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EVOLUTION OF THE IRONCLAD.
.-' ■ i "V 4 . r V' * * * | • **** " W " rrp HE war between England and 11 Russia in the early 50’s was the beginning of the development of the ironclad—or. as we now call it. the armorclad —though not to either of the combatants in that passage et arms can the credit be given for the intro duction of the first vessel to carry armor. Up to the bombardment of Se bastopol, writes John G. Davis, in Pennsylvania Grit, ships that were practically those of the previous two centuries were in use. Naval devel opment was practically unknown, and it was not until the shell was invented that the necessity of a change was made manifest. The English ships at Sebastopol were of the old two and three-decker broadside variety, the flagship of the squadron, the Royal Albert, being a vessel of 3,100 tons burden carrying 121 guns. In those days the ship with the largest number of guns was “the best fellow,’’ prac tically regardless of any other consid eration. A few of the Royal Albert's guns were shell guns, but nearly all of them were the long 32-pounders, exact ly like those with which the Victor, the flagship of the famous Nelson, was armed seventy years earlier. In near ly three-quarters of a century, there fore, there had been little or no real prograss in the matter of cannon. And beyond the introduction of steam as a motive power, there was very little development in the ships. As said be fore, they were the same old two and three deckers so familiar In the pre ceding century. The Russians were the first to use shell in warfare, and it was immedi ately owing to the battle of Sinope, Nov. 30, 1853. in which a Turkish fleet was annihilated by a Russian fleet having shell guns that there came sud denly a demand for protection for ships. The change was radical, but It was necessary, the effectiveness of the shell against unarmored vessels having been demonstrated to the satis faction and alarm of all governments.. Nevertheless, to the United States. Great Britain and France the world owes most of the ideas of naval con struction which have to-day apparent ly come near perfection. The United States began the change by applying the screw as a means of propulsion In place of the old side paddle wheel. The American ship Princeton, 1842- 1843, was the first war vessel in the ■world to have the screw. Though our own naval authorities saw at once the AM> ' iiA l" 1 ! 1.1 ” superiority of this type over the old. Europeans took up the idea with the greatest reluctance, probably because of the then belief that nothing good could come out of the United States. Nevertheless, It became evident after a time that the Improvement must be adopteu If pace were to be kept, and in 1853 the French built the screw battl**- ahip Napoleon. The English had op portunity to see that this was the com ing method of propulsion and as the French themselves were so pleased with the new ship that they Immedi ately began the construction of others Great Britain realized that a mistake had been made in uot following the lead of the United States, and at once began the construction of several ves sels of the same type. By 1859, when the first Ironclad war vessel ever built was launched, the renovation of the navies of Europe was well uuder way, and the screw was in almost exclusive To Admiral Dahlgren of the United States navy must be given the credit of making the shell what It is. He carried the application of this new missile to great- perfection in the > United States frigates of 1554. The Vlerrimac. one of these —the same Mer rimac which finally was compelled to j acknowledge the superiority of the | armored Monitor—was taken to Eu rope in 1554. startling naval adminis trations with the enrmous shell power of her battery. In the few years In tervening between this time and the Civil War. navies were in a practical ly experimental stage. Some means, it was acknowledged, must be devised for protection against the new and terrible shells, which could tear a ship I to pieces with ease, but what it was going to be was problematical. Armor j had been suggested as early as ISI2, j when John Stevens of Hoboken. N. J.. j broached the Idea. Nothing came of j It, however, perhaps because the ex treme necessity of It was not appar ent. and it was not until 1843 that any thing definite was accomplished. In that year the Secretary of War was authorized by Congress to enter Into c .tract with Robert L. Sevens, son < the man who originally proposed armor, for the construction of a “war steamer for harbor defense, shot and shell proof, to be built principally of Iron.” The length of this vessel was iron." The length of this vessel was to have been 415 feet, and its protection was to have been a belt or armor of too* 9*4 Inches In thickne— Work waa not begun until 11 years after the con tract was authorized, and when the ship was about half completed Con gress refused further appropriations. Owing to this fact, ti e honor of plac ing the first a-mored war ship on the seas belongs to France, the French ironclad frigate Gloire taking the ways in 1859, though previously to this the French had placed in service several floating Iron batteries which demon strated their power In the battle of Kinburn, a Russian port on the Black Sea, in 1854. These batteries"were pe culiar things, about half ship and half fort. They had engines and they could steam four or five knots, but they were upon flat keels and therefore totally unsea worthy except in the smoothest of water. Nevertheless, they were ex ceedingly effective, and in his reports of the first battle in which they were engaged, the admiral of the French fleet said they had demonstrated them selves to be everything that was hoped for them. Anchored some 800 yards from the Russian forts, they pounded away until the works were reduced, and not one of them was injured, though each was struck <SO or 70 times by the solid shot hurled from the Rus sian guns. This engagement showed that recon struction of existing fleets was a ne cessity. and the French led the way. The Gloire was a wooden ship 250 feet In length, plated entirely with iron 4.5 inches in thickness to six feet below the water line. She had a ram bow and could steam about 13 knots. Trials alongside the fastest wooden ships of the French navy demonstrated the GlMre to be superior to them ali in every way. The English then began to hurry work on Ironclads, and In 1861 launched the Warrior. She was larger thaD the Gloire, but she was ar mored only for two-thirds of her length, bow and stern being unpro tected. These vessels were of course of the broadside type, the turret com ing only in our own Monitor, which revolutionized naval construction, or perhaps It would better be said, start ed it in the right direction. On March 9, 1802, there was fought in Hampton Roads the first battle be tween armored ships, when the Moni tor and the Merrimac engaged in their famous clash. It is not necessary to tel' how the Merrimac, a 60-gun frig ate under repair at the Norfolk dock yards. was set afire to prevent her fall ing into the hands of the Confederates when the place was evacuated; how she but partly bumc-d, and how she was repaired by the Confederates, who cut her down to the waterline and ap plied a sloping protection of railroad Iron to her battery; how she destroyed some of the best ships in the Federal navy and became the terror of the Atlantic coast and the hope of the Con federates; nor how the Monitor finally appeared and stopped her in the height of her career. These things are all fa miliar to every person who Is at all versed in American history, the battle ranking perhaps as the most famous naval fight in the world not, of course. In damage Inflicted, but in ulti mate results. For had the Merrimac been successful, the whole north coast of the United States, with the ports of Philadelphia. New York, Boston, and all other cities of the Shore, would have been at her mercy. It may not be familiarly known that at the very beginning of the war. a special naval board was appointed todetermine upon types of ironclads to be built for im mediate service, the result being the construction of three broadside ves sels. the Galena, the New Ironsides and the Monitor. The Galena was the first to be tested, tier armor proving totally deficient in the very first test The Ironsides did better. She was covered with 4 5 -|-inch solid plates backed with 21 inches of oak. During a period of six months she was struck 193 times and was never once forced to go to a port for repairs. The I Monitor, built and designed by Cap | tain Ericsson, was derisively called by the Confederates “a clieesebox on a raft.” She had a very low freeboard, j there being but about two feet of her j sides out of water. Her deck and i were plated, and her armament consisted of but two 150-pounder Dahl- j grens. But she had one point of su periority to anything that had ever been placed upon the seas in the tur ret which protected her guns and which could be made to revolve, thus permitting the guns to be fired at whatever angle in which the ship it self might be. Nothing else showed above the deck but her funnel and ar mored pilot house. The manner in I which she fought the Merrimac. com pelling the latter to withdraw and evtntually go out of service, created positive consternation on the other side of the water, and there was an imme diate demand ' ‘*the conversion of i English veeseh turret ships. Work i was at once ,un, and the result is seen to-day m the great fighting ships possessed by all the navies of the world. Progress was exceedingly rap id, though our own Dart in advancing naval construction did not begin until a number of years after the close of the war. When at last we did enter upon a period of naval activity, there were few navies which were not su perior to ours. We had not seen the need of an extended naval program, and, besides, we were too much en gaged in reconstruction of the nation to be able to go to any great expense. So it was that all the nations of Eu rope took our ideas and developed them. It was in 1883 that we began modern construction, in building the cruisers Chicago. Boston and Atlanta and the dispatch boat Dolphin. In 1895 the United States took fifth rank among naval nations. We are now third (some claim we are stronger than France, which has held second place for a good many years* and England is first. England may always hold the lead, for the naval program of Great Britain is so extensive that to keep pace with it would be useless ex pense. Late history of naval development is familiar to every person who reads. The Spanish-American war gave an impetus to naval construction which has resulted in the addition of a large number of the finest fighting machines in the world to our navy, including all the approved types of vessels from the monster battleship of the States *-'■?**. v v- 4 ; , ' —■ UI.D m-E 1 lIKtL LfL' KKi: Ltll'l.KW I M-|:K l’lltE. group, like the Kentucky, the Indiana, the lowa, the Oregon, the Alabama, the Maine and the Massachusetts; the cruisers with the New York, Brook lyn, and others; second class battle ships and cruisers, gunboats, torpedo boats and destroyers; dispatch boats, fast converted cruisers and transports; colliers, repair ships and ammunition carriers, with all the new things which have been proved of value or which may be useful, including sub-marines. The iron plates of two or three inches thickness have long been displaced with hardened 17-inch steel armor, and marvelous turrets, holding won derful guns have developed from the primitive “cheese box” fror.i which Lieutenant Worden directed the fight of the Monitor against the Merrimac. And the barbettes on the center line of the modern battleship are but a modern adaptation of another princi ple of the turret. The step between the Monitor and the great battleship of to-day is a long one, but the con nection between the two is apparent, for upon the former were first dernon- strated the principles which have made the battleship the wonderful thing it Is. The advancement of guns has kept pace with the development of armor — In fact, has preceded It. Improve ments In armament necessitated great er protection and the steel ships of to-day are the result REBUFF WAS CUTTING ONE. Fitting Retort of “Mad Poet” to an Ungentiemanljr Remark. Many stories are told of McDonald Clarke, known fifty years ago in New York as the “mad poet,” which show that he had a vein of great shrewd ness, such as Is often possessed by people who are counted insane. One day he was seated at a table In a New Yo-k hotel quietly eating his simple dinner when two young men took their seats at the same table. McDonald Clarke was a well-known figure, and the young men at once recognized him, though he did not know them. They were not gentlemen in the best sense of the word, and it occurred | to them that they might have some sport with the poor poet Conse quently one of them said in an un | necessarily clear tone: “I have seen aimost everything and everybody in New York except Mc- Donald Clarke. I have a great ad mirations for his poems, and I would give a great deal to see the man.” ’ When he passed the mad poet leaned forward and said with evident gratification: "Sir, I am McDonald Clarke, whom j you say you wish to see.” B \ •■■■/' V. FIRST SEA-GOING IRONCLAD. TUB GLOI&P The young man stared at him witt, much rudeness for a moment, and then drawing a quarter from his pocket, he luid it on the poet’s plate, saying, “That's for the sight!” Clarke looked at the coin for an in stant, and then placing it in his pocket, he took out a "York shilling,” 12(4 cc-nt3. This he handed to the young man. saying gravely, "Children half price." JOYS OF CONEY ISLAND. How the Wearied New-Yorker Recre ates by the Seashore. In no place is the search for pleas ure marked by more strange eccentri cities than at Coney Island. On the very hottest Saturday afternoons In August thousands of the city toilers, exhausted with the heat and worn out with the week’s iabor. pack themselves into steamboats and trolley cars and come hurrying down to enjoy a breath of the cool sea air. Arrived at the world-famous ocean beach, one would naturally expect to sec- them plunge without delay Into the refreshing salt waves. But the habitual Coney Island visitor pays scant heed to the ocean breeze or the refreshing salt- waves. He hurries from railroad depot and steamboat landing to the heart of the densely populated region of chowder pots, photograph galleries, variety shows, fortune tellers and other char acteristic Coney Island attractions. Once within the limits of this en- chanted territory, the perspiring citi zen plunges with animation into the whirlpool of enjoyment that lies be fore him. The lung-tester claims his in stant attention; and. placing a filthy rubber mouthpiece to bis lips, he blows until his face turns purple and his lungs threaten to split, In an insane attempt to force the pointer on a dial to the unattainable number that will yield him an unsmokebie cigar. Having had a". Ine fun that he can with the refreshing lung-tester, he passes on to the sister device known as the • try-your-strength,” and by pay ment of a nickel secures the privilege of pounding with an enormous mallet. In the hope of reaching a number which lies only within the powers of the proprietor of the machine. Cheered and invigorated by these two forms of exercise, the amusement seeker next proceeds to the photo graph gallery and secures a tintype of himself that his own mother would fail to recognize; then on to the for tune teller, where a soothsayer, who is also a chiropodist, pictures for him a future state which he kno\Vs he can never realize. These forms of amuse ment exhausted, there still remain the variety shows in which the worst act:* in the world are pev formed by the worst serio-comic and played-out song and dance men known to the modern stage; the hot corn spread with rancid butter; the “loop the loop,” in which enjoyment is flavored with the pun gent spice of peril; and the thousand and one opportunities for staking and losing money on reputed games of chance that are really the surest kind of sure things.—Leslie’s Monthly. Would Float a Big Fleet, According to a report of the geo logical survey of the United States government, now nearly ready for publication, petroleum was first dis covered by Colonel Drake less than half a century ago in Pennsylvania near Titusville. Men In those days had no notion that petroleum was among the necessities of existence. A tallow dip or a wax candle illumin ated sufficiently the night’s activities, and a blazing log wood fire left no room for desire for another kind of heater. Petroleum might have been counted a superfluity, but instead it sprang into immediate favor, and now Its list of popular byproducts grows longer every year. The total production of crude petrol, eum from 1859 to the end of 1902 has been no less than 1,105,280,727 barrels. That means that if two and one-half feet were allowed for the height of a barrel, and if these barrels filled with all the domestic oil that has been pro duced were laid so that their heads touched they would encircle the earth twe and one-quarter times. <)f this total Pennsylvania and New York produced 53.9 cent; Ohio, 24.3 per cent; West Virginia, 11.3 per cent; Indiana, 3.9 per .rent; California. 3.0 per cent; Texas, 2.1 per cent, leaving .9 per cent to be supplied by the States of Kansas, Colorado, Louisiana, Illi nois, Missouri, Indian Territory, Wyoming, Michigan and Oklahoma. Vindicated. “Charley, dear,” said young Mrs. Torkins, "I have done you a great in justice.” “In what way?” “I suspected you without reason. .1 asked several of your friends that you go out with of evenings whether you knew how to play poker, and every one of them thought a minute and said you didn’t.” —Washington Star. Feats of Submarine Boats. Two submarine boats made a sham attack on the French squadron at La Rochelle recently in the evening, and so smartly were they handled that it is said in actual warfare the whole di vision would have beeu annihilated. “He’s built in an awfully peculiar way. isn’t he?” “Yes. the only thing he can buy ready made is aD umbrel- I la.”—Philadelphia Public Ledger. ENGLAND'S LADY DRUMMERS, MANY WOMEN SUCCESSFUL AS ... COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS. It Is Surprising How Many Afe Em ployed Touring Among Doctors in the Interests of the Big Manufactur ing Chemist3. There are known to be 155 lady com mercials on the road. Of course, that they “travel” in trousseaux, baby cloths, and ribbons, is the obvious comment on the feminine commercial. But this by no means follows.. One of the most successful among the sis terhood represents a high-class under taker, and does remaikably well at it. Her especial mission is to call on be reaved widows and persuade them to put the entire funeral arrangements into her expert hands. She makes between £2OO and £3OO a year at this somewhat depressing business — but “you soon get used to it,** she says. Another specialty of hers is to ar range for the funerals of babies and little children. In fact, the undertaker in question puts the entire branch of his establishment under her direction. Curiously enough, the births, mar riages, and death column of a daily newspaper keeps several lady travel ers busy, brings them a very fair in come, and grist to the mil! of their em ployers. Two women travelers —there are probably more, but the writer happens to know both —earn a salary of 15s. a week and commissions on all business transacted for their frms in baby clothes, feeding bottles, and nursery requisites. Their clientele comes from the old maids’ corner of various news papers. Other roadsters of the “feminine persuasion” call on brides to be and arrange to furnish the wedding gown, or the entire trousseau, as the case may be. One woman commercial does very well, indeed, as traveler for a famous firm of soap makers. Her fath er held the post before her. From the day she cut her first tooth she learned all the mysteries of the trade when her father was at home in ‘“off the road" intervals. Many of his customers knew her well, and when the old man got beyond doing his entire round she started among the clients she knew best, and thus gradually succeeded to his post. Canvassing for a laundry is a common field for feminine energies, and the number of women employed at this is rapidly increasing. It is their business to keep an eye on all the unlet houses within their radius, and. to make a prompt call on incoming tenants. Almost before the kettle is unpack ed from the removal van the canvasser for the laundry presents her business card to the lady of the house. A laundry is one of the first requi sites of the newcomer and the suc cessful canvasser is she who arrives early on the moving in scene. Salaries fluctuate according to the smartness of the persuasive tip to her tongue of the lady canvasser, so that it is difficult to speak of the industrial aspect of commercial traveling for women. Some firms offer a fairly good salary and small commissions. Others prefer to “pay by results,” offer no salqry, but give a very good commis sion, and cover their representative's traveling expenses. In commercial traveling the surviv al of the fittest is a quick process. A woman -who takes to canvassing soon disappears from the road if she has no talent for the task. It is a question of quick returns. Either she can bring in business or she cannot. Aptitude for this shows very quickly, and it is a good paying quality for its possessor. Commercial travellers are said to be born, not made A business man who has employed several of the commercial sisterhood says: “My experience is that a woman makes iher mark at once—or not at all. A man learns more by experience on the road than a woman does.. Un less the lady traveler brings business the first month I know she hasn’t the gift.” It is surprising how many women are employed in touring among doc tors in the interests of the big manu facturing chemists. They take round samples of tabloids, compressed drugs, bandages, and surgical dressings. Oth ers travel among the dentist with new patterns of artificiall teeth, the latest antiseptic mouth washes and painless patents of all sorts for the dentist’s “torture chamber.” A sound constitution, an unfaillngly good temper, and pleasing manners are the stock-in-trade of the success ful woman commercial. It means knocking about in all weathers, being incessantly on the go. Therefore it suits best ttie outdoor type of woman. Several of the most successful are good hockey players and general all-T6und athletes. used to ail sorts and conditions of weather. A delicate woman, sensitive to quick cli matic changes, would be of no use on the road. It is an occupation calling, above all things, for a hardy constitu tion. Given this, the lady traveler in terviewed by the wTiter agree that the business offers a pleasant and remun erative jjffe. “But it's very hard work,” is their unanimous verdict. — London Daily Chronicle. How Soldiers Were Transported. Russian freight cars, like those of other continental countries, are all labelled with the number of men or horses which may be put in them in military service—usually forty men or ten horses. But what is possible for a jourfley of two or three hundred miles in weather not much below freezing nay be quite impossible for one lasting two weeks or more, with thethermometer 40 to 50 degrees be low zero. The men must eat and sleep en route. To provide for this, the cars used for carrying soldiers were lined with felt or felt paper; little glass windows were set in the sides, and an iron stove set up in each. The benches were made so that they could be transformed into banks at night At every alternate station hot water was provided for making tea. In nearly every train one car was fitted as a kitchen, and supplied the men with hot rations of meat and porridge. Shovels were carried, so that in case of a snow blockade the men could dig the train out A surgeon and hospital steward accompanied each 'rain. At several stations on the line camps were established, where the men rest ed a day, with facilities for washing, etc., while the cars were inspected and cleaned.—-Railroad Gazette. DIAMOND OF 1,000 CARATS. Its Value About s2s,ooo.ooo—Philoso phers’ Stone Discovered by Pinta. Five operations on his eyes within the last three years have rendered the retirment of Mr. Streeter, the vet eran jqweler and expert in prec’ious stones, imperative. Mr. Streeter’s es tablishment in Bond street is as well known as the Bank, and sometimes nearly as valuable. Beneath the shop is a capacious safe which often contains as much as a million pounds’ worth of valu ables. It stands on a base of concrete to prevent tunnelling, and is fitted with four steel doors, to disturb which means the ringing of alarm bells in all parts of the building. A guard of men sleep near it every night, and a powerful dog prowls round its iron walls. Mr. Streeter has in his possession what he considers to be the finest diamond in the world. It was once the property of the Emperor of Delhi, and is valued at $14,000. The largest dia mond he has ever seen weighed about one thousand carats, and is owned by a syndicate of dealers. Its value com plete would be about £5,000,000, but it is now being cut up. The son of Henry Russell, who was originally Mr. Streeter’s partner, once owned the whole of the site of the present Kimberley diamond mines. After working it at considerable profit Russell and his partner sold the ground for £SOO. It is now worth probably £300,000.000. A small shan ty which the miners had erected was sold separately for a few pounds. It was subsequently discovered that mud with which its walls were plastered was literally full of diamonds in the rough. “I have probably,” said Mr. Street er, “he finest collection of opals in the world. It is in the form of a necklace and pedant, the latter being a single stone 1 1-2 inches by 1 inch. The most remarkable point with ref erence to this unique collection is that it w r as cut from oue block of solid opal. It is worth £1,790.” It was Mr. Streeter who was instru mental in exposing the notorious Pin ta, who claimed to have discovered the philosopher’s stone. His method consisted in having a hag of gold dust concealed up his sleeve, from which, by an ingenious contrivance, he was able to squeeze the powdered metal unnoticed into the crucible. By this means he was able to melt a sovereign and produce three or four times its weight iu metal. —London Daily Mail. HOTTEST SPOT ON EARTH. Temperature of Bahrin 11 Degrees Higher Than That of Death Valley. “Death Valley in Southern Califor nia is usually referred to as the hot test spot on earth, but it isn’t quite that ” Mr. Ralph Erling tells me. “This rather unpleasant distinction belongs to a portion of the shore of the Per sian Gulf at and in the vicinity of Bahrin. “Statistics prove uia„ the mean an nual of the Persian Gulf furnace is 11 degrees higher than that of Deat Valley, and the aridness of both places is about one a par, though I am inclined to believe, if my recollection of the records is not blunted, that a little brackish water has been found in a few isolated springs on the alkaiasurface of Death Valley, whereas there is no w r ater at al to be found on the shore of the Gulf anywhere within a radius of nearly 200 miles. “Vet, while Death Valley is inhab ited by practically none and perma nent life there is deemed well nigh impossible, Bahrin has a population of several thousand people and has had an existence as a village for many centuries. Of course the people are stunted mentally and to a slightly less extent physically, a fact due to the fearful conditions under which they live; but they lo live there and are probably the nearest approach to salamanders in the human family. What do they do for water and food? Why, the latter Is brought to them in boats and sold in exchange for the fertilizer they dig from the desert, ,nd the latter they have in fairly good abundance near them. You thought I said there was no water within several hundred miles of the place. Well, so I did —on the .and — but there are a number of fresh water springs on the bed of the saline gulf wit.iin a few hundred yards from the shore. "It is probably the only place on earth where fresh drinking water is secured from a salty sea. The water gushes up in considerable volume from these springs and is secured by divers. The gulf is only aoout 30 feet deep at this point. The divers plunge to the bottom with empty goatskins and place the orifice of the skin bag directly over the mouth of the spring; it fills in a few seconds, and the diver closes the orifice and is pulled back to the boat by a rope. That is the way the water supply for the commu nity on shore is procured. The springs are supposed to be due to underground streams which have their origin in the green hills of Osman, over 500 miles inland.” —St. Louis Globe-Demo crat. kf Put His Foot in It. He came in iate. stepped in without ringing, and, striding softly into the parlor, dropped into an armchair with the easy grace of a young men who is accusr mie.l to the program. “By Jove!” he said to the figure sit .♦ “By .Tove! I thought I was never go ing to see you alone again. The maternal kangaroo never goes away from the menagerie nowadays, does she, Minnie?” “Well, not amazingly frequent.” cheerfully replied old lady from the sofa. “Minnie’s away flirting so much of the time now, I have to stay in.” Under the limes at the end of the old garden the moping cats complain ed to the moon much in their usual style, the watch dogs never sang more clearly, and the plaintive cry of the locomotive filled the night with poe try; but the young didn’t hear it all the same. “And, by George;” he said to a friend fifteen later, “if I didn’t leave my,hat and cane in the hall. Think of ’em? Forgot ’em! Bless me if I knew anything. What I wanted was fresh air, and I wanted about thirty acres of it. and mighty quick, too. Phew!”—Waverley Maga zine. The Tail Missourians I Missourians are said to be the tall j est men. on the average, in the world. ■ They average, it is asserted. 5 feet 9 inches.—Kansas City Journal. Have Tour Farm Vaccinated. Have you had your farm vaccin ated? If not, you should proceed to have it done at once. Science has done a great deal for the farmer. It has killed the bugs and worms that prey on his crops; It has treated his animals when sick and saved their lives; it has experimented with seeds and raised the quality and quantity of their yield; it has done a great many things to help him achieve success. The latest service of spe cial interest of which we have heard is noted in the National Geographic Magazine, where it is shown that the process of inoculating sterile ground and making it bring forth the fruit In abundance is an easy task. Inocula tion to prevent smallpox, diphtheria, rabies, etc., we k;fow about, but it is quite as mysterious as the inoculation of old worn-out soils to make them fertile. - The germs make for fertility of the soil. They are collected or gener ated by the department of agriculture, according to tills veracious authority, and sent by mail in a small package about like a yeast cake. The cake is said to contain millions of dritxl germs. It is thrown into a barrel of pure water and turns it a milky white. Seeds of grain and grasses are washed with this water and when planted are said to produce wonderful results even on what is regarded as exhausted soil. The laud is really treated to an inoculation and cured of Its disease of barrenness. Have jour farms vacci nated and get rich from the big crops you will raise.—Minneapolis Journal. Potato Planter. C. P. Jones, of Gage County, Nebras ka, sends lowa Homestead bis plan of a potato planter: “Take an old eorfi planter with wide shoes at the rear part and if there is a division there knock it out with a cold chisel,” he says. “Take an old boiler or a piece of heavy tit, cut and bend to fit the back of runners large enough to give plenty of room for pieces of potatoes to go through. Take a piece of 2x4 three feet s.x inches long and l>olt the back of each runner at the ends. Take another piece of 2x4 twelve inches longer for the front, leaving six inches project at each end on which the boxes are to resc. Make the boxes as shown POTATO PLANTER. n the illustration. Attach the remain der of the planter at the back with the L bolts shown. Fasten a strong board back of the boxes, but in front of the wheels for two lioj-s to sit on and do the dropping. Plant and harrow just as they are coming up.” When Milking. No loud talking should be permitted during milking. Go about this work promptly and quietly, with as much regularity in the time of milking as is possible. Some successful dairj 1 - men milk their cows “by the watch,” and are very particular al>out tin exact time each cow is milked. Thej* are also careful to have the same cow milked by the same man in tin same order. Experience lias taught them that regularity in milking aids in developing a tendency to prolong the period of lactation. Always milk with dry hands; moistening the hands with milk or water during milking is one of the most filthy practices Imag inable. Wooden pails should not be used as milking pails, as they easily get sour and cannot be kept thor oughly clean when new. The pails ought to have all seams and cracks flushed smooth with solder in order to make them easy to clean. This soldering should be done when the milk pails are bought and before they are taken borne. —Prof. E. 11. Farring ton. Farm Labor in liemnnd. It Is estimated that in seven States out west 45,000 men will be needed tihis summer to harvest the wheat crop. Crops are increasing faster than labor to secure them can be had, and this, too, in the face of the fact that nearly 1,000,000 immigrants 3 year are coming to America. I<ast col lege students were attracted to the west by the offer of $2.30 a day and board and lodging, but so many fell by the wayside in the hot sun that scarcely enough remained to marry all the daughters of the rich farmers. Harvesters can find employment from May to nearly October, moving up from Texas to Canada; wages are high and there is plenty to eat. With a foreign war now in progress and the regular demand for foodstuffs in the countries in Europe which always buy from Americans, on the increase, the outlook for .a great business in export ing agricultural products is excellent. —Baltimore llerald. Canadian Farm Lands. Lord Strathcona, High Commission er for Canada, lias received from Mr. W. Elliott. Commissioner of Agricul ture for the Northwest Territories, a bulletin relating to the grain crops of the Territories for 19U3. 'Hie estimat ed crop area for the current year is 1,700,000 acres, as compared with L -383,434 acres this time last year. The bulletin also contains a table show ing the extent of the crops gatl ered in Western Canada (Manitoba and the Northwest Territories) in 1903: Wheat, 30.229.437 bushels; oats. 47.213,47’J bushels; barley, 10,448,401 bushels, and flax, 837.202 bushels. Quality of Goat Meat- While it is generally agreed among those who speak from experience that the kids of ail breeds of goats are a delicacy, yet among the great mass of the American people there is a preju dice against anything bearing the name of •‘goat” Within the environ ments of the larger American cities are found many kids, but as few of them grow to maturity the questioa arises as to what becomes of them. Butchers and meat dealers reply that ,lj ey pass over their blocks as “iamb.” no meat dealer has heard coin plaints of the quality of such “lamb.” Numbers of mature common goats are purchased by the packing firms of the larger cities. Bought as goats, they are sold—either in the carcass or can ned—as mutton, and it Is probable that many wlio decry goat mead have unknowingly eaten It many times. This does not imply that the meat is as palatable as good mutton, but it may be as good as poor mutton. Good Flood Gate. A subscriber to an agricultural paper sends a sketch illustrating a water gate and writes: “Some flood gates are built so as to <‘ateh and hold all trash, though swinging freely, and others will allow obstruction tc be freely disengaged and pass away. Oue of the best I have found is composed of a 2xts upon which slats are milled rraffimA GATE FOR A WATER GAP. of a proper length to reach the low water mark. This gate is hung to a log or beam extending across the stream, attached by chains or wire. In this form we find a very good gate for a water gap.” Use the Harrow on Corn. Many farmers read with surprise tie statement that a harrow can bo run across young corn without dam age to the crop. Try it and see. It is better to use the iron-toothed harrow with teeth slunting backward at an angle of 45 degrees, it is remarkable how much work a thnee-section harrow will do in a cornfield in one day dur ing the early spring season. Harrow corn just as it comes '.lire lgh the ground. Harrow crosswise again with in a week, in some cast's it Is neces sary to weight the harrow. A seventy live or ninety-tooth harrow will cover fifteen acres of corn with a slow team and twenty acres if the team Is a quick stepper. If doubtful about the use of the harrow on your particular corn crop, take it out ami run It for twenty five feet and test the work done by pulling at every stalk passed over to find.whether or not the roots sttll hold. Harrowing will lay the crop down for a day or two, but it soon straigbteua. Harrowing kills weeds and destroys young grass, lets the air Into the ground and is the best possible method of cultivating young corn until the crop reaches eight or ten Inches In height Use the harrow on corn. Teaching a Calf to Di^nk. Pour fresh milk in the pall to the depth of about one-lialf Inch. Gently place the calf’s nose Into the milk and against the bottom of the pail. It will soon get a taste of the milk and will begin to sip and suck on the liottom of the pail. When the milk is gone, replace It with the same amount as before, and continue till the calf has enough, if care Is taken not to put enough milk in the pail so as to cover the nostrils of the calf, it will soon learn to drink. When it has learned to drink, a small quan tity more can be added each time until the lesson is fully learned and then the amount required for a feed ing may be placed In the pail with out fear of the calf not drinking 1L V- I.nst Days of tile Randies. The day of large ranches in Texas Is passing away, but there are still four with an area of over one million acres each and quite a large • number f over five hundred thousand acres. Much of this land is bought as low as twenty cents per acre, Is now worth $4 to $7 per acre. These ranches are being continually divided up Into large farms. Last year over one mil lion of ranch lands were s,>hl to small settlers for general farming purposes. Twenty Thousand White I>uck*.] The largest duck farm in the United States Is at Riverton, Va. There are 20,000 white Pekin (lucks in the place. In the laying department 1,500 mother ducks are kept in 10 pens set apart for them—lso to the pen. The hatching Is done by Incubators, which (luring the hatching season bring forth 2,000 duck lings each week. At the age of 12 weeks they are slaughtered for the market. It require* a carload of food every week to feed the ducks. Hitters to Rent. A poultryman of Montgomery Coun ty, Pa., has been doing a thriving busi ness buying bens at low prices and renting them out as sitters, charging seventy-live cents for the season. At present he has nearly one hundred to rent out, and claims he saves the feed, gets seventy-five cents a head for the hen's time and has them again to sell in the fall. Farm Notes. Good farming is impossible without good teams. The secret of sueoess in stock raising Is superiority in quality. ftnperlor roadsters are gifted with I both speed and bottom. Feed tin- pigs refuse fruit and veg etables from tic- garden. The best sheep is the most profit able one under all circumstances. Breed the horse first for strength and endurance and then style. Medium-sized sheep usually have the best and heaviest fleeces. It pays to have horses perform work that are naturally good walkers. A horse with an unruly disposition in very many cases is of little or no account. Clover is one of the best it gawn manuria! crops, a great restorer of worn-out lands. The pigs will do well In the a .pie orchards, especially If there are r .any sweet apples. Colts require plenty of exercise 'n order to develop their lungs when the,' are growing rapidly. One acre of clover and one acre of corn are worth three acres of corn for making healthy pork .vs. A fast walk ami prompt-telling road gait are. to a great extent, matters of i education. In shipping stock it Is poor econo my to crowd too many in a car. espe cially if they are to go a considerable distance.