, with the result that the long-shaped anchors hitherto in vogue were no longer necessary, and anchors with shorter shanks and with heavier and stronger crowns gradually came into use. In consequence of these changes a commission was appointed in the year 1838 to inquire into the holding power of anchors, and a principal re sult of its labors was fhe adoption of the so-called adtnualty pattern anchor, which continued to be in use in the navy up to the year 18G0. The inven tion of the steam hammer, in 1842, made the welding of heavy masses of iron a comparatively easy and re liable process, so that from this time onward the strength of anchors fully kept pace with that of the chain cables, which had come into general USd. A number of patents for anchors were taken out prior to the greak ex hibition of 1851, and, public atten tion having been called to the models there shown in the following year a committee was appoint'd by the ad miralty to report on the qualifications of anchors of ‘he various kinds. Prac tical trials were then instituted, and, as a result, Trotman's anchor be ing second on the list. Some of the tests to which the anchors were sub mitted were of undoubted value, such, for instance, as "facility for sweep ing.” Nowadays, however, at all events for deep sea ships in shallow harbors, it is considered an advan tage for an anchor to offer as little obstructions as possible above ground. —Science Siftings. HUNDRED MILE AN HOUR TRAIN. Is In Sight and Will Come on Long Runs. We note with pleasure that our space-devouring friends at Zossen have not yet satiated their hunger for space and touched the record the other clay for no less than 140 miles per hour. They seem to be overcom ing air presure rather comfortably up to the present, and wo have heard nothing about the motors falling or the pressure caving in the front end of the car. Perhaps the doubting gen tlemen who figured on the motors burning out from overload at SO miles per hour to 100 miles per hour will now be ccnvinced that higher spoors are both possible and practicable. One hundred and forty miles per hour is a decidedly hot pace, but It will more than likely be beaten before we go to press. It has taken a good many years to evolve the two-minute trotting horse, but this year we have him in triplicate, and just so it has been with electric railroading Once the records began to break they fairly blew up and left only small fragments. One hundred and forty miles per hour, even if not outdone by a considerable margin, still means that the hundred-mile-an-hour train is much nearer to reality than It has ever been before. That speed is quite feasible whenever it is demanded, and it is, moreover, quite high enough to meet the requirements of humanity for some little time to come. Its real importance lies, as we have often re marked, in its application to long lines on which the saving of time would be material. Cutting clown the running time to Flatbush or Hackensack may defer the dyspepsia of the commuter for another season or two, out it la not commercially Important. It is cut ting the time on long runs that counts —reducing the time to Washington to less than three hours, converting the trip to Chicago into a mere night’s run. It is now announced that the ex periments have been conducted largely with the idea of early applica tion of the system to the railroad con necting Berlin with Humburg, distant by rail 176 miles from each other, and that an early conversion of that line is by no means improbable. Some how the hundred-nrile-an-hour train looks nearer than It did a few months ago, and our spyglass is still trained in the direction of Germany.—Street Railway Journal. RATS MADE BED OF MONEY, When the Nest Was Found the Miss ing Bills Were All Intact. A short time ago Mrs. Mike Huller, who keeps a grocery store at the cor ner of Eighth and Elm streets, hid away where she could easily find it $76 in bills for use at a time when necessity or desire required it. She thought of thieves, but not of the ro dent description, and was therefore quite particular in selecting a hid ing place. A few days later she thought she would taka a look at her hidden treasure, with the view of as suring herself that the money was where she had hidden it, but on going to the place her surprise can easily be imagined when, on placing her band where the money ought to have been, she discovered that it was gone. Matters remained in that condition up to a few day3 ago, when, hearing a rat traveling around the house, the idea struck her that rats were the real purlolnere of her money. Going to work with a vim. she was not long In ripping up two or three planks from the floor of one of the rooms of the house, and, instituting a close search, tl. greatly elated to And that rodents had actually stolen the money, packed it away and made a cosy bey of it, for there It was be fore her eyes. Every bill was found Intact, not a dollar missing.